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MINERALOGIA CORNUBIENSIS-, 

A 

TREATISE 

O N 

MINERALS, MINES, 

AND 

MINING: 

CONTAINING 

THE THEORY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF 

STRATA, FISSURES, and LODES, 

WITH THE METHODS OF 

DISCOVERING and WORKING of TIN, 
COPPER, AND LEAD MINES, 

A ND O F 

CLEANSING and METALIZING their PRODUCTS; 

SHBWINO EACH PAKTICULAE PROCESS FOR 

DRESSING, ASSAYING, and SMELTING of ORES. 

TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

An EXPLANATION of the TERMS and 
IDIOMS OF MINERS. 

By W. PRYCE, of Redruth in Cornwall. 

Hi ex Tend faxtfdf eujut Venas /equutit 

Effodiuttt Stannum, ^c. Diod. Sicul. Latia Tranflat. 

LONDON: 

PRINTED AND SOLD FOR THE AUTHOR, 

BY JAMES PHILLIPS, GEORGE-YARD, LOMBARD. STREET; 

SOLD ALSO BY B. WHITE, FLEET-STREET; AND J. ROBSON, 

NEW BOND-STREET. MDCCLXXVIIT. 



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SUBSCRIBER S^ 



RIGHT Hon. Eacl of Antrim, 
3 Copies 
Right Hon. Earl of Altamont 
Right Hon. Lord Arundel, 2 Copies 
John Laurence Aikenhead^ £fq; 

Grofvcnor-Placc 
5tancfby Alchorne, Efq; Affay-Maf- 

ter to the Mint 
JRev^ Gcrvcys Allen, Falmouth 
Sir Launcelot Allgood, Bart. 
Mr. Allifon, Falmouth 
Mr. Anderfon, Apothecary, Bath 
Mr. Benjamin Angela Ifleworth 
Antiquarian Society 
^webe Nicholas Archer, Efq; Trclaik, 

Cornwall 
John Arfcott, Efqj Tedcott, Devon 
John Aftlcy; Efq; Pall Mall 
William Atkinfon, Efq; Ditto 



B 



Right Hon. Earl Beftive 

Rev. Dr. Bagot, Dean of Chrift 

Ghufch, Oxford 
Sir George Baker, Bart. M. R, 

F. R. S. 
Mr. John Barber, Engraver 
3ir Robert Barker, Bart, F. R. S. 
Rev. WilJiam H. Barker^ A., M. 

Prebendary of Llanddewy, South- 

Frederick Barnard, Efq; King's Li- 
brarian, 2 Copies 



Hon. Daines Barrington, V. P. of 

the R« and A. S. 
Hon. Barry Barry, M. P. Ireland 
Mr. James Bafirc, Engraver to the 

R. and A. S. 
Francis Baflct, Efq; Tehidy, Corn- 

vrall, a Plate and 4 Copiu 

Frederick Barnard Beamifh, Efq; 

M. P. in Ireland 
John Beard, Efq; Penzance 
John Beauchamp, Efq; Pengreep, 

Cornvrall, 2 Cc^ies 

Jofcph Beauchamp, Efq; Trefincc, 

Cornwall 
Mr. Beckett, Bookfellcr, Adelphi, 

2 Copies 
Stephen Bell, Efq; Agent at Fal- 
mouth, P. G. M. Cornwall 

Late George Bell, Efq; Agent at 

Falmouth, P. G. M. Cornwall 
Mr. Francis Bennallack, Bofvigo, 

Truro 
Mcfi*. Bennct and Hake, Rotterdam 
Mr. Thomas Bentley, Gfreck-Strcct 
Rowland Berkley, Efq; G. T. 
Mr. Caleb Birchall, Horfehay 
Late Sir Walter Blackctt, Bart. M. P. 
Sir Edward Blackctt, Bart. 
George Blcwett, Efq; Marazion, 

3 Copies 
John Bond, Efq; M. P. Corff Caftle 
Mr. Hugh Booth, Cliffgate-Banl;, 

Ncwcaftle Underline 
Late Rev. George Borlafe, Marazion 



[♦] 



Late 



THE NAMES OF THE SUBSCRIBERS. 



Late Rev. Walter Borlafe, L. L, D. 

Vice- Warden of the Stannaries 
Samuel Borlafe, Efq; Caftle-Horneck, 

Cornwall 
Rev. George Borlafe, A. M. Fellow 
of Peter-Houfe Coll. Cambridge, 
and Regiftrary to the Univerfity 
Rev. William Borlafe,- Vicar of Mad- 

derne, Cornwall 
William Bofanquet, Efq; London 
Hon. Mrs. Bofcawen, 2 Copies 

Mr. Samuel Botfield 
Matthew Boulton, Efq; Soho, Bir- 
mingham 
Mr. fiowlci, Comhill 
William Boys, Efq; Sandwich, Kent 
Mr. Andrew Bradley, Coalbrook- 

Dale 
Capt. Brathwaite, of the Hampden 

Pqt. Falmouth 
Mr. Edward Bray, Attorney, Ta- 

viftock 
Owen Sal. Brereton, Efq; M. P. 

F. R.Mnd A. S. 
Mr* William Brown, Strand 
Hon. James Browne, M. P. Ireland 
Hawkins Brown, Efq; Ruflcl-Street 
William Brutton, Efq; Cullumpton, 

Devon 
Rev. John Brutton, A, M. Rcftor 
of Southill, and Vicar of Cullump- 
ton 
Rev. James Buckingham, Vicar of 

Stidhyans, Cornwall 
John Buller, of Morval, Efq; M. P. 

2 Copies 
John Buller, Efq; M. P. Lord of ^ 
the Admiralty, and Auditor of the 
Dutchy of Cornwall 
Fr^uicis Buller, Efq; King's Counfel, 

and Chief Juftice of Chefter 
Mr. Henry Borgum, Pewterer, 

Briftol 
Mr. John Burrel, Borrowiloniids, 

Scotland 
Kobcrt Butler, Eiq; 



Rjght Rev. John Garnet, Lord Bi- 

ihop of Clogher, Ireland 
Right Rev. Walter Cope, Lord Bi- ; 

ftiop of Clonfert, Ireland ! 

'Rt^t Hon. Marquis of Carmarthen, ; 

3 ^e?^^^ I 



Right H6n. Earl of Cork " 
Right Hon. Lord Vifcount Courtenay 

Right Hon. Lord Carysfort, 2 Copies 

Right Hon. Lord Crofby, 2 Copies 

Mr. William Calcott, Bookfeller, 
Banbury 

John Call, Efq; Whitefbrd, Corn- 
wall 

Rev. Cornelius Cardew, Truro 

Rev. Thomas Carlyon, of St. Juft, 
Cornwall 

Sir David Carnegie, Bart. 

Matthew Carrat, Efq; Hatton-Gar- 
den 

The Carron Company, ScotUnd 

Sir Thomas Cave, Bart'. 

Late Mr. John Cauldwell, Chemift, 
Smithfield 

John Caulett, M. B. St. John's 
College, Cambridge 

Anthony Chamicr, Efq; Deputy 
Secretary of State 

William Chapman, Efq; Newcaftle 

Mr. William Chappie, Exeter 

William Chaytor, Efq; M. P. 

Rev. Dr. Chelfum, Student of Chrift 
Church, Oxford 

Mr. Michael Clarke, Chemift, Apo- 
thecary's Hall 

Mr. Thomas Clutterbank, Attorney, 
Macazion 

Mifs Mary Cocke, Thanet's Build- 
ings, Temple- Bar 

Rev. Thomas Coke, L. L. D. 

Rev. Francis Cole, of TrengofFe, m 
Plate and 2 Copies 

R. P. Coles, Efq; Cadaxton, Gla- 
morganfhire 

Rev. J. B. Collins^ Redor of Cam- 
borne, Cornwall 

Edward Collins, Efq; of Truthan, 
Cornwall 

Thomas Collinfon, Efq; Lombard- 
Street 

Michael CoUinfon, Efq; 

Dr. Ck)lwell, Pfyraouth 

Charles Cooke, Kfq; Lion-Houfc^ 
Ppefcott, LancaHhire 

William Cooper, Surgeon^ Shrewf- 
bury ' . 

Robert Corbett, Efq; Longnor> Salop 

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bcc^Street, London 

Mr. James Cox^ (Mufeum) Jeweller 

Daaiel 



dPHE NAMES OF TUlSr SUBSCRIBERS. 



t)aniel Craftcr, Efq; Crafter, Aln-^- 

wick, Northumberland 
Mr. Emanuel Mendez da Cofta> 

Foffilift 



Hon. ^nd Right Rev, Frederick Hcr- 

vcy^ Lord Bi(hop of Derry 
Jamc8 Dagge> Efq; Killiganoon, 

Cornwall 
H^nry Dagge, Efq; Great Ruflel- 

Street, Bloomfbury 
Mr. Abraham Darby, Coalbrook- 

Dalc 
Mr. Samuel Darby, George-Yard, 

Upper Thames-Street 
John Davie, Efq; Biddeford 
Rev. Jofeph Davie, Trinity College, 

Oxford 
Henry Dawkins, Efq; L.L.D. M.P. 
James Dawkins, Efq; 
John Day, Efq; Exeter 
The Dean and Chapter of Durham 
Dr. De la Cour, Bath 
Edward Huffey Efelaval, Efq; 

F. R- S. Parliament-Stairs 
Mr. John Denman, Holywell, 

Flint(hire 
David Dennis, Efq; Penzance 
Dr. Derwin, F. R. S. Litchfield 
Thomas Dcvonihire, Efq; Truro 
L.egh Pickenfon, Efq; Redruth 
Mr. Dilloni Roper, Penryri 
Jeren\iah Dixon, Efq; F. R. S. 
Dr. Dobfon, Leverpool 
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Street 
Sir Francis H. Drake, Bart. M. P. 
The Druids Lodge of Love and 

Liberality, Redruth 
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ton-Court Palace 
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MahufaAory, Bedford-Street 
Mr. Henry Durbin, Chemift, Briftol 
Wiiliam Herbert Dyer, Efq; Aber- 
• iflaffncy, Carmarthenfhire 



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Rt« Hon. Earl of Effingham, iCopies 



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Right Hon. Lord Vifcount Enni-* 

Scilling 
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Rev. Mr. Eccles, Redtor of Bow, 

Middlefex 
Hugh Edwards, Efq; St. Ives 
Mr. John Edwards, of Hayle Cop- 
per-Works 
John Elliot, gfq; Lincoln's Inn 

Fields 
Mr. George Emerfon, Grinton, 

Yorkshire 
Mr. Englifh, Weftmorland 
The Englifh Copper Company 
Mr. Thomas Ennis, Aflayer, Red- 
ruth 
Philip Enouf, Efq; Falmouth 
Exeter College Library, Oxford 



Right Hon. Earl Ferrers 

Henry Arthur Fellows, Efq; Eggef- 

ford> Devon 
Thomas Fenton^ Efq; RothwelU 

Haigh, Leeds, Yorkfliirc 
James Fifher, Efq; C.C.C. Oxford 
Mr. John Fleming, Beaumaris 
Henry Fletcher^ Efq; M. P. 
Mr. John Flint, Shrewfl>ury 
Mr. Daniel Foffick, Cannon-Street 
Samuel Foote, Efq; deceased 
John Fothergill, M. D. F. R. S. 
Mr.- John Fothergill, Merchant, 

Birmingham 
William Fowler, Efqj Kirland, 

near Bodmin, 2 Copies 

Mr. George Croker Fox, Merchant^ 

Falmouth 
Mr. Charles Fox, Bookfeller, Fal- 
mouth 
Mr. Andrew Fox, Coalbrook-Dalc 
Charlet Frederick, Efq; Architeft 

to the Ordnance " 

Jofeph Freeman, Efq; Cliftpn, ^ ^ 

Olouecfterfliire . ' 

John Freeman, Efq; Briftol 
Stephen Fulleri E% Brightlrag, '^ 

Suflex 

i' ' ' . ■ * • . 



THE NAMES OF THE SUBS CRIB ERS, 



Right Hon. Earl Galloway 
Right Hon. Lord Godolphin 
Luke Gardiner, Efq; M. P. Ireland 
Mr. John Garrat, Wapping, Briftol 
Sir Thomas Gafcoigne, Bart, Par- 
. lington, Yorkfhire 
IXr. Gaubuis, Profef. of Medicine at 
the Univerfitj of Leyden, 3 Copies 
Mr. Thomas Geach, Surgeon, Ply- 
mouth-Dock 
, Mr. Sampfon George, Attorney, 
Middeton Tyas, Yorkfli. 2 Copies 
Rev. Edward Giddy, St. Earth 
Mr. Giddy, Surgeon, Penzance 
Mr. Thomas Glafs, Exeter 
Meffrs. Glover and Son, Abercorn 

Iron- Works, Monmouthfliirc 
Mr. Richard Goadby, Sherborne, 

4 Copies 
Sir John Gordon, Bart. Invergordon, 

Scotland 
William Gordon, Efq; Ncwhall, 

Scotland 
The Governor and Mines Royal 

Company 
Richard Gough, Efqs F. R. S. and 

Dirc(ftor A. S. - 
William" Graves^ Efq; M. P. 
Francis Grcgor, Efq; Trewarthenick, 

Cornwall 
George GrenfcU, Efq; Kentiib^Town 
Hon. George Nugent Grenville> 

M. P. 
Hon. Charles Greville, F. R. S. 
Chriftopher Gullet, Efq; Exeter 
Mr. Gunning, Attprney, Bath 
RobcftXovel Gwatkin, Efq; A. B. 
Stf John's College, Cambridge 



H 



Right Hon. Earl of Hadinton 
Right Hon. Earl of Home 
Right Hon. Earl of Hyndford 
Mr. John Hales, Cowbridge^ Staf- 

fordftiirc - 
Roger Hall, Efq; M. P. Ireland, 

A Copies 
Mr. Hall, Caftlcton, Derbylhirc 
Capt. James Hall, of Swanfea 
Mr. John Halfe, Truro 
Theihte Mr. James HamiltOHi Rolls 

"Buildings 



Charles Hanbury, Efq; 
Mr. Hancock, Charing-Crofs 
William Arundel Harris, Efq; Ken^ 
• ^^Sgy» Penzance 
Rev. Sampfon Harris, Budock, 

Cornwall 
John Harris, Efq; Plymouth 
William Harris, Efq; Camborne, 

Cornwall 
Mr. John Harris, Tolgus, Redruth 
Thomas Hatton, A. B. Waters- 
Upton, Salop 
The late David Haweis, Efq; of 

Killiow, Cornwall 
Mrs. U. Haweis, Truro 
Cjefar Hawkins, Efq; Serjeant Sur- 
geon to the King 
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withaa, Cornwall 
Sir Robert Henderfon, Bart. 2 Copies 
Lieut. Logan Henderfon, of the 

Marines 
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Scotland 
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wright, Plymouth-Dock 
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Commons 
James Modyford Heywood, Efq; 

Mariftow, Devon. 
Richard Hichens, Efq; Trengwain- 

ton, Penzance 
Dr. Higgins, Chemift, Greek-Street, 

Soho 
William Hill, Efq; Carwythenlck, 

Cornwall 
Lieut. Colonel John Hill, of the 9th 

Regiment of Foot 
Mr. Elias Hifcutt, Attorney, St. 

Coluodb, Cornwall 
Henry Hobhoufe, Efq; Clifton, 

Glofter. 
John Pobhoufe, Efq; Weftbury, 

Glofter. 
Timothy HoUis> Efq; London 
Thomas Brand Hollis, Efq^ the 

Hide, Surry . 
Rowland Holt, Efq; M.P. D.G.M. 
Mr. Henry C. Horc, Affayer, Txuro 
Mr. Horner, Wells 
Rev. John Hofken, B. D. Vicar of 

Manackep, Ct>cnwall 
Rev, Jofhua Howell, ReAor of 

Lanreath^ Cornwall 

John 



THE NAMES OF THE SUBSCRIBERS. 



John Hull, Efq; Salt-Officc, I.G.W. 
Dr. Hunter, F. R. S. M. R. 
John Hunter, Efq; Surgeon, F.R.S. 
Jofeph Hurlock, Efq; John-Street, 

King's Road 
.Charles Hutton, Efq; F. R. S. Prof. 

of Mathematicks at Woolwich 



I 



Cyril Jackfon, A. M. late Sub-Pre- 
ceptor to the Prince of Wales 

John Jackfon, Efq; McrchKCiit, Love- 
Lane, Eaftcheap 

Sir Hildebrand Jacob, Bart. 

William James, Efq; M. P. 

Rev. Mr. Jenkins, Brazen-Nofe 
College, Oxford 

Sir William Jerningham, Bart. 
Coffey-Hall, Norfolk 

Mr. John, Surgeon, Helftonc 

St. John's College Library, Cam- 
bridge 

Mr. Richard Johns, Attorney, 
Hclftone 

J. Johnftone, Efq; M. P. 

Hon. Thomas Jones, M. P. Ireland 

Capt. Jones, of the Grantham Pqt. 
Falmouth 



K 



Right Rev. Charles Jackfon,- Lord 

Bifliop of Kildare, 2 Copies 

Right Rev. George Lewis Jones, 

Lord Bifliop of Kilmore 
Right Rev. Robert Fowler, Lord 

Bifliop of KUlaloe 
James Keir, Efq; Stourbridge 
John Gardner Kcmeys, Efq; Bor- 

tholey, Monmouthfliirc 
Mr. James Kempc, Surgeon, Truro 
Mr. Thomas Kevill, Camborne, 

Cornwall 
Edward King, Efq; F. R. and A. S. 

John-Street, Bedford-Row 
King's College Library, Cambridge 
William Knighton, Efq; Treleigh, 

Redruth ' 

John Knill, Efq; St. Ives 



His Grace the Duke of Leeds, 

2 Copies 
His Grace the Duke of Leinfl:er, 

2 Copies 
Right Hon. Earl Lauderdale' 
Right Hon. Lord LiiFord, Lord 

Chancellor of Ireland, 2 Copies 
Right Hon. Lord Linton, 2 Copies 
Right Hon. Lord Lifle 
Hon. John Lyfaght, Ireland 
Sir James Winter Lake, Bart. Great 

Ormond-Street 
Sir James Laroche, Bart. M. P. 
David Latouche, jun. Efq; M. P. 

Ireland 
The Lead Company 
Dr. Leake, Craven- Street, Strand 
Rev. Francis Lc Breton, Dean of 

Jerfey 
Sir Alexander Leith, Bart. M. P. 
Sir William Lemon, Bart. M. P* 
a Plate and 2 Copies 
John Coakley Lettfom, M. D. 

F. R. S. and S. A. 
Afhton Lever, Efq; F. R. S. Lei- 

cefter-Houfe 
Dr. Lewis, Chemift, Kingfton, Surry 
Henry Lippincott, Efq; Stoke, 

Gloucefterfhirc 
Lodge of Love and Honour, Fal- 
mouth 
Jofeph Lucas, Efq; 
John Luxmore, Efq; Oakhampton 



M 



Sir Herbert Mackworth, Bart. M. P. 
Magdalen College Library, Oxford 
George Woodward Mallet, Efq; 

Plymouth 
Harry D. Mander, Efq; Piercy- 

Street, Soho 
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Breage and Germo, Cornwall 
Mr. John Martin, Tory, Stithyans, 

Cornwall 
William Mafterman, Efq; Trinity, 

Cornwall 
Mr. William Ma^thewSj Merchant, 

Green-Latticc-Lanc 



[**] 



Late 



THE NAMES OF THE SUBSCRIBERS, 



Late Dr. Maty, Secretary to the 
Royal-Society 

Dr. Meagher, Truro 

Benjamin Mee, jun. Efq; London 

Rev. Mr. Michell, ThornhiU, 
Yorkfliire 

Mr. Stephen Michell, Redruth 

Late John Millet, Efq; Gurlyn, 
Cornwall 

Mr. Thomas Mills, Bookfeller, 
Briftol, 2 Copies 

Sir William Molcfworth, Bart. 

a Plate and 2 Copies 

Samuel Moore, Efq; Secretary to the 
Society for the Promotion of Arts 
and Sciences 

Rt. Hon. Humphrey Morice, M. P. 

Lord Warden of the Stannaries, 

a Plate and 2 Copies 

Robert Morris, Efq; Swanfea 

John Morris, Efq; Clafemont, Gla- 
morgan (hire 

Dr. Mothcrby, Hampftead 

Dr. Moyfey, Bath 

William Moxham, Diftiller, Briftol 

John Mudge, Efq; Surgeon, Ply- 
mouth 

Francis Noel Clarke Munday, Efq; 
Derbyfliire 

Sir Harry Munro, Bart. 

Dr. Mufgravc 



N 



His Grace the Duke of Northum- 
berland, 2 Copies 

Her Grace the late Dutchefs of Nor- 
thumberland 

Sir James Nafmyth, Bart. 

Arnold Nefbit, Efq; M. P. 

Robert Lydftone, Newcombc, Efq; 
Exeter 

Mr. John Newman, Fellow of New 
College, Oxford 

Late Thomas Northmore, Efq; 
Cleeve, Devon. 



Dr. Orme, Great St. Helens 
Rev. J. Owen, Worceftcr-Collcge, 
Oxford 



His Grace the Duke of Portland 

Right Hon. Earl of Portfmouth 

Right Hon. Earl Percy 

Right Hon. Lord Algernon Percy 

Right Hon. Lady Algernon Percy 

Sir Herbert Perrot Packington, Bart. 

R. Palk, Efq; M. P. 

Paul Panton, Jun. Efq; A. M. 

Plafgwyn 
Mr. George Papps, Gwenap, Corn- 
wall 
Rev. Sir Harry Parker, Bart. D. D. 

Oxford 
John Parker, Efq; M. P. 
Thomas Parker, Efq; Puttenham, 

Surry, P. G. M. 
John Parker, Efq; BroWnlholmc, 

Lancafhire 
Rev. Mr. Parkyn, A. M. Penzance 
John Parfons, M. D. Oxford 
Thomas Patten, Efq; Warrington, 

Lancafhire 
Late Francis Paynter, Efq; Bofkenna, 

Cornwall 
Francis Paynter, Efq; Michell, 

Cornwall 
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of St. John's College, Cambridge 
MefT. Pearfon and Rollafon, Book- 
fellers, Birmingham 
Mr. William Peckitt, Glafs-Painter, 

York 
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hayle, Cornwall 
Thomas Pennant, Efq; Downing, 

Flintfliire 
Rev. Richard Pcnneck, A. M. oi 

the Britifh Mufeum 
William Pennington, Efq; Bodmyn 
Mr. Penwarne, Attorney, Penryn 
Sir Richard Perrot, Bart. 
St. Peter's Coll. Library, Cambridge 
Rev. Jonathan Peters, Vicar- of St. 

Clement's, Cornwall 
Rev. H. Philipps, Vicar of Gwenap, 

Cornwall 
Mr. William Phillips, Redruth 
Mr. Richard Phillips, Redruth 
Mr. James Phillips, Bookfeller, 

George- Yard, Lombard-Street, 

10 Copies 
Mr. 



THE NAMES OF THE SUBSCRIBERS. 



Mr. Richard Phillips, Ketlcy 
Rev. John Pickering, Vicar of 

Mackvvorth, Derbyfhire 
Rev. John Pickering, A. M. Bod- 

myn 
Thomas Pitt, Efq; M. P. 
Mr. Jofcph Plumbley 
Dr. Allan Pollock, F. R. S. Prof. 

Fortif. Woolwich 
Sir Stanier Porten, Knt. Keeper of 

State Papers 
Rev. Mr. Powell, Vicar of Bodmyn 
Humphrey M. Praed, Efq; Treve- 

thoe, Cornwall, 2 Copies 

John Pratt, Efq; Afkrigg, Yorkihire 
Sir Charles Price, Bart. 5 Copies 

John Price, Efq; Penzance, a Plate 

and 10 Copies 
Gryffidd Price, Efq; King's Counfel 
Mrs. Jane and Mrs. Judith Pryce, 

Smith-Street, Weftminfter 
Sir John Pringle, Bart. P. R. S. 
Mr. John Purnell, Froombridge, 

Glouceftcrfliire 

Queen's College Library, Cambridge 
I .e John QuickC, Efq; of Newton, 
Devon. 



R 



Right Rgv. John Ofvvald, Lord 

Bifhop of Raphoc 
Right Hon. Earl of Radnor 
Right Hon. Lord Vifcount Ranclagh 
Sir Alexander Ramfay, Bart. 
Philip Raflileigh, Efq; M. P. 
Rev. Mr. Rayle, Gwedir, Caernar- 

vonfhire 
Thomas Reed, Efq; Stithyans, 

Cornwall 
Mr. William Rednap, for the Dove 

Gang Committee of the Derbyfhire 

Lead Mines 
Mr. Richard Reynolds, Kctley 
Mr. William Reynolds, Ketley 
Rev. Mr* Rhodes, of St. Earth, 

Cornwall 
William Richards, Efq; Halegarrack, 

Cornwall 
Philip Richards, Efq; Penryn 
Rev. Henry Richards, A. M. Fel- 
low of Exetcr-Collcge, Oxford 



Mr* William Richardfon, Bookfeller^ 
Strand, 2 Copies 

Mr. Thomas Roberts, Briftol 

Rev? William Robinfon, A. B. 
Crowan, Cornwall 

Mr. J. Robfon, Bookfeller, New 
Bond-Street 10 Copies 

Thomas Robyns, Efq; Trcnear, 
Penzance 

Colonel Francis Rodd, Trebartha- 
Hall, Cornwall 

Sir Frederick Lemon Rogers, Bart. 
I Copy and a Plate 

John Rogers, Efq; M. P. 2 Copies 

Henry Rofewarne, Efq; Vice-War- 
den of the Stannaries 

T. B. Rous, Efq; M. P. 

Mr. Thomas Ruft, London 



Rt. Hon. Lord Vifcount Southwell 

Sir Thomas Samwell, Bart. 

Mr. William Sandland, Cateaton- 

Street 
Rev. Sampfon Sandys, Landuwednac, 

Lizard 
William Saunders, M. D. St. Mary- 
Axe 
John Sawle, Efq; Penricc, Cornwall 
James Scawen, Efq; M. P. 
Charles Scott, Efq; Kenton, Devon. 
Simon Scrope, Efq; Danby, Yorkfli* 
Mr. Ephraim Reinhold Seehl, 

Chemifl:, Blackwall 
John Serocold, Efq; Merchant^ 

Love- Lane, Eaflcheap 
Rev. William Sheffield, A. M. Pro- 

voft of Worcefter College, Oxford 
Mr. Robert Shore, Smitterton, 

Derbyfhire 
Sir George Shuckburgh, Bart. A. B. 

F- R. S. 
John Silvcrtop, Efq; 
John Simpfon, Efq; 
Sir Francis Skipworth, Bart. 
Thomas Sloughtcr, Efq; Cheftcr 
J. Smeaton, Efq; Engineer 
Francis Smcdlcy, Efq; Bagilt-Hall, 

Flintfliirc 
L. Smelt, Efq; late Sub-Governor 

to the Prince of Wales 
Nicholas Smith, Efq; Condover 

John 



THE NAMES OF THE SUBSCRIBERS. 



John Smith, M. D. Profcflbr of 

Geometry, Oxford 
Jeremiah Smith, Efq; Fenton, 

StafFordfhirc • 

Mr. Timothy Smith, Swillington, 

Yorkfliire 
Francis Smyth, jun. Efq; New- 
Buildings, Yorkfliire 
Dr. Solander, F. R. S. 
Mr. Soper, Surgeon, St. Columb 
Mr. Henry Sotheran, Bookfeller, 

York, 8 Copies 

Mr. Robert Sowcrby, Crutched- 

Friars 
Mr. Francis Spilfbury, Chemift, 

Mount-Row, Weftminfter-Bridge 
John Stackhoufe, Efq; Pendarvis, 

Cornwall 
Mr. Heilry Steeple, Holywell, 

Fllntfliire 
Philip Stephens,. Efq; Commerton 
Samuel Stephens, Efq; St. Ives 
Mr. Martin Stephens, Camborne, 

Cornwall 
Mr. Jofeph Storrs, Chefterfield 
Edward Stuart, Efq; 3 Copies 

Thomas Sunderland, Efq; Alverton, 

Lancafliire 
Mr. Samuel Sweeting, Attorney, 

Exeter 



Right Hon. Thomas Taylor, Lord 

Headfort 
Thbmas Taylor, Efq; Denbury, 

Devon. 
. Mr. William Teflcyman, Bookfeller, 

York 
Mr. Francis Thomas, Ludgvan, 

Cornwall 
Mr. Samuel Thompfon 
Mr. Barn. Thorn, Exeter, 2 Copies 
Mr. Nathaniel Thorn, Bookfeller, 

Durham 
John Thornhill, Efq; 
Sir Samuel Thorold, Bart. 
Philip Tingcombe, Efq; Trctheage, 

Cornwall 
Mr. Tiflingtoft, Altrcton, Dcrbyftiire 
, Henry Tolcher, Efq; Plymouth 
Thomas Toller Trefry, Efq; of 

Trefry, Cornwall 
Robert Cotton Trefufis, Efq; of 

Trefufis 2 Copies 



Sir Harry Trelawny, Bart. 

Rev. Henry Hawkins Trcmayne, 

Heligan, Cornwall 
Sir John Trevelyan, Bart. M. P. 
John Trevenen, Efq; Camborne, 

Cornwall 
Mr. John Trevethan, Attorney, 

Redruth 
Mr. Trewman, Printer, Exeter 
Trinity-College Library, Cambridge 
John Tucker, Efq; M. P. 
Marmaduke Tunftall, Efq; F. A. S. 
Late Alderman Turner, London 
Late Richard Turner, Efq; Taviflocfc 



U 



Right Hon. Earl Verney, M-. P. 

F. R. 8. 
William Veale, Efq; Trcvailer, 

Penzance 
John Vivian, Efq; A. M. Middle 

Temple 
James Vivian, Efq; Pencallenick, 

Cornwall 
Mr. Rumbelow Vivian, Surgeon, 

Falmouth 
Univerfity College Library, Cam- 
bridge 
Mr. J. Voyez, Sculptor, Member 

R. S. Artifts, Cowbridge, Staf- 

fordfliire 
Henry Ufticke, Efq; Nanfolverne, 

Penzance 
Sir Richard Vyvyan, Bart. 
Philip Vyvyan, Efq; Tremeal, 

Cornwall 

W 

Rt. Hon. Lord Vifcount Weymouth 
John Walcot, Efq; Bathford, Bath 
Rev. James Walker, Vicar of Lan- 

livery, Cornwall 
Capt. Samuel Wallis, Tremean, 

Cornwall 
Mr. Wallis, Attorney, Helftone 
Rev. James Walmfley, Reftor of 

Falmouth 
Richard Hill Waring, Efq; F. R. S^ 

Leefwood, Flintftiire 
Sir John Borlafe Warren, Bart. 

M. P. 12 Copies 

Dr. Warren, M- R- F. R. S. 

Rev. 



THE NAMES OF THESUBSCRIBERS. 



Rev* Thomas Warton, B. D. Fel- 
low of .Trinity-College, Oxford, 
and F, A, S. 

Mr. James Watt, Engineer, Bir- 
mingham 

Richard Way, Efq; Cary-Street, 

2 Copies 

Philip Webber, Efq; Falmouth 

Philip Webber, jun. Efq; Ditto 

William Webber, Efq; Great 
Queen-Street 

Rev. John Webber, A. M. Fellow 
of New-College, Oxford 

Edward Webfter, Efq; White Lead 
Works, Marybone 

Meflf. Wedgwood and Bentley, 
Greek-Street, Soho 

Hon. James Wemyfs, M. P. 

Rev. John Wefley, A. M. 

Rev. Dr. Wheeler, Canon of Chrift 
Church, R. P. D. and P. Nat. 
Philos. Oxford 

Rev. Mr. Whitaker, A. M. Redlor 
of Ruan-Lanihorn, Cornwall 

Mr. John White, of the Gold Coin 
Weight Office 

James White, Efq; Barrifter, Exeter 

Mr. John Whiting, Sugar Refiner, 
Ratcliffe 

Henry Wickham, Efq; near Brad- 
ford, Yorkfhire 

Jacob Wilkinfon, Efq; M. P. 

John Wilkinfon, Efq; Brofeley 

Dr. Richard Williams, New Inn 



John Oliver Willyams, Efq; Car- 

nanton, Cornwall 
Jofeph Williams, Efq; Glanravon, 

Carnarvonfhire 
Mr. John Williams, Copper Agent, 

Truro 
Mr. Williams, Bookfelier, Fleet- . 

Street 4 Copies 

Mr. John Williams, Burncoofe, 

Gwenap, Cornwall 
Mr. Thomas Wilfon, Kenwyn, 

Cornwall 
Rev. Dr. Winchefter, Rcftor of 

Appleton, Oxfordfhire 
Dr. Withering, Birmingham 
Mr. George Wolfe, Wellclofe-Square 
Mr. Henry Woolcock, Redruth 
Sir Richard Worttey, Bart. M. P. 
James Worfley, Efq; M. P. 
Mr. John Wright, Lombard-Street 
Right Hon. Owen Wynne, M. P. 

Ireland 
Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart. 

M. P. 



Prince de YoufoupofF, of the Ruffian 

Empire 
Sir George Yonge, Bart. M. P. 
Mr. Yeoman, Surveyor, Caftle- 

Street, Leicefter-Fields 
Mr. Charles Yoxall, Southwark 



r *•♦ ] 



PREFACE. 



P R E F A C E. 



TH E practical part of the follpwlhg work was gradually 
collected when the writer was Very young ; and what waft 
begun to be written in detached flieets, afterwards became the 
materials of an intcrefting treatife. This part, indeed, may 
juftly be deemed the moft valuable of the whole, as it tends to 
inform the publick of matters very little underflood or con- 
iidered beyond the confines of a Mineral diftrid. 

Minerals that ire plenty and prdcious being generally confined 
to fmall tirads of country and a barren foil, are therefore remote 
from that publick obfervation which commerce and agriculture 
lb defervedly attrad : yet it is a matter of aftonifhment, that 
an obje<ft or the firft national confequence, in point of time, 
fhould fo long remain, even to the prefent hour, a fecrct 
limited to a few illiterate people. It is well known, that Titi 
and Lead were the firft and grandeft ftaples of Great-Britain, 
particularly the former, which introduced a trade and navigation 
before unknown to the difcoverers of our weftern coafts. This 
trade founded on Mining ftill fubfifts, with many praftical im- 
provements and difcoveries ; and though corn and wool have 
contributed the largeft fhare of riches and population to thefe 
flourifhing kingdoms, yet that confidcration dde^ ftot by any 
means leflen the importance of the Mining intereft. When we 
reflect upon the van profufion of Silver, Tin, Copper, Lead, 
Iron, and Coal, yearly produced from the bowels or our Mined, 
which exceedingly furpafles our internal confumption, and there- 
fore muft afford a very confiderable branch of commerce ; we 
fhall find it difiicult to account for that fupinenefs, which has 
hitherto declined the inveftigation of a fubjed of /o much na- 
tional importance. 

The want of fuch affiftance, in the direction , of the ufefiil 
art of Mining, as it is hoped this treatife may afford, has 
been long complained of.. It cannot, however> be denied that 

A ' our 



P R E F AC E. 

our Mines are moftly well condu6ted ; yet no fmall advantages 
may be derived from reducing the vague pradice of common 
Miners to a regular fcience, and bringing the experience of 
many into a flngle point of view. Nor will thofe advantages be 
confined folely to pradical Miners : every corner of this ifland, 
Ireland, and many of the colonies, abounds with a variety of 
Minerals, wholly unknown to the poffeffors ; and was the 
knowledge of the indications of Metals, and the mode of work- 
ing Mines more diffufed, new difcoveries would daily be made 
to the great profit of landed proprietors, and the advantage qf 
the publick, by increafing its revenue, and employing confider- 
able numbers of the laborious poor. As a ftrikirig proof of the 
want of fuch a treatife, before the latter end of the laft century, 
vaft quantities of rich Copper Ore in Cornwall were thrown 
away as ufelefs ! Indeed, it may be fafely (aid, that eleven- 
twelfths of his Majefty*s fubjeds are totally unacquainted with 
any part or branch of our enquiry, that by itfelf, and its great 
confumption of various materials, brings, in fo great a revenue 
to the crown, and fo much wealth to the community. 

To acquire a competent knowledge in Mines, &c. a long 
refidence in their vicinity is certainly neceflary ; and this ad- 
vantage, at leaft, I can with truth lay claim to : yet as this is 
the writer's firft attempt in literary compofition, it will, for 
that reafon, have many faults ; and he muft rely on the candour 
of the publick for the favourable reception of an undertaking 
that ought long ago to have employed the ableft hand. How- 
everj I have not omitted to take the opinions of many.perfdris 
well verfed in the various departments of this worlc,' which, 
from the number of natural and pradical difcoveries it coii- 
Ttains, and the vaft importance of the general fubje<El:, I m^ 
v.enture to pronounce, with all its faults, a valuable acquifi- 
"tion to the lijjrary of every nobleman and gentleman iij thefe 
*kingdoms. ♦ . .'....• 

The great parts of this wofk are arranged iit the following 

order. The firft book treats of the origin, formation, and 

"fubftance of Minerals aiid Metals ; .tjhe firft. and fecoijd chapters 

of which inculcate the dbdrine of water, as the folvent, vehicle, 

and cement of Metals, and Minerals, or their principles, in pro- 

f portion to the faturation of the* one, .^nd the magnetifm of the 

'fefpedtive nidufes of the other. /The theory here given^ is, in . 

. fome inftances, eftablifhed in the'procefs of precipitation* The 

'third chapter, which treats of the lubftances of Miiierals, Metals, 

' ■ and 



S^ ,Er. ?- a; c Ei 



y * 



and SaltS) i» dry and tedious j - but as-it wis thought a neceflary 
addidiofi to the preceding chapters', -it could not be omitted^ 
With ti^f^eft' to the nature and hiftory of Minerals, I confine 
myfcl£ to thofe of Cornwall only ; and as they occur in the 
courfe at' my work, have defcribed each in its incidental places 
My. readers will cafily perceive, that if I had fyftematically 
bbferved thofe rules of genera, clafs, and order, laid down by 
Hill, Da Cofta, Cronftedt, and others, I ihould have fpun out 
toy treatifc in a needlefs detail of matters foreign to the pro* 
feffcd fubjea of it. ^ 

The fecond book treats of the theory and natural hiftofy of 
Strataj FjfTures, and Lodes, with r«f|«ed: to their formation, 
direiStioh, inclination, interruption, elevation, and depreflion* 
The theory advanced in the firft and third chapters was adopted 
hy the reverend Dr. Borlafe, and as it has been well received by 
the ci"iticks of his time, it is hoped that it may ftill pafs till a 
bettfer can be found : and after all the opinions of the feveral 
fiaturaltfts are collated, and the moft probable are feleded, the 
matter will ftiU remain a mieerpoftulatum ; fo that we would 
prefume to judge of thefe ptily from their viiiblfe effeds in the 
Mines of Cornwall. The fecond chapter contains little or no 
theory,' -being only a natural hiftory of the contents of Lodei, 
according to their outward ■ «j5pearance ^ and any perfon a littfe 
cQiiverfant with Mineral Ores, may form a tolerable judgment 
of their contents from the defcri^tion hctt given of t£em. 

• Th^'thii-d book containsr • the pfadical part of Alining ; the 
methods of difeovertng and -v^orking Mines, the particular prof 
cefs'foi' "digging -^hd taifihg'of Ores, and the machinery -for 
drawing' waiter. -Thbugh id,- this: part the reader^ may find- a 
fund "of ihfbrmitiofr that' Jie hks iieve? ife^n opened before ^ ydt 
it cart be cbhfifeed only^s^kifummAJry of Minings it being 
ciidlefs tor enter 'into all dts^differeht modifications; . The firft 
chapter treats c^ the difcbt^ty of Mines by the Virgula, Shoding, 
and Cofteaning, efpecially the ibrdiet ; iand gives an improved 
idea- of a fcience in difcoy^Hng Mine* very little underftood oat 
■ of Cdrfiwall. The-ttierit^f the eflajr <on the Virgyla Divinatoria 
is^due;to Mr! William Cookwislrthy', -df Plymouth;^ and though 
the virtues of the rod may jiot be eafily allowed by the incredu- 
lous, yet for my t>wn part, I want no further evidence of its 
J)T6j)ertics than I -have alteady obtained 1x> fix. jliy"&pini<»i of its 
•vittuBl 'At iWft,; the itt^riMir is' tJiiriquS) and the fubjeA 
' def&rves to be further enquired- into» - In the method bf Shoding, 



PRE F A C E, 

I have been more full than any preceding writer ; and, I hope, 
with a judgment that will refcue this fcience from the darknefs 
with which it was enveloped. The fecond chapter contains an 
account of the methods of Streaming in its preferit improved 
ftate. This immediately follows the chapter on Shoding, be- 
caufe of its near affinity to that fubjed. The pradical part 
of Shodiiig and Streaming is founded upon a belief of the 
Noachian deluge and its effeds, which are inconteftably verified 
in Shode and Stream works. In the third chapter, the effedual 
working of a Mine is exhibited in the finking of Shafts, driving 
Adits, digging and raifing of Ores, drawing the water, and 
every other operation under-ground. This is intended to ex- 
plain the feveral parts of a Mine, and their dependency on each 
. other ; and to evince that fuch contingencies muft be in all 
Mines, although varied in their fituations according to the 
different, circumfiances of different Mines. To this is added, a 
parallel fc^^ion of the greateft Mine now at work in Cornwall, 
to illuflrate the whole. The chapter following relates to the 
management of a Mine when in a proper courfe of working ; 
wherein fuch maxims are laid down, that a novice in conduding 
a Mine may underftand fome matters indifpenfably conneded 
with that art. The laft chapter of this book treats of Damps, 
Dialling, and Levelling, with pradical inftances and remarks, 
fupported by experience, and altogether neceflary. 

The fourth book treats of the feveral manududions ufed in 
dreffing of Tin, Copper, and Lead Ores, and contains fome 
brief remarks upon dreffing Gold, Silver, &c. Though the 
general manner of dreffing Copper Ore was firft taken from 
the methods ufed in the Lead Mines, yet there are fo great a 
variety of Copper Ores requiring very oppofite treatment in 
their drefling, that I hope the fubjed will be found greatly 
improved. The dreffing of Tin is indeed an art confined to 
the ftannaries only ; yet the curious delicate manner in which it 
is manufadured in the dreffing, may furnifh many improvable 
and beneficial hints fo? the cleanfing of other Minerals from 
their fordes. I have been v^ry accurate in defcribing the man- 
ner of dreffing Tin Ore, as I have had ample experience in that 
bufinefs ; and I doubt not of its proving a ufeful and general 
flandard in that branch of Mineralogy. 

The beginning of the fifth book confifls of a memoir upon 
aflaying, and more particularly upon a part of the Docimaflick 
art, which has. never been fo experimentally treated of before, 

viz.. 



iP R E F A C £; 

Viz. How to affay Mundicks and Tin for Gold or Silver j hf 
which proceffes the curious may judge how far the Mundicks 
of one place are fuperior to thofe of another for the precious 
Metals, or whether they contain any Silver or Gold. The 
proceffes for affaying Copper Ores by calcination^ and by the 
regule way, are both infallible, if the operator will be attentive 
to his bufinefs. Thefe proceffes are little known out of the 
Cornifh affay offices, and have been too long kept profoundly 
fecret, for purpofes which the reader will readily comprehend. 
The method of affaying Tin Ore is very fimple and efficacious, 
from the eafy fufibility of its Metal. An adept in trying 
Copper Ores will foon know how to manage in affaying Cobalt^ 
by the mode prefented to his view in this chapter. 

The lail and grand objed, is the manufadory of Tin and 
Copper Ores into their refpedive Metals ; and I have fet forth, 
as fuccindly and clearly as the materials I have obtained would 
allow, the proceffes of fmelting and metallizing thofe produds, 
without infringing too much upon the fecrets of private trade. 
And though I have not forgotten to point out the oppreffions 
of monopoly, yet it is with lefs feverity than is due to the 
magnitude of the evil, and its mifchievous effeAs. 

The Appendix treats of the great improvement in the fteam 
fire engine by Mr. Watt ; an invention of more confequence to 
the Mining interefl of Great-Britain, than any difcovery that has 
been made for half a century ; and I hope to fee its univerfal 
ufe eftablifhed in a very fhort time. 

As the idioms and terms of Cornifh Miners are moflly derived 
from the ancient Cornifh Britifh dialed, and therefore not eafily 
intelligible to gentlemen unaccuflomed to Mining, who may 
have occafion to converfe or correfpond with them ; to prevent 
mifconception, I have fubjpined an explanation of thofe terms 
in alphabetical order, including the relation they bear to thofe 
of the Lead Mines and Collieries. 



CONTENTS. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



METALS, of all matter leaft fubjeft to viciflitude, Page u 
Tin trade in Cornwall eftabliflied twenty-four centuries^ 
and known to the firft inhabitants of Britain, ii. From Shode 
or Stream, ii. Lode works about feven hundred years {landing 
— Of the antiquity of Tin, iii. Few Veftigia of Tin. in Scilly- 
Iflands, iv. Author's opinion, that Tin was anciently exported 
from Falmouth harbour, fupported by Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, 
Cornifh M. S. v, vi, vii. Copper but lately difcovered and how, 
viii. Tin Ore rich, yet expenfive to drefs — ^Much ikill in hy- 
draulicks and mechanicks required to work Copper Mines, ix. 
Corollary — Reflexion, x. Great increafe, annual amount and 
value of Tin, x. Ditto of Copper Ore for the laft fifty years, 
jci. Profit and lofs in the Mines like political gaming, xii. 
Calculation that the nett profit upon ^f 400,000 is not 5^ cent. 
— ^The Lords of the Mines the greateft gainers, xiii. Reflexions 
upon the preflure of the times, xiv. Government ought to 
lefien the impofts upon Mining materials, xiy. A fcale of all the 
Copper Ores fold for fifty years pad, 'with the quantity each 
year, price 4P* ton, average, and amount in fterling value. 



BOOK I. 

CHAP. 1, 

The Origin and Formation of Metals and Minerals. 

IMPERVIOUS caufes of Metals, &c. fpeculative. Page 
I. X'he wifdom of the creation both above and under 
ground, z» Ufe of Metals not revealed before the fall, 2. 
Tub^l Cain the itrft artificer in brafs, 3. Conje^res of the 

* formaxAicya. 



CONTENTS. 

formation of Metals, 3. Alchymicar doftrine exploded ; be- 
caufe no fermentation out of the vegetable kingdom, 3, 4. 
True caufe moft obvious and proximate, 4. Author's opinion, 
by magnetifm, and approximation of particles, fui generis, 
proved in Copper, by the affinity of vitriolick acid with Iron, 
5, 6. Water, thus Saturated produces Metal in proportion to 
the precipitating power of its nidus. Goflan the nidus for moft 
Metals and Minerals, 6, 7. No tranfmutation of Metals, 7. 
Yet Metals liable to increafe or decay, according to the folution, 
retention, or tranfmigration of their refpedive principles, ad 
infinitum i inftanced in Eaft and Weft Huel- Virgin, 8, 9. 
Matter is fubjed to continual modifications, progrefs, decay, 
and reformation, 9^ 



C H A P. II. 

Water the Vehicle and Cement of Metals, Minerals, and Stone*. 

9 

I 

OF the known properties of water, 10. In its circulation 
through the earth, a vehicle of Mineral particles, tiH 
arrefted by their magnetick nidufes, 10. proved by the waters 
of Huel-Spamon and Pjednandrea Mines, which are wholefcwne ; 
aiid by the infalubrity of North-Downs, Chacewater, ^d Huel- 
Virgin waters, 11, 12. Water in the Mines cold and dulcet, 
fometimes warm^ 12. Springs temporary <»* perennial 5 in the 
Miners idiom, " Top and bottom water,'* 13. The ocean the 
true origin of. perpetual fprings, which a<^8 like a huge foscine 
engine, 1 3« eonjedhired froni a confideration of the Cafpian lea, 
14. Rivers not alwiays <lcrived from the particular fea into 
which they return — Inftances foreign and domeftick, 15. Shal- 
low Mines afFeded by top water only, deep Mines by both, 1 6. 
The increafe of water in the bottoms of a deep Mine, by an 
eaft wind, a miftake, 16. The true caufe> 17. Earthquakes 
from three caufes probably, viz. Water, Mineral combinations, 
and eledrick aether, 18, 19. Refledions on their effeds, 
19, 20. Of the hitherto inexplicable defideratum of Mine 
water being lefs under the fubmarine Strata, than in other parts 
of a Mine, 20. Cifrious inftance at Huel-Cock, 21* Huel- 
Cock wrought eighty fathoms beyond low water mark, and 
within one of the bed of the ocean ; yet lefs incommoded hy 
water under the fea^ than in any other part o£ the Mine, 2i> 22. 
accounted for, 22. . Of the lapidefcent, . petrifying, ^d ce* 
meeting qualities in water, 23. tp be feen vx Lime-^dfik, and 

cicatrizes 



CONTENTS. 

formed at the creation, as we now find them, 42, 43. Of Cal, 
Goflan, and Cockle — Cal, a hurtful mixture with Tin — Of 
our Ochres— Defcription of Cockle, Talc, and Glift, 44, 45. 
Bifmuth, natural hiftory of, how to affay it, 45, 46. Black- 
Jack or Mock-Lead is a Zink Ore ; ufeful ingredient in Brafs^ 
46, 47. Antimony, its hiftory, fufion, &c. in Cornwall, 47, 
48, 49. Cobalt, natural hiftory of, 49, 50. Lapis Calami- 
naris — Metals, radical charaders of — Specifick weight, 51. 
found pure among our Stream Tin, 52. diffolves in Aqua Regia 
only, 52. Gold leaf will plate to the thr6e hundred and fixty 
thoufandth part of an inch thick — It never decays, &c. 53. 
Platina, a Metal lately difcovered, neareft Gold in iixednefs and 
folidity, but not fo dudile ; differs from all other Metals, 54, 
55. Quickfilver, often fophifticated — Of the Colick of the 
Dunmonii, 55. Its volatility — ^Faftitious Cinnabar — No QuickC 
iilver found in Cornwall, 56. what countries produce it — ^its 
furprifing infinuation into the minutiae of the human body, 57. 
Lead feldoin pure, 57. Four forts of Lead in Cornwall, 57. 
when difcovered, of fhort continuance, 58. Lead anciently 
known as a, ftaple of England, 58. Silver feldom found in 
Britain out of Lead — Of the Silver Mines in Europe — Of the 
Mine of Potofi, 59. But four forts of Silver Ore — Silver per fe 
too foft for ufe, 60. Copper, foluble in all menflrua — ^Native 
Copper very common at fhallow levels — ^A lump of Native Cop- 
per four tons in North- America, 61. Copper Ore in pureft 
ftate$, is Statadical, Guttatim, aiid Machacada — Of green and 
blue Copper Ores — Grey Ore — ^Black Ore ought to be cautioufly 
drefled, 62. Peacock Ore — ^Yellow Copper Ores four forts, 63. 
Thirty thoufand tons raifed anno 1770 — Qornifh Copper Ores 
the fource of great employ, 64. Iron, the produA of moft 
countries — Sundry forts of Iron Ore — Caft Iron — Steel, 65, 
Iron in all bodies — ^Moft ufeful Metal to human life, 67. Tin 
— Tin Ore called Tin-ftufF— -Black Tin, 66. Of Native Tin, 
the lighteft of Metals, and the heavieft in a Mineral ftatc — Of 
Shode and Stream Tin, 66. Bal or Mine Tin — Of Tin Lodes- 
^nd Tin-ftuff, 68, Trials of its purity — Various ufes — Pewter 
— Dying fcarlet, 69. Tin the only trade in Great-Britain two 
thoufand four hundred years ago-— Little elfewhere— Of Molucca 
Tini 70, 71* 



BOOK 



d O N T E N t Si 

Watei", §5; The foregoing hypdthefis hot without objediohs-^ 
not infifted upon 5 but fubmitted with great deference to the 
judgment of the naturalifts) 864 

C H A iP» IL 

Of the diffeiettt kinds of Lodes in refpedfc of the Earth and 

Stones they containi 

MOST Lodes are. named from the Stone or Mineral they 
generally abound with-— Verjr different near the fiirface, 
and in depth — ^Why Lodes in general arc not rich near the furface, 
87. Twelve general different kinds of Tin and Copper Lodes 
—Goffan Lodes moft common— defcribed' — a tender red, a 
tender brown, 88. A dry pale Goffan, a poor Tin Goflan, 
and a Kal or Kally Goffan — Kal very ferruginous, 89. A Peach 
Lode, better for Tin than Copper ; a Scovan Lode, produdive 
of Tin only ; a Caple Lode ; a Pryan Lode, very lax and landy^ 
often rich, 90. A Quartz Lode, very unkindly; a Crymd 
Lode, four forts, 91, 92. A Killas Lode— Mundick Lode, 
when likely, and when not, 92, 93. Black Jack, a Zinc Ore, 
very fhallow, better for Copper than Tin, good for neither— 
Flookan Lode, likely for Tin or Copper, 93. Flookan in a 
Crofs-Goilan prevents the circulation of water eaft and weft — 
A Flookan eaff and weft parallel Lode heaves an opposite under- 
lying Lode higher up, 94. A Grouan Lode very foft or very 
hard, better difpofed for Tin than Copper, 94. Different 
Lodes, their alterations ; which difpofed for Tin, Copper, and 
Lead — Mine Stones have their finufes or joints, 95. Of Stones 
in Lodes foreign to their nature — The Elvan Stone, 95. The 
Liver Stone— The Horfe — defcription of — ^formation, 96. A 
ftope of dead ground, 97. 



CHAP. IIL 

How Lodes are difordered, interrupted, fradured, elevated, and 
depreffed, by the Intervention of Crofs-Goflans, Flookans, 
Slides, Contras, &c. 

A Slide, not the caufe, but the effect of a Heave— A Heave, 
a falfe term, 97. Crofs-Goffan barren— runs north and 
fouth — ^interfeds all metallick Lodes, 98, How to find the 
loft part, 99. Of the Clay or J'lookan in a Croft-Goftiui— .dams 

up 



C d N T E N T Si 

ttp the water either fide of it— -the caufc ef fbmc fpringSi loo. 
Why metallick Lodes may be rich or fteril near the Crofs-Courie, 
which is another proof of the author's opinion of the origin of 
Metals — ^Tin and Copper Lodes antecedent to Crofs-Courfes, 
loi. Mr. Whifton*s hypothecs of the deluge by a comet ap- 
jplied as a probable caufe of Crofs-Gofians, 102. their contents, 
103. Of Lodes elbowing each other, 103. Of the branches, 
firings, or fmall veins of Lodes-— -Lodes fqueezed fmall in hard 
ground, 104. Of metallick Lodes contraing each other — ^Why 
Tin Lodes were antecedent to* parallel GoiTan and Crofs-GoiTan 
Lodesj 105. The inclination or underlie of Lodes towards each 
other, and the changes and diforders occasioned thereby^ — Of 
two Lodes underlying both alike, 106. Of the Start, Leap, 
or Heave, by a Slide or Gourfe-Flookan ; or the being " cut 
« out by a Slide*— Of the fame by a Courfe-Goflan — The 
Heave and the Slide in jM-oportion to the fubfidence, 106. This 
Heave in Coal Mines, " A Trap up, or a Trap down, by a 
** Ridge"— Three Heaves by three Courfe-Goffans, at Goon- 
Xiz and the Pink Mines, 107. How to find the loft part of 
the Lode again^ 108. Corollaries in proof of three fubiidencic» 
here — ^Of the common Slide, 109, no. 



BOOK III. 



C H A P. I. 

The various^ smcient, and modern Methods for Difcovery of 
Mines, &e* by Shoding, Gofteaning, &c. with feveral very 
curious Difquifitions, Obfervations, and Experiments, upon 
the Virtues and Ufes of the Virgula Divinatoria. 

PASSAGE from Lucretius— The firft difcoverers of Metals, 
III. Of accidental difcoveries — Fiery effluvia, 11 3. by 
water, if Vitriolick, 113. Agricola upon the Virgula Divina- 
toria, 113. The corpufcular philofophers account for its ope- 
ration, 114. Some elucidations from Mr. Boyle, 115. Mr. 
Cookworthy, of Plymouth, his curious obfervations, 116. Of 
the occult quality in the operator — Hazle fhoots of one year, 
beft, 117. Sl\ape and fize — rmanner of holding the rod — the 
mind muft be indifferent, or the rod will not anfwer, 118. 
Sweat and animal excretions hinder its operation-— Of willow 



CONTENTS* 

tedsj &c.i-^The rod will not be attraded by fubftances conneded 
with the perfon of the operator j 119. How to make and ufe 
diftinguifhing rods, 120. Directions for their pradical ufe in the 
difcovery of Lodes, &c. 121. Parturition of a metallick Lode, 
by a Crofs-Goffan, eafily found by the rod- — ^its comparative 
attradion and repulfion, 122. At any depth, water found by 
the rod — Inftaiices of Lodes found by it, 123. Of Cofteaning 
and Shoding — Shode Stones feparated by the. deluge, 124. 
Defcription of the Bryle of the Lode-— Shodes difperfed from 
the Bryle — The fituation, diftahces, texture, gravity, and pro- 
perties of Shode Stones^ 1^5. Copper and Lead Shode feldom 
met with ; why — Moorftone and Ireftone Shodes very large and 
numerous, 126. Of the Greut, (Grit) run and caft of the 
country — ^How to proceed by the appearances and fituations of 
Shode, 127. Alonzo Barba, on Shoding ^ Inftru<9ions for 
tracing a Lode by its Shode — Some Lodes yield no Shode ; 
why, 128. Lodes often covered with a double or treble fhelf 
—The effefts of the flood demonftrated by Shode upon the 
Cornifh Strata, 129, 130. Difcovery of Lodes very efFe(9:ual 
by Levels, Adits, &c. 130, 131. 



CHAP. IL 

Upon Streaming, Drefling, and Smelting of Stream Tin in the 
Blowing-Houfe or Blaft-Furnace. 

TH E effeds of a deluge mofl apparent in Stream Tin 
works, 131, Of taking the Set or Grant — Sinking the 
Hatch or Shaft — Various breadths, depths, and thickneffes of 
Stream Tin Strata, 132. Of the level, the overburden, and 
difcharging the water by hand or water wheel pumps — Of the 
Tye, 133. Great deftrudion of land, by Streaming, which 
might otherwife anfwer for draining of land, 134. Of Dreffing 
—Of the Gounce or Strakes — Stamping and Dillueing, 135. 
Of Blowing, or Smelting the Tin — Of the caftle or furnace — • 
the wheel, bellows, float, &c. — Excellence and value of Grain 
Tin, 136, 137. 



CHAP. 



N T E K T S. 



C HA P. lU. 



Of Bounds, and the Manner of taking a Set or Grant for 
Mining ; of finking Shafts, driving Adits, digging and raifing 
. of Ores, drawing the Water, and working the Mines. 

OF Bounds and the cutting of them, 137. Their anti-* 
quity— Charter, 33d Edward I, ^anno 1305— <^otation« 
from ancient MSS. 138, 139. Of the ToUur and renewing 
of Bounds— The Lord and Bounder's (hares — ^May drive Adits 
through others bounds — Of the fet and difli, or dues, 140. 
Deep Mining not ancient— ^f the Coffin and Shammeis, 141* 
Proper place of a working Shaft or underlier, Whym Shaft, and 
^re engine Shaft, 142, 143. Of cutting the Lode and turning 
houfe-— Of finking other Shafts and flopeing the Lode, 144, 145. 
Of the Adit or Level, 145. Dimcnfions of the Adit and Adit 
Shafts — Of fallering the Adit for air, 146, 147. Great differ- 
ence in the charge of driving Adits, 148. Of Adits as feeking 
Adventures, 149. Of drawing the water by the hand pump ; 
Whym and barrels ; defcription of the Whym — ^Of the Rag and 
Chain pump, 1 50. Defcription of the water wheel and bobs— - 
the cheapen of all engines^— its real and comparative power to a 
fire engine,. 151. Cornifli ftreams of water very fmall, but of 
great value, and made the moft of, 152. Of the fire engine—* 
Weight of a given fmall column of water — ^Neither men nor 
horfes could draw it, 153. Defcription of the fire engine — 
The boiler, houfe cylinder, pifton, great bob or lever, pump 
rods, &c. 154. Their diftin<a and relative ufes — Great im- 
provement of being made to work itfelf, 155, 6, 7, 8, and 9. 
Of the Sumph or fink of the Mine, which fhould be in the 
engine Shaft — Of the crofs cut, 160. Of turning houfe, driving 
and flopeing on the Lode, and finking of Dippas, 161.. Of 
Dyzhuing and Hulking the Lode, 162. Of Stulls — doubly 
ufeful^ — Cutting a Plot, 163. The Little-Winds or under- 
ground Shaft— 'The footway and Sailers, 164, 165. Binding 
the Mine ; Collaring of Shafts ; pillars and arches of the Lode, 
z66. Judgment required for binding the Mine— shutting Attal 
»— Of a new Adit, holeing to the old Gunnies or houfe of water, 
dangerous, 167, 168. Of Forking the water, aiid clearing the 
old Mine, 169. Explanation of the workings of BuUen-Carden 
Mine, 170, 171, 172. 



* * * CHAP. 



CONTENTS. 

C H A P. IV. 

<5eneral Otfervations on Mines and the Management of them* 

MINING, cafual — Of the Purfer or Book-keeper, 173. 
Majority of (hares have the management — A Mine called 
an Adventure — Of In-adventurers and Out-adventurers-^ Of 
Captains and other fuperintendants — Obfervations, 174. Of 
the furgeon of a Mine, 175. .Obfervations, 176. Propofals 
for a county hofpital, 177. Of working the Lode by double 
pick-men, 178. Relieving the place — Winding the work, 179. 
Of finking, driving, and ftopeing by the fathom 5 iliuftrated by 
examples, 180. Of the cubick fathom, and the fuperficial fathom, 
181. The fingle Gunnies, the double Gunnies illuflrated, 182, 
J 83. Stridures on working by the fathom or Tub, i. e. Lump, 
184, 185. A calculation of the quantity of Lode annually 
broken — Above 2,000,000 tons of Lode and Strata broken 
yearly, 185,186. Setting a Mine upon Tribute — Firft, of a 
Tin Mine — Of dividing, redividing, and calling lots upon Doles, 
either in Waftrel or Several, between the Lords, Bounders, 
Adventurers, and Tributors, 187, 188. Second, of a Copper 
Mine — Terms of taking a Mine.\jpon Tribute, 188; Third, 
of taking Pitches upon Tribute, 189. Tributors mixing their 
Copper Ores — The increafe or decreafe by private faniples, il- 
luflrated, 190, 191. Rich Copper Ore has been digged, raifed, 
4iad drefTed for fixpence in the pound flerling — Tin for nearly 
the fame — Calculation for taking a Tin or Copper Pitch! upon 
Tribute, 192, 193, 194. 

C HAP. V. 

Of Damps in Mines, and of Levelling and Dialling Mines, 

Adits, &c. 

ON the infalubrity of Mineral effluvia, and their produdion 
of epidemick fevers, 195, 196, 197. Of Damps, 198, 
199. Inflances of the mortiferous effeds of Damps, 200. . Of 
Air-pipes, Sailers, and Shafts, to convey air and prevent Damps, 
261 . On Dialling in Mines ; very curipus and indifpenfably 
jieceflary, 202, 203. Dialling for a Shaft on the Adit-end, 204. 
Ditto for an underlying Shaft and various parts of a Mine, 205 
to 212. Of Levelling, what, how ufeful, &c, 213. 

BOOK 



N TENT $4 



BOOK IV. 



C H A P. L 



The Method of Sampling and Vanning of Tin-ftuff, and of the 
Stamping, Burning or Calcining, and Drefling the fame ; 
with the Manner of Drefling the Leavings, Loobs, &c. 

OF Spalling and dividing the Tin-ftuff, and taking the 
fample, 215. Vanning the Tin-ftufF — ^What is a Vah 
and its value, 216, 217. Of Tin in the Bal, 218. Of ftamp- 
ing the Tin-ftufF and fizing of it, and the ancient way of drefling 
Tin, 219. Defcription of a ftamping mill, its tackle, and 
appurtenances, 220. The pit and flime pit — The huddle and 
huddling, 221. Tofling and packing, and Dillueing, 222. 
Pit- works and fkimpings, 223. Of the crop and rough Tin, 
and brood in Tin, 223. Defcription of the calciner or burning- 
houfe, 224. Of burning or calcining the Tin, 225. Drefling 
the leavings, 226. Trunking the tails, trunking and framing 
the flimes, 227. Of the kofer and cazing, 228. Of the Loobs, 
ftamping the tails, and drefling upon tribute, 229; Of burnt 
leavings, their value for Copper-^ Of vitriolick water, from 
lotions of burnt leavings — its ufe for precipitation of Copper, 
230. The rife atid progrefs of precipitating for Copper, 231, 
232. 



C H A P. IL 

The various Manududions ufed in drefling of Copper and Lead 
Ores, and Sampling Copper Ores for Sale. 

TH E utenfils for drefling, viz. griddle, ftr^ke, &c. 234, 
235. Drefling by a large fieve, or griddle-^by Picking, 
Cobbing, and Bucking, 235. Of drefling common yellow Ore 
— Dredged Ore — Copper and Tin together, 236. Of the Hal- 
vans and Henaways, 237. Of Jigging-^Drefling hy the ton^^-^ 
Ore may be too curioufly or remiflly dreflTed— 'how, 238, 239* 
Calcining of Copper Ore, very proper to evaporate the Mundick, 
241. Of running poor Ores into regule at the Mine, 242. 

Drefling 



G d K T E K T S. 

Dreffing of Lead Ore nearly the fame as Copper, 243. Of 
Peafy, Bing, and Smitham ; by Cobbing, Buckering, and Jig- 
ging, 244. The method of fampling Copper Ore, 245. 



CHAP. III. 

A Summary of the Dreffing of Gold, Silver, and Semi-Metals, &e« 

GOLD duft dreflcd in bowls — Brazilians frame Gold upon 
the hairy part of an ox-hide, 246. Quickfilver ponder- 
ous, and will bear water — Semi-Metals and Mineral falts drefled 
by water, 247. h 

BOOK V. 

CHAP. I. 

On the Art of Affaying Ores and Minerals ; defcribing the 
Utenfils and Fluxes for Affaying. 

PROEM, 24». The Fluxus Niger, and White Refining 
Flux, how to make, 249. Of the furnace for affaying 
and tefting, 249. How to difcover the contents of a Mineral 
in the liquid way, by a menftruum, 250. To affay Pyrites, 
Marcafites, or Mundicks, for Gold or Silver, 251. Method oJF 
fcorifying the regulus of Mundick, 251. Intention of this 
procefs explained, 252. Cornifh china-ware crucibles, recom- 
mended for retaining glafs of Lead — ^their compofition, 253. 
They muft be guarded — Of Cuppellation, 254. Of the making 
ef Cluppels-— their ufe, 255. Procefs to difcover whether the 
produA of the aflay contains Gold, and the quantity, by preci- 
pitations from folutions in aqua fortis, 256. Of proof aqua 
fortis, 257, How to afiky Tin fiM-'Gold, 258. - This procefs 
elucidated — Method to try the firft fcoria for Silver — explained, 
S59. The (ame procefs applicable to Copper or other Metal, 
260. How to aflay Copper Ore — Of calcining the Ore, 260. 
Of fcorifying, 1261. Thfet operation explained — Of refining 
the -impure Copper, 26^. Often repeated — Of reducing the 
feoria'fdr refining the Prill— A nice operation,. 263. To affay 
Copper Ore the regule w^, 264; - Haw to calculate the value 
: > of 



CONTENTS. 

of a ton of Copper Ore by the affay, 264, 265, 266. To aflay 
Lead, 267. the operation explained, 268* To affay Tin Ore 
— Of feparating the fcoria of Pillion Tin, 269. To affay 
Cobalt, by the blow-pipe-— of calcining, making the tegulus, 
and refining thereof — Regulus of Semi^Metals, the efficient 
caufe of their colours, 270. To affay Bifmuth, 271. 



C H. A P. li. 

of Smelting of Copper Ores in the great Furnaces called 

Copper Works. 

OF the conftrudion of furnaces and the Materials thereof, 
271, 272. The calciner, the reverberatory furnaces, 
273,274. Procefs of calcining, 274. Of the operation furnace, 
and repeated fmel tings therein, 274. Of the Metal calciner, 
and the operation there — Of the Metal furnace, and the operation 
there — Of roafting — Of the coarfe refinery — Of the ultimate 
refinery of the Metal, 275. very expenfive to bring into fine 
Metal, 276. Remarks, 277. Hiftory of fmel ting Copper Ores 
in Cornwall and Wales," 277, 278. Propofal to fubje A Copper 
Mines to ftannary laws — Further hiftory and remarks on fmelt- 
ing Copper Ore in Cornwall, 279, 280. 



CHAP. III. 

Of Smelting Tin Ore, or Black Tin, in the great Furnaces at 

the Smelting-Houfe. 

OF the ancients fmelting Tin with wood, and the intro- 
dudion of pit-coal, 281, 282. Of the furnace — the 
charging, fluxing, and tapping the furnace — Sizing the fcoria 
— Stamping and dre/fing them, 282, 283. Of the large float, 
and remelting the Tiri, and its final lading into blocks for 
coining — Of the remaining drofs — its further purification — Of 
the flaggs called Hard-heads, 284. The requifites of a good 
Tin fmelter — Obfervations and refledions, 285. 



**** CHAP. 



N T E N T S. 



CHAP. IV. 



Of the Sale of Copper Ores ; and of Black Tin at the Smelting- 
Houfe, and after it is fmelted and coined in Blocks. 

OF the ancient method of felling Copper Ore in Cornwall, 
286. Of the prefent manner by ticketing, 287. eafy 
and concife, 288. Obfervations and reflections, 289, 290. 
Of felling or bartering black Tin for white — Form of a Tin bill, 
or promiflbry note for Tin, 291. Of negociating or felling the 
bill — terms, 292. 






INTRO- 



INTRODUCTION. 



AS all ages from the foundation of the world, have been 
produ«9:ive of continual improvements, and different moi 
difications of matter ; fo likewife every kingdom and province, 
has experienced the viciflitude of time and things, and that 
rotation to which all matter is liable. However, amidft all the 
changes of fublunary affairs, each country refpe£tively has been 
ever remarkable for its peculiar produce, trade, and commerce ; 
iand we may fuppofe from the nature of pa]:ticular things, which 
are folid and durable, that the conftituent principles of Minerals 
and Metals, although fubjed: to a degree of fluctuation common 
to the mundane fyftem, have undergone the leafl variety of any 
matter. Hence it is we find, that moil countries, which have 
been remarkable, time out of mind, for fupplying the world 
with certain Minerals and Metals, refpedively maintain to this 
day a fuperiority for their fingular products. 

Among fuch, the ancient kingdom of Dunmonium, which 
fignifies Hills of Tin Mines, and takes its name from thence, 
may with great propriety claim a diflindion in the annals of 
Metallurgy ; but more eminently ought that part of it called 
Cornwall to be diftinguifhed, as having, perhaps, yielded more 
Tin in one year, than Devonfhire has done in half a century, 
I may yet proceed, and infer, how fuper-eminently this little 
province of Great-Britain deferves to be ranked amongfl the firft 
principles of this ifland, as a nation and people, whofe very 
name, according to the ancient authority of Bochart, and the 
later opinion of Boerhave, is derived from Bratanack, which, 
in the Phenician language, fignifies The Land of Tin, 

Tyre and Sidon were fituate in Phenicia, a part of the ancient 
Paleftine ; and were the firfl maritime powers that we read of, 
either in facred or profane hiflory. Tyre (the grand fea-port 
and mart of Phenicia) was taken and entirely demolifhed by 
Nebuchadnezzar, in the thirty- fecond year of his reign, and in 
the year 573 before Chriftj fo that the lateft date of their 
trading here^ cannot be lefs than four and twenty centuries 

b fince. 



ii INTRODUCTION. 

fince. I believe it is agreed by all writers, that they were the 
jfirfl who ufed to frequent this ifland for commerce ; that they 
traded upon the weftern coafts of Cornwall, full fix hundred 
years before the coming of our Sanrtour ; and that their nariga- 
tion to it, t^as for the feke of oin- Tin. Tftey confidered this 
traffick as a point of fuch confequence, that they ereded forts 
and caflles on our coafts for the protedlion and prefervation of 
their commerce ; and a great number of the proper names of 
men and places in Cornwall, are plainly derived from the Sytiac 
tongue. 

The learned do&ot Borlafe inclines to an etytool^y from a 
Hebrew rt>ot, whofe tJehniAiitioh Tinia of Grecian cxttttftiottj 
gives Another idea of th6 hame ih queftion : but if we ddmit tht 
Phenician language to bc iM^diedifttdy derivfcd from her neigh* 
bour, and the Another of toiigue^^ We thay ifielifte vtrf eafilf to 
confidcr our county, as the pa^ehl o£ one general nam6 itft the 
whole ifland ; and that the Anti^ity of our Tin tradt has been 
feftabliflied upon mertantile principles, for at leaft two thoufkftd 
four bundled years ^«ft. 

I hope the reader wfll not jtidge it imjprobabkj if we fuppofe 
that the firft inhabitant of Corrt#all and Devon, after th^ flood, 
were well acquainted with Tin in its richeft Mineral ftate ; for 
it re(}uirt» ho uncommon degree of intelle^al examittatit>fr to 
cdttlprihfend, that, in the earlieft age* frotti that grand tpotha, 
aur richeft (hode and ftream Tin ifttift have been found plenti-' 
lully diffeminated upon the furface of our vallies, and the fides 
of our hills and mountains. Thofe fragtaents and nodules, by 
their colour, fliape, and gravity, muft have attracted the notice 
and confideration of the firft natives, if they did not allure the 
attention of thofe immediate emigrants who were •* fcattered 
" over the face of the earth, when the fons of men multiplied 
" in the land.** We have, therefore, much plaufibility on our 
fide to conjecture, that Tin was known as a Metal among our 
progenitors, fo long as four and thirty centuries ago. 

They could not obferve the fingular fhape and weight of 
ihode and ftream Tin, without confidering the contents as a 
Mineral, which by its fuperior gravity would afford fome metal- 
line fubftance ; efpecially, when by a comparifon with thfc 
Mineral Ores of other Metds, known long before the flood, 
they muft have had all the teafon in the world to conclude Upon 
its metalline confifl^nce^ Infotmation, or perhaps experience 

in 



tv 



INT ^ o D u c T I. o;:n; 



Phenicia or Rome, by this records they have kft: behind thdm^ 
It feems probable, that they^ included the promontbry of Bole- 
rium among theCaffiterides, and denominated all. the fouth- 
weftern coaft of Cornwall as part of them ; which being th6 
BxR. land difcovered by the navigators of thofe days, gave one 
general appellation to the whole. 

Thfi veftigia of any Tin Lodes, Mines, or workings, in the 
iflands of Scilly, are infufficient to convince us, that they only 
gave this beautiful Metal to the world : the remains of any fuch 
workings arc fcarcely difcemible ;,' for there is but one place, 
that exhibits even an imperfect appearance of a Mine ; and ib 
neceflary an appendage to; a Miiie as an adit toamwatepthe 
workings, is not to be feen in all the inlands. If, in thofe 
days, the Metal was produced from ftream or ihode ftohes only, 
.we muft undoubtedly have difcovered, in latter timfes, . thofe 
Lodes or veins from whence they were difinembered byujdfe 
deluge. They muft have been wrought for Tin fince the earlier 
ages ; and fome remains of fuch Lodes would now be iifible on 
the fea coaft ot cliffs, if many fuch had ever been : . we are, 
therefore, ftrongly induced to believe^ that the Mineral Ore of 
Tin wks anciently procured within the four weftern hundreds 
of Cornwall, . and there fmelted into white Tin, by charcoal 
fires, as the want of a proper bitumen in thofe days, and the 
entire demolition of all the woods near the Tin Mines, very 
plainly evince. 

. Befides, unlefs.we make great allowances indeed for encrbacli- 
ments of the ocean fince thofe early ages, the ifiands of Scilly 
are merely in their prefent .ftate a clufter of barren rocks, the 
principal of them meafuring but three miles long and two wide. 
Whence fhould all this Tin arife ? Likewife the ftate of popu-r 
lation then could not admit of emigrations from the infular 
continent for digging, raifing, and fmelting a Metal, which 
the mother ifland produced in fuch vaft profufioh from hei: 
own bowels. 

Without partiality to any particular opinion, we muft own 
the harbour of Falmouth feems to us the moft commodious, 
both for natives and foreigners, to have carried on the bufinefs 
for exportation of this grand monopoly, which fupplied all 
the Mediterranean markets : and we are not fingular in this 
thought, but are very plaufibiy fupported by a learned collator 
of our own country, in whofe MS. we find an ingenious 

etymology 



INTRODUCTION. v 

etymology and topographical agreement in relation to the matter 
before us. (Hals). 

** This harbour of Falmouth has been famous over Europe 
and Ada ever £nce the ifland was firft known, though but 
darkly diftinguiHied by the Greeks and Romans under feveral 
appellations; for inftance, by one (in Greek) The Mouth of 
the Dunmonii Ifland : for neither Greeks nor Romans knew 
whether this province of the Dunmonii was an iiland of itfelf, 
or part of the infular continent of Britain, till the time of the 
Roman emperor Domitian, when he circumnavigated the whole 
iiland with his fleet. Besides, it was the cuftom of the Jews 
and Greeks, to call remote and ftrange lands, Iflands, and the 
natives, Ifland ers : to which purpofe we read, Ifaiah Ixvi. 19. 
*' Tubal, Javan, and the ifles afar off,'* which were the conti- 
nent of Greece and Spain." Alfo, Genefis x. 5. and elfewhere, 
by the name of the ifles are meant the iflands, and in general 
all the provinces of Europe. And it is obfervable, that where 
the prophet Ifaiah foretels the calling of the Geiitiles, he makes 
particular mention of the iflands, (chap. xli. xlii. xlix. li. Ix.) 
which many interpreters have looked upon as a plain intimation, 
that the Chriftian religion ihould take deepeft root in thofe parts 
of the world, which were fep^ated from the Jews by the fea, 
and peopled by the poftcrity of Japhet, who fettled themfelves 
in the iflands of the Gentiles. So that the iflands, in the pro- 
phetical flile, feem particularly to denote the weftern parts of 
the world; the weft being often called the fea in fcripture 
language. But to proceed : 

** Strabo calls this mouth of the Vale river, Oilium Kenionis, 
and more properly Valuba, or Valubia ; that is, the wall, de- 
fence, point, or promontory, of the faid Vale, now St. An- 
thony's Point; or Val-Ubii, from the colony of the Ubii, a 
people of Belgia, ' who planted themfelves on the Vale river 
before Caefar's days; (From which Ubii, might come Corn- 
ubi^enfu.) Further, Diodorus Siculus tells us^ that all Tin 
was fetched out of Britain : as it is in fome authors, after the 
Greek' verflon; fr^m nS^o; u-m, xi acr« (Nefos Ikta, KLi Oda) which 
feemS'tol.fay-ih Britiih, firfl, the Good Lake, or Haven Ifland, 
and the fecond.(^hat we now call Bud-Ok) a Bay of Oak Ifland; 
andjbiaxieed, t^e memory of fuch Ike feems yet preferved in 
the prefent names of Car-ike road, the chief part of Falmouth 
harbour, from whence, to this day, the major part of our Tin 
i^iml exported ; and Arwynike, and Bud-ike lands^ by vrbic.\Qk 

c ^^ 



w IN. T R O D U C T I O N. 

tha £aid harbour is bounded. Now, tbis word Ike, I am in- 
formed, is derived from the fame Japhetical origin as the Greek 
tkh (Eko) venio, to come, arrive at, or enter into a place ; and, 
th^rdkxCf as aforcfaid, in Cornifb Britiih, it means not only a 
haven of the fea for traifick, but a place where a river of water 
hath its current into the fea -y from whence, perhaps, the Latins 
had their Ictus, to fignify the courfe of a river. And from 
this etymology we may the better underftand the words of 
Piodorus Siculus, from the Greek rendered into Latin, thus : 
*< Britanni, qui juxta Valerium Promontorium, inc(^unt, mer- 
*< catoribus, qui e6 Stanni gratia navigant, humaniores reliquis 
*' erga hofpites habentur. Hi ex terra faxoia, cujus venas 
<( fequuti, efFodiunt ftannum ; quod, per ignem edudum, in 
'^ quandam infulam fenint firitannicorum juxta, quam Ictam 
'-* vocant." 

. '< The liland which he calls Ictam or Icta, adjoining thus 
with Britain, is certainly that which is now called the Black 
Rock liland in Car-ike road aforefaid ; which, as he faid, was 
then an iiland at flood or full fea, though at low water payable 
from the main land. These is alfo a Corniih MS. of the Cre- 
ation of the .World, a Play, brought into Oxford in 1450, and 
V^hich is ftill extant in the Bodleian library there ^ which will 
at the iame time ferve to. evince, that the now Black Rock of 
Falmouth was in old time the Ifland, the Ikta of Diodorus 
Sicuhis, from which Tin was traniported into Gallia : a few 
words of it therefore here follow raithfully tranfcribed, with 
their tranflation : they being fpoken as by Solomon, rewarding 
the builders of the univerfe (a very great abfurdity in the poet) 
page 151 > which was then, perhaps, a true defcription 
thereof: . 

^* Qanneth an tas wor why ; BleiUng of the Father on you^ 

" Why fyth vca gwyr gobcry. You {hall have your reward. 

*-* Whyr gober credye Your w^es is prepa^^ 

M . Warbarth gans oil gweel Together with all the BsLds of 

. « Bohellan Bohelkn 

^^ . Hag goad Penria entien And thewood of Penryneotirdiy, 

'< An Enmi> . hag Arwinick, The liland, and Arwinicky 

V Tregimber, hag Kegillick. Tregember, and Kegillick. 

M Anthothq gurry the why Of them< make ^u a deed or 
chanter." charter. 

*....- . ■ ■ • 

Leknd. 



INTRODUCTION* irii 

' Leland the dbiec, in Ins Itinenuy,- -tells ois^ diat this rivn 
was cztcoDaapaiTed about with cbe Inmefl wocds^ bbks, and tim- 
ber trees^ chat this kingdom afFcvdedy temp. Hen. VII, and 
WIS therefore, by ^he Britons, called Ga&'^tir, and Caifi^ter ; 
that is to iay. Woodland. From ivhich place and haven^ the 
Greeks fetching Tin, caUed tt and the Ifknd, fo ibdxn here 
mentioned, in their language, Caifiteros. In fWther pnafe nf 
which famous port, may the teader accept the fc^OMrii^ lineb : 

In the calm fouth Valubia's harbour (lands, 
Where Vale with iea doth join its purer hands ( 
'Twixt which, to fhips commodious port is (howh, 
That makes the richer of the \t<^ld its own. 




fending 
Oreeks and Pheniciaes here of old have been ; 
Fetching from hence, fiirs, hides^ piire corn, and Tin^ 
Bcfiare great Csfar fought Gaffibelyn.'* 

Hals'6 Paroch. Hifti 



mA 



We may, henoe, conclude it very probable, that this part of 
Great'-Biitain, was the £rfl; reibrted to by the ihoR. ancient 
maritime powers in Europe and Afia, on account of its valuable^ 
beautiful, and precious Metal ; and therefore gave a name to 
the whole ifland, which, with fome little variation, it retains 
to this day, and proves the antiquity, locality^* and fuperiority 
of our produd, sand its univerfal fupply for the ufe of mankind. 

Such an abundance of Copper Ore, which the Mines produce 
at this time in Cornwall, is a clear evidence of the fertility of 
our county in that Metal, preferable perhaps to all the reft of 
England for quantity, quality, and employment. Former times 
might have been equally celebnated fdr our produdHon of this 
Metal with that of Tin, had its proximity to the furface beea 
fo great : but this rich and ufeful Metal is placed by divine ap- 
pointment more remote from the reach of human fhduftry ; and 
£0 deeply concreted in the borwtls of the earth, as to elude the 
fearch of man, without the help of mechanicks aod p'hiloibphy ; 

* Tin. is » Metal becme verjr iwc«flm'.ifi OMunan life, and yti in fi^e ywafitre the nicft 
of alT others. There are But few Tin Mmes in Gemtany ; nay, in reiped of other Metals, fiew 
in £urapc. All in Genttany^ tt fky 4s I IHmr, aM thofe IA> Blifhii, fioKemli, and C^irthia } 
and formerly in -Fitchelbeig atWonfiedd. .Whole kinedoms, as Sweden, Penmark, Norway, 
ftc. fiave no fmh MiAet, 5 uc art fappWi vm tlAftbm Soglflid. AudiT. FitOiK t» lUabhtffi 
Pytrkolo^. • \ 



T:k9d 



Vni INTRODUCTION. 

no/ wonder, then, we are not renowned for difcoveries of this 
Metal in the diAant ages of antiquity. When arts and fciences 
were in their ihfancy^ it was impoflible to lay open the deep 
treafures of the terrene fyftem. Men, money, and materials, 
in former times, were more fcarce : and the increafe of popula- 
tion and fpecie in latter days, have progrefHvely and mutually 
operated, to lay open and difcover the deep receffes of the earth, 
and the hidden treafures of the ftupendous contrivance in the 
matter and formation of our globe. 

The fuperiicial fite of one Metal, and the central tendency of 
the other, give us different ideas how they are to be fearched 
after and wrought ; and thofe ideas can no way concatenate, 
but wherein thofe Metals may be difcovered, csteris paribus, 
equally central or fuperficial. 

I It is very feldom that Tin continues rich and worth the 
ivorking, beyond fifty fathoms deep ; and it is abfolutely cer- 
tain, that Copper is not often \vrought in great abundance, till 
{iajft'that depth,! to an hundred fathoms or more. It is- alfo a 
isL&y that moil Mines with us, both of Tin and Copper, being 
ticher in quality near the furface, and by that circumftance 
attended with lefs expence in the working, do for. the moil part 
reward the lad venturers with very ample gain. 

:It Should, therefore, feem eligible to beftow our attention on 
thofe ikin-deep adventures, preferably to the deep Mines ; but 
thisis by no means the cafe in pradical Mining: tor, if a Mine, 
when (he is firft difcovered, throws up a large profit to the ad- 
venturers, and fails foon after to their lofs and detriment ; they 
nevjETthelefs purfue their objeft, under the moft unpromifing 
circumftances, with unremitting ardour, patience, induftry, 
and refolution, fcarcely parallel in any other unfortunate under- 
taking under the fun. Every little ftone of Ore brings along 
lyith it new hopes, and frefh vigour. It fans the glimmering 
fiame of adventure, which had been kindled before by the fire 
of a certain Provincial Spirit, that feems to animate the natives 
of Cornwall, and to deferve that fuccefs which they cannot 
always . command. 

, Neither is it wife to rely on the fuccefs of (Hallow Mines, 
though their profits may be fiidden ; or to defert them becaufe 
their depth may prove ui^fay:ourable for fome time after j for it 
is experimentally true, that moft Mines of confiderable depth, 

though 



INTRODUCTION. ix 

though vaftly expenfive, and the Mineral of lefs intrinfick 
worth, do, in their fuperlative quantity, certainty, and fteadi- « 
nefs, make complete and fubftantial amends for the great labour^ 
and perfevering afliduity of their proprietors. In fupport of 
which I may venture to affirm, that fix Mines produce fix 
parts in eight of all the Copper Ore of the county at this time. 

Tin in its metallick flate, being to Copper but as fixty to a 
hundred, is notwithftanding more rich in its minerallick Ore 
than Copper, as it comes from the Mine ; therefore they require 
different management in the drefilng, and cleanfing them for 
the furnace. The former from the fmallnefs of its particles, 
and extreme hardnefs of the ftone in which it is frequently, 
ibund, requires to be triturated or pulverized as fmall as the 
fineft fand, to go through repeated ablutions, calcinations, &c. 
and be taken up with the utmoft nicety and precifion j which 
renders it of lefs nett value to the Miner on account of fo much 
trouble and expence in the minerallick manufactory thereof: but 
^s it affords fo confiderable an employment for the children of 
poor labourers, from fix years old and upwards, they are gene- 
rally engaged in that branch before they commence underground 
Tinners, and from the age of puberty are indifcriminately de- 
nominated Tinners by that means. 

Among the working Tinners, this darling Metal holds her 
empire in the heart ; probably becaufe of its locality, and the 
privileges, immunities, and ftannary laws, whereby they are 
diilinguifhed, fupported, ai\d proteded, as a feparate body of 
people. 

Copper, as I have before faid, being .placed in the more 
interior ftrata of the earth, requires great fkill in hydrai^licks, 
and mechanicks. The appropriate qualities, gravitation, and 
denfity of the elements, ought to be nicely weighed* in thefcalc; 
of found judgment. The expence of coal, candles, timber, 
leather, ropes, gunpowder^ and various other materials, adde4 
to the labour of men, wcinen, children, and hojrfes, pccafion 
fuch a vafl monthly charge, as will not eafily be credited by 
thofe who are unacquainted with Mining. It is well known^ 
however, that fome Copper Mines now extant, have each' 
fupported, for feveral years paft, a monthly expence of two 
thoufand five hundred pounds, including the land owner's fhare, 
which is generally a fixth, feventh, or eighth paft, in fpecie, 
cf the whole proceeds. 

d "^xaoi. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

From a comparative view of the charges in working of Tin 
and Copper Miaes, we s\ay draw this corollary, viz. The former 
is wrought upon m<»'e dependent principles than the latter^ 
which cannot be emboH^eiled in great quantities, without the 
help of foreign auxiliaries^ fuch as coal, and very large timber 
particularly. The Mining intereft pf Cornwall, therefore, de- 
ierves great attention from the government, the nobility and 
gentry of the united kingdoms, as tending to a confiderable 
national advantage in the confumption of fo many materials 
necejfTary for the condud and maintenance of the Mines ; 
whereby great trade is kept up, large duties to the community 
are paid, and a conftant uniform nurfery for feamen is eafily and 
cheaply preferved, as our quota, of additional fupport of the 
trade, navigation, and fecurity of thefe kingdoms. 

With much fatisfadion we can refled upon the fingular nature 
of our ftaple commodities, they being attainable at the certain 
lofs of none but thofe who feek a recompence from the purfuit. 
Now in fome kinds of trade and buiinefs, what is the profit in 
one man's hand, is frequently ^o much lofs to fome other indi« 
vidual, from whom it is either immediately or laterally derived. 
It is an axiom in trade, that << One man's lofs is another man's 
** gain ;" but in the cafe before us, we take from no perfbn'g 
bag, but ftrive only to obtain the treafure of the deep, which in 
its hidden ftate yields neither glory to Gpd nor fervice to man : 
^^ And all this out of a narrow flip of l^d ufually of the moft 
<* barren hilly kind, without diftreiling tillage, paflure, and 
^* the like, fcarcely worth the remarking j and very far ihort of 
** the improvements in rent for thofe lands which are in the 
" vicinity of the Mines." (Borlafe). 

.Mr. Scawen, of Molinek> wa^ vice-warden of the Stannaries 
in Charles the f^cond*s tiipe ; and in a note of his, which the 
writer has feen, complains, that the Tin revenues were then 
finail ; but, in the preceding reigns of James the firf):, and 
Charles the firft, the amount of Block-T^ yearly, was from 
fourteen hundred to fixteen hundred tons. It was alio found 
by the laft two farms in queen Anne's reign, and the beginning 
of George the fir-ft, that Block-Tin, o»^ year with another, 
amounted to fomething more than fi^^een hundred ; fo that, in 
the fpace of o|ie hundred and ten years, its mean proportion was 
equal to fifteen hundro^ tons ^ annum. Since the foregoing 
time; we obferMe a gradual increafe for thirty years following ;' 
for, in the year 1742, a propofal was mado if th^ Mines Royal 

Company 



I N T R O D U C T I O .N» id 

Company in London, to raiib ont iiufidfed and forty tHoufand 
pounds to encourage the Tin traiie by farming that commbdior 
ica (even years at a certain price. A committee of Comiut 
gentlemen were appointed to conikler of the prOpofids ; and 
they reported, *' That the quantity of Tin raifed yearly ia 
*' Cornwall, at an average for many years laft paft, hath beeii 
*^ about two thou{and one huiKlred tons ; and reiblved, that 
^' three pounds nine {hillings for grain Tin, and three poundf 
** five flullings ^ hundred weight for common Tin, - are the 



Jt^f' 



'0^ 



'/n^^K 



" lowdl prices for which fuch Tin will be fold to the con- /^^f if Jit 
" tradors, exclufive of all coinage duties and fees.*' ** C/lT^C^ 

The rapid increafe of the produce of our Tin Mines few th? 
laft thirty years, is fcarcely credible : it is, however, a fad, 
that we have coined three thoufand fix hundred tons of Block- 
Tin in one year ; and, for the laft twenty years, the annual ^ ^•^^ ^^Lj. 
average has been about three thoufand tons ; which is double '^•r***' 
the quantity coined annually but fixty years ago, and one-third 
increafe for the laft thirty. ^friU*^//? 

No lefs extraordinary has been the vaft addition to the fales of /^ /^c^^i^u 
Copper Ore within the laft twenty years ; efpeciaily ai Mining 'Z /^^/^> 
for Copper, only commenced with the prefent century ; the little // /, ^ 
which had been raifed before, being adventitious, and accident-^ " -'^ " — 
ally met with in purfiiit of Tin. , //> { , , 

According to the following accounts, which are faithfully *^!A?J^i 
tranfcribed from the Copper Ore buyers books, we find the ^J^ T^. 
quantity fold, fi-om 1726 inclufive to the end of 1735, was t^'^'^ 

fixty-four thoufand eight hundred tons, at an average price of "vsx.'J 
feven pounds fifteen fiiillings and tenpence ^ ton, amounting 
to four hundred and feventy-three thoufand five hundred pounds^ 
which muft have been yearly forty-feven thoufand three hundred 
and fifty pounds. From 1736 inclufive to the end of 1745, 
feventy-five thoufimd five hundred and twenty tons of Cc^per 
Ore were fold at feven pounds e^ht fhiUings and fixpence aver*- 
age price, the amount five hundred and fixty thoufand one 
hundred and fix pounds in the grofs, and fifty-ux thoufand and 
ten pounds yearly. From. 1746 inclufive to the ttui of I755» 
the quantity fold was ninety-eight thoufand feven hundred and 
ninety tons at feven poimds ei^t ihiHings the ton, the amount 
&ven hundred and tnirty-onc thoufand four hundf ed and fifty* 
feven pounds ; annually ievcnty-three thoufand oor hundred 
and forty-five pounds. Fsmi 1 756 inclttfiv« to tJu^ ^xA oi v*^^ v% 



V 



xii I N T R O D U C T I O N. 

the quantum fold made one hundred and flxty-nine thoufand 
fix hundred and ninety-nine tons, at the average price of feven 
pounds fix fiiillings and fixpence, amounting to the fum of one 
million two hundred and forty-three thoufand and forty-five 
pounds, and one hundred and twenty-four thoufand three hun- 
dred and four pounds yearly. Laftly, from 1766 to the endi of 
the laft year, two hundred and fixty-four thoufand two hundred 
and feventy-three tons of Copper Ore were difpofed of at fix 
pounds fourteen fhillings and fixpence ^ ton, amounting in all 
to one million feven hundred and feventy-eight thoufand thred 
hundred and thirty-feven pounds, which muft have returned 
one hundred and feventy-feven thoufand eight hundred and 
thirty- three pounds every year of the laft ten. 

In order to form a more comprehenfive view of the progrefs 
fo lately made in Mining for Copper, we have prefented the 
reader with a comparative fcale of the above Ores, &c. where 
he may fee for himfelf, the advance and improvement, which 
have been made in the fcience of Metallurgy in this part of 
Great-Britain. And when we refleft upon thofe great and 
fudden improvements in the art of Mining, we may juftly give 
ourfelves all the merit, which we really deferve for our fiiperior 
excellence to all the reft of our fellow fubjeds in this fingular 
branch of knowledge. We do not know how much out gratu- 
lations may be damped, when we further obferve, that (from 
fome caufe which we cannot perfe<ftly account for at this time) 
the intrinfick value of our hard gotten commodities, has de- 
creafed in fome ratio to the advance in quantity, which ought 
to be a matter of very ferious enquiry with all the gentlemen of 
Cornwall, whom it fo nearly concerns, and from whom we may 
jexped that redrefs by their united efforts, which the declenfion 
of bur Mine trade fo greatly requires. , 

r It is the popular opinion, that no real furplufage beyond the 
charges of Mining do arife to the adventurers in general ; and 
that in Tin particularly, the credits are unequal to the out- 
goings. NeVerthelefs, we fee, in our county, that many men 
have made opulent fortunes by their fuccefs in Mining ; there- 
fore it is difficult to account for the truth of this matter, unlefs 
we fuppofe the profit of the great Mines to be funk in the un- 
fbttunate adventures, and like national lotteries, the individual 
profit to be taken out. of the general lofs. It is indubitable, 
however, that the publick is manifeftly enriched by the great 
itrade and circulation of money, confequential to this peculiar 
trufinefs. Whether 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

Whether this equipofe in the profit and lofs, is a fad, or 
only a falfe allegation, I will not take upon me to fay ; but if 
they be not tantamount to each other, we verily believe upon 
the whole, the gain is far fhort of that recompence which is due 
to the refolution and fedulous purfuit of the Mine Adventurers 
in Cornwall. 

Suppofing the proceeds in Tin and Copper to be annually 
four hundred thoufand pounds, and the feparate gain being 
aggregate ; upon a dividend of twelve and a half ^ cent, it will 
come out fifty thoufand pounds, which is only a profit of one- 
eighth upon the certain rifk of fo large a fum : but thofe who 
are converfant in Mining, we are well ailiired, would be very 
happy if they could promife themfelves only feven blanks to one 
prize, which from unlucky experience we know to be not the 
cafe,, and that nineteen blanks to a prize, will more nearly 
quadrate with the truth of the matter, by which our former 
dividend is reduced to five ^ cent, and the grofs gain to only 
twenty thoufand pounds ^ annum. 

This, however, makes fome profit appear ; but how fmall, 
if true 1 how inadequate to the fum laid out and expended I 
This -{hews the infatuation, and delufive hopes of political 
gaming, under which ftigma it apparently lies. We ihall for- 
bear any further refle6tions upon the fubjed, left we incur the 
blame and reproach of our neighbours and countrymen ; but as 
we write for the publick eye, we find it neceffary to relate fads 
as they occur, whether they are unpleafing to the interefted or 
not. In purluance of which determination, we hope the land- 
holders will hold us excufable, when we affert upon the cleareft 
convidion, that they contribute by their heavy exadions to 
deprive the induftrious adventurers of too large a proportion of 
that profit, which ought to. be applied for the encouragement 
and reward of their arduous and expenfive undertakings. At a 
medium, the Lords of the foil have one-feventh part clear from 
all expence : now the one-feventh of four hundred thoufand 
pounds, being fifty-feven thoufand one hundred and forty-two 
pounds, it appears, by a ftriking comparifon, for whom the 
Mines are wrought, and who are the principal gainers thereby ; 
and very completely accounts for the great complaifance, can- 
dour, gratitude, and generofity of thofe gentlemen, to the feveral 
Adventurers in their refpedive eftates. 

At 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

At this time, when all the neccffaries of life are high in value, 
the price of all manner of materials advanced, the wages of 
labourers from a natural confequence proportionably increafed, 
the price for Tin funk down from three pounds ten (hillings to 
three pounds, and Copper Ore fallen more than thirty ^ cent, 
below the true flandard, have we not great reafon- to fear the 
event of fuch combined and adverfe caufes to the profperity of 
this county ? Is it not alarming ? And how fhall we account for 
all that fupinenefs which is manifefled by thofe, whofe intereft 
and bufinefs it ihould be to mitigate the recited diftrefles of a 
laborious and ufeful community ? 

Government would reap a very fruitful harveft annually, from 
a fuitable encouragement of the Mining intereft in Cornwall. 
We believe, if the managers of publick afiairs would leffen 
fome of the heavy duties upon our materials, and wholly remit 
others, fuch indulgence would operate as a bounty, and greatly 
multiply our contributions to the national revenue, by animating 
the Mine Adventurers to rework feveral deep expenfive Mines, 
now dormant through the great preflure of weighty impofts, 
Upon the back of many natural difficulties and obftrudions. 

The drawback upon coal ufed in our fmelting-houfes and fire 
engines j has been attended with fuch happy conlequences for 
the publick, that we may venture to affirm, not one-fifth of 
the fire fteam engines now working, would ever have been 
erected without fuch encouragement. Thirty-fix years ago, 
this county had only one fire engine in it : fince which time 
above three fcore have been ereded, and more than half of them 
have been rebuilt, or enlarged in the diameter of their cylindri- 
cal dimenfions. 

We fhall leave the publick to refied and animadvert upon 
this notorious truth. 



An Account of all the Copper Ores fold in Cornwall the laft 
fifty Years ; their Tonnage, Amount, Price, and Value. 



Date 



1726 
1735 

1736 

1745 

1746 

1756 

1766 
1775 



TenYears 
Tbnnage 


ditto Average 
Price <^ Ton 


Amount 


Average 

Annual 

Tonnage 


Average 
Annual 
Amount 


64,800 


£7 15 10 


/'473,50o 


6,480 


jC47>350 


.75»52o 


786 


560,106 


7>552 


56,010 


98,790 


780 


73i>457 


9>879 


73>i45 


169,699 


766 


1,243,045 


16,970 


124,304 


264,273 


6 14 6 


i>778,337 


26,427 


i77>833 



Date 


Ann. Tonnage 


Date 


Ann. Tonnage 


Date 

1760 


Ann. Tonnage 


1726 


5,000 Tons 


1743 


7,040 Tons 


15,780 Tons 


27 


6,700 


44 


7*230 


61 


17,004 


28 


6,800 


45 


6,700 


62 


16,054 


29 


6,870 


46 


7,000 


63 


17,898 


30 


6,900 


47 


4,900 


64 


21,489 


31 


7,000 


48 


6,000 


65 


16,774 


32 


7,290 


49 


7,200 


66 


21,251 


33 


7,000 


50 


9,400 


67 


18,502 


34 


6,000 


51 


11,000 


68 


23,671 


35 


5,240 


52 


12,050 


69 


26,655 


36 


8,000 


53 


13,000 


70 


30,776 


37 


9,000 


54 


14,000 


71 


27,896 


38 


10,000 


55 


14,240 


72 


27,654 


39 


11,000 


56 


16,000 


73 


27*765 


40 


5,000 


57 


17,000 


74 


30,253 


41 


SyS^^ 


58 


15,000 


7S 29,950 


42 


6,050 


59 


16,700 







:'/< 



G E N E R A t T R E A T I S E 

UPON 

MI N E R AL S, M I N E S, 

AND 

MI N IN G. 



B O O K L 

C H A P. I. 

Of the Origin and Formation of Metals and Minerals.* 

FROM the invifibiiity of the original caufes of Minerals 
and Metals, every fyftem and theory, . framed to account 
for their* produdion, muft be fpeculative and contro- 
vertible. The mundane theories of Burnet, Woodward, Whifton, 
De la Prime, Scheuzer, and others, though they have all their 
probabilities, are all liable to many objedions. Indeed,, to 
fearch into the: fecret caufes -of feveral appearances in nature 
that are evidently exifting, and obvious to our fenfes, both in 
her grofs and minute operations, requires fo much accurate 
labour, found learning, and folid judgment, that aa it would 
appear prefumptuous in me to obtrude any particular theory of 
my own, I {hall only offer my opinion in the following fheets, 
with all imaginable deference to the judgment of the candid 
publick. 

Though the flupendous views we have of divine archi- 
tedture, fill our fouls with admiration and aflonifhment at his 
power who framed the heavens, and laid. the. Coxmi^ASl^Qsv^ ^ 

B ^^^ 



2 OF THE FORMATION OF 

the earth j yet the minuteft of his works, for their exquifite 
fymmetry and delicacy, are equal evidences of the boundlefs 
jfkill of the divine Artift, who hath furniihed us with no lefs 
mattcjr of meditation an4 wonder^ in the oqnfp/ma$-ioii . and 
inftin^fc of the moft contemptible ihfed, than in the attributed 
fagacity and unweildy bulk of the elephant. 

Well might the immortal naturalift fay, " That in nothing 
" more is j(een the workm^fhip of nature (God) than in 
¥ the tirtifidal coiapoCiti^tk of thdfft little /bodies/' whidi 
in his contemplation on the body of a gnat he fo elegantly 
illuftrates ; " Ubi vifum pretendit ? Ubi guftatum applicavit ? 
** Ubi oderatum inferuit ? Ubi vero truculentam illam, et 
** portione maximam voceni ingeneravit ? Qui fubtilitate pennas 
** adnexuit ? ^rselc^avit pedum Crura ? DiijlQ^it jejunum 
** caveam uti alvum ? Avidam fanguinis, et potiiflimum humani, 
fitim accendit ? Telum vero perfodiendo tergori quo fpiculavit 
ingenio ? Atque ut in capaci cum cerni non pofHt exilitas, ita 
reciproca geminavit arte, ut fodiendo jaccuminatum pariter 
forbendo que fiftulofum effet.** (Mny.j 



C( 
C( 



If Pliny had been acquainted with microfcopick difcoveries, 
where would he have found words to exprefs his admiration at 
Dr. Hook's affertion ; " That if a large grain of land was 
broken into 8,000,000 of equal parts, one of them would 
exceed the bignefs of thofe creatures, who were fo exceed- 
ing fmidl, that millions of millions might be contained fn 
j?nc drop of water V* 






If we defirend from the furface of the earth, we ihall liktwiie 
£nd in her bowels endlcfs (lores of foilils, petrifa£tions, mine- 
nds, and metals, to fupply mankind with the means and 
materials of every ornament and conveniency ; in which we 
may, as through a glafs darkly, behold the fecret operations 
of him that workcth all in all, both in the heart of man, and 
in the bowels of the earth ! << Great and marvellous are thy 
*^ • works, O Lord God Almighty I In wifdom haft thou made 
<< them all-*^«tke earth is full of thy riches 1'* 

It is very probable that the nature and ufe of Metals were 
not revealed to Adam in his ftate of innocence : the toil and 
labour neceflary to procure and ufe thole implements of the 
iron age .coidd not be known, till they made part of the curie 
XDcurred by his f^l : *< In the fweat of thy face ikalt thpu 

"eat 



MSTALS AND MINERALS^ $ 

** eat Isread, till ttnaa leturA lantd the j^yiid ^ in fytnw fktilt 
« thou eat of it all the day* df thj iife^" {Ota^efiis.) Tfefel 
they were very early difcovered, however, is manifeft from the 
Mofaick account w Tubal Csuft> whd Wa6 th% ^t^ ^ibftrtkder 
of every am^cer in Brafs stud It&ti \ ^and being th6 ^ ^ 
Lameck) who WU6 the father of N<0ah) M^ft have been fut^ 
an inftru^ter Aftno Mun>di t.,200y or tlyereabo^* Whetlier this 
is the fame jperfim as »i tke Heiidien mytht^iogy is ^called Mul^ 
dber, <# Vmcaii) who wa« the god 6f fubtetfi^yeain fire, iand 
^^»emed the pitkident ovet Metals, it is Dot eKTeidtial to &\it 
purpofe. 

It has been long difputed whether Metals m-e generated^ -o^ 
were ail ori^ndiy produced at the creatiott : whethe*- they admit 
of genninatioa, or augmentation, like animal or vegetabk 
bodies, or whether they proceed from an accumulation iind 
cc^efion of metdlick particles ; or by what other means they 
were formed and produced. 

The define of the alchymift maintiiins, that th^y proceed . 
from a certain Primum Ens, or firft feed of Metals, which they 
fay is a kind of moift vapour or Gas, that changes the earth and 
juices it meets with in a vein into k mineral bG^y or fubftance ; 
and thence converts the Minerals into Metals or Ores by a conti-^ 
nued feimentation and elaboration in the Mines, eauled by the 
Archeus or heat that a^ on the veins, as it proceeds from the cen;^ 
ter of the earth ^ it ^flerts alio, that different Metals ate prodiiced 
conftKrnuble to the time and degrees of fermentation whieh the 
Mines have undet^gone^ and partly by the purity and fuitabte- 
nefs of the vein^, dt the e^rth in them, which they fujppofe are 
as matrisces to contain ftnd nourifh Metals in embrio ; lo that iti 
the fpace of a thouland years, it feems, a Metal is geneiidted 
and perfeded de novo, according to the concurrent eatiles) futh 
as the impregnation of the Attheus, or the like* But this 
doMne of Mineral fermentation ii very properly denied to have 
any exiflence, by the accurate Boerhave, who, in his Hiftory ot 
Fermentation, declares it to belong ohly to the vegetable king-* 
dom 5 for he fays abfolutely, •« This inteftine m^on dan be 
" excited in vegetables only ;** and for Minerals, he does not 
remember that any fermentative motion has been obferved there- 
in : fb that I think we may with full prc^riety ejtprefs what is 
meant in the term fermentation, by effervefcence, which dif-* 
fercnt admixtures of Mineral pftrtitlcs nWiy monienttttily eicitfe \ 



4 OF THE FORMATION OF 

» 

and which really conveys a feparate fenfe and meaning, from 
the true natural operation of ferments. 

Others will have it, that 4II Metals and Minerals were at firfl 
created in the very fame ftate and nature in which they are 
always found, without undergoing any kind of alteration* 
The moft common opinion among the Miners in Cornwall 
is, that crude immature Minerals do nourifh and feed the 
Ores with which they are intermixed in the Mines; and that 
the Minerals themfelves will, in procefs of time, be converted 
into Ores produdlive of thofe Metals, to which they have the 
neareft affinity, and with which they have the greatefl inter- 
courfe. This, however, is but the common opinion.: Thiofe 
of moft experience feem to have a contrary notion of the matter, 
^d yet differ among themfelves. We apprehend the bcsft, and 
moft plaufible reafons that can be advanced, are thofe, which 
are neareft at hand, are moft obvious to our fenfes, and are 
deduced from obfcrvation and experience ; and therefore, with-r 
out animadverting on the different opinions abovementioned, 
we fliall prpceed to communicate our own thoughts on this 
controverted fubjed. 

It is reafpnable to conclude, that Metals were made and im- 
planted in veins at or very foon after the creation of the world. 
. Tin Ore will peculiarly evince the juftnefs of this. conclu£on ; 
for it is frequently found, in its richeft and pureft ftate, in large 
fpots and bunches in blocks of ftone of the moft hardened con- 
fifl^nce, fuch as Granite, Elvan, and the like, which have been 
above the furface ever fince the firft induration of folids, have 
experienced no revolution, nor been water-charged with metal- 
lick particles, unlefs from the clouds of heaven. Perhaps it has 
been primarily fo with moft other Metals, as their ufefulnefs 
was difcove^ed to man before the methods of ftnking deep into 
their proper niduffes were at all known. In other countries, 
where Metals may be more generally diffufed, it has probably 
been found as I fay ; and from the beginning, thefe metal- 
lick diftributions may have experienced a decay and alteration 
by the adion of the different elements upon them, according to 
their fpeciiick induration or laxity. 

I have before obferved, that Metals are fubjed to a degree 

of fluduat;l6n, in common; with all matter ; and. that tney 

approach to, or recede from, their ultimate period, or de- 

gree of perfedion, either quicker or flower, as they are of a 

greater 



METALS AND MINERALS. 5 

greater or lefs folid and durable frame and conftitution. In 
favour of this opinion, it is found, that the Ores of Copper and 
Lead, though rich and folid in nature, yet by a long infolation, 
or expofure to the fun and weather for fome years, lofe much 
of their Metal : and alfo, that thofe Mines which abound with 
a rich mature Copper Ore, do, near the furface, at leaft imme- 
diately over the body of the Ore, commonly contain a ruft, 
tindure, or fpume of Copper, refembling Verdigreafe ; which 
ieems to be an Ore in a declining ftate, being elevated by an 
effervcfcence in the bowels of the Mine from that fulphureous 
body of Ore which often lies under it, and to which it did 
belong at firft, and was united with it, till fome intervening 
caufe occafioned fo vifible an alteration in the Ore of one and 
the fame Mine. 

It feems to me that in every Metal there is a peculiar mag- 
netifm, and an approximation of particles fui generis, by which 
its component principles are drawn and united together, parti- 
cularly the matters left by the decomposition of the waters 
pafllng through the contiguous earth or ftrata, and depofited in 
their proper nidus ; till, by the accretion of more or lefs of its 
homogeneous particles, it may be demoninated either rich or 
barren. 

That Ores, and even virgin Metals, are or may be formed in 
this' manner, feems manifeft from a method now in ufe, of ex- 
trading Copper from waters ftrongly impregnated . therewith : 
Iron which has lain fome time in fuch water, is found on exa- 
mination to be greatly.' corroded, and to have Copper formed in 
its ftead, either adhering to the Iron, or funk to the bottom of 
the veffel, in form of ruft, and fometimes even in fmall grains 
of a complete metallick appearance. 

This Copper and ruft on being fmelted with a reducing flux, 
fometimes produce above three-fourths of their weight pure Metal. 
The water generally ufed for this purpofe is that which is left 
by lotions of black Tin, intermixed with Copper, after it has 
been calcined in the proper furnace, commonly called a Burn- 
ing-Houfe. The Copper contained in this water, is kept in 
folution by an acid ; and this acid having a greater affinity with 
iron than with Copper, on the immernon of Iron, quits the 
Copper to join with the Iron ; by which means a precipitation 
enfues, in the manner juft mentioned. This procefs may at 
any time be evinced by the following experiment. Diflblvc 

C ^^^ 



6 OF THE FOILMATJON OF 

tiiin plates jof Copper in Aqua-fortis, and jwd wiU have a clear 
H<por of a fine blue tinge : en aptplying to jthis thin plates of 
Iron, the acid, jqnitting the Copper^ will precipitate it in the 
manner before deicribed, as Copper would have done by Silver, 
had it been firft difiblved in the meciftruun} ; and as fixed 
alkali will do by the Iron, after it ha3 diilod^ed tl^ Copper. 

From this we may rcafonably infer, that water, in its 
psdT^ge through the earth to, the principal fiiTures, imbibes, 
together with the natural acids and lalts, the mineral and 
metallick particles, with which the different ilrata are impreg^ 
Hated ; and meeting, in thole EfTures, matters which have 
nearer affinities with the acid, of courfe difengages it, in whole 
or in part, from the metallick and mineral particles, which it 
had held diffolved ; and which, on being fo difengaged, by the 
natural attradion between its parts, forms different ores, more 
or lefs homogeneous, and ntiore or lefs rich, according to the 
different mixtures, which the acid had held diffolved, and the 
nidus in which it is depofited. The acid, now impregnated 
with a new matter, paffcs on ; till meeting with fome other 
convenient nidus, it lodges in that, and thereby acquires a frefh 
impregnation, perhaps at laft totally unmetallick ; or, for want 
of meeting with a proper nidus, appears at the furface, weakly 
or flrongly tindured with thofe principles it had lafl imbibed. 

By mpans of thefe acids, the Miners are often put to an extra- 
of dinary expence for Brafs pumps inflead of Iron ; for many of 
the Mines have water fo fully imbued with acid, that the Iron 
wcM-king'pieces, in which the piflon of the pump works, will 
he entirely corroded therewith in fix months ; and a great ex- 
pence and lofs of time will be incurred, if the pumps are not 
previoufly furnifhed with Brafs working pieces, as on them the 
acids, which are already faturated with kindred particles, have 
Uttk efied. 

Thefe, I prefume, are plain demoofiratlons : whence it ap- 
pears, that Goffan, which is an oehreous Stone, ruddy, and 
enimbldng like the raft of Iron, much of which it really con* 
tainsj is a proper nidus £ot moft kinds of Metals and Minerals ; 
hen having, even i^n this its. xnineial Hatty fb fbong an affinity 
9vith th0 acids, as ta deccxmpole them, when . &tiirated with 
odbr Motals, Semir-metals, fi^c. on which dccompofition, the 
)>ra^iptated matters, become Ooes of daifibsciit kinds, and even 
^vbgin Metaks, as before dcferibed. 
-'•'- In 



Mt:TAXS AND MINERALS. f. 

In Mr. Odteirt'd ubles c£ affimty, Zinc is indeed placed i^ 
die HxA degtte, and Iron'in the (ecomd ; but this, which rt£en 
only to their metallick ftate, does not afFed what I have above 
advanced of the mineral : yet, in the mineral, Zinc is fcarce 
ever free fioia. Iron ; the vaft quantities of Black Jack which 
this county prcyduces, being, by means o<f this mixture, rendered 
moftly un£t for ufe. 

We have, indeed, feveral kinds of Goilans, fit>m the difecht 
appearances of which, experienced miners form very ftrong ^n4 
well grounded tcHijeVftutes, of what they will product when they 
come to be wrought^ but more sfif- this wh^ I come to define 
the nature of Lddes, in refped of the earth and (lones they 
contain. 

The different Alterations of fubftartce before defcribed, Att 
deemed by fome k genuine tranfmutation : but they carry the 
ailment too far, who fuppdfe that Minerals or Metals are 
entirely changed from one kind to another, as MUhdick into 
Copper, Lead into Silver, Silver into Gold, &c. For when 
Metals or Ores do once arrive to their utmoft perfe^libn, which 
probably they were endued with from the beginnirtg^ and which 
is always eflentiol to them, though fubjeft to divers impediments 
and revolutions ; it is not eafy then to conceive, how they can 
by any means affume an entire alteration or renovation, fo as to 
be tranfmuted from one Metal to another, by any degree of ela- 
boration in the eirth. 

If this tranfmutation was d fad in nature, from the divert 
alterations which we may *«afdflably fuppofe to happen in our 
foluble Minerals, fuch as Cdpper Ore for iftftahoe, we might 
cicped: to meet with the moft ^rfeft Metals in oUr Mines 5 and 
our richeft Tin Mints, by thi elaboration and melioration of 
them in the cdUrfe (i( tWo thoufand years, might at this time be 
produ^ve of Gold and Silver enough, to furnifh a fum teJi 
thoufand times ten thou^^d gte&ter thka our hatioMl debt. 
But the wifdom of God, for the benefit of his creatures, has 
ordained, that things of this kind fhduld remaiii enfhrihed in 
their own nature : and Tin, thcAlgh uhited by & difleminated 
quantum of Gc^d, will not pait With its 'Adble cement, not- 
withftanding the ehymkal analy^tioiiis df an iliite^te impo(l6r 
to extraa a pound of G<ild from cvety bld^fe of Tih. No, the 
^Godnefs of Pr<mdeft6€ has fiied iJnalterable limits td the pe#- 
&£Hon of each pstf^ylar Metal, ttf feeder e4e wliole q4 ^^1^ 



"B OF THE FORMATION OF 

fervice to mankind ; ; the inferior Metals, Iron efpectally, being 
of more general utility than Gold, Silver, and even precious 
Stones. 

If it be faid, that the impurities of the earth in our Mines, 
is the caufe that nature is debilitated and fruftrated in her endea- 
vours after tranfmutation ; it is anfwered, that, notwithftanding 
this impediment, fuch a long elaboration and maturation in the 
earth, in fo great a feries of years, would neceflarily and inevita- 
bly exalt the bafe Metals into fo high a degree of purity and 
^oodnefs, that they would, by this time, * be greatly enriched 
with Gold or Silver ; and thoiigh they contain Stones and Earths 
of various colours and degrees of purity, yet there is no effential 
difference between them, from one containing a nobler Metal 
than another ; which would fcarcely be the cafe, without feme 
ftronger evidence of exaltation, notwithftanding all the oppofi- 
tion that nature could meet with in the Mines, provided (he 
was endued with a power of converting the bale Metals into 
thofe of a fuperior kind. 

We may likewife conclude from the premifes, that the opinion 
of thofe, who hold that Metals in the earth continue in the fame 
ftate as at firft, is erroneous ; becaufe the migration and egrefs 
of Metals and Minerals, is obvious enough in the inveftigation 
of Mineral Spaws or Springs. 

Many of our Mines furnilh Stones, perhaps of but an ounce 
weight, in which may be difcerned the pure Ores of Tin and 
Copper, Copper and Lead, Zinc or Mock-lead^ and Mundick, 
each in a feparate ftate from the other, (by the intervention of 
GofTan, Cal, Flookan, Spar, and Chryftal.) How fliould this 
natural clafs and order of Metals, &c. be efteded, but by the 
agency of water to bring, and the power of attra<Stion to arreft, 
fuch and fuch particles, and depofit each in its proper matrix or 
nidus ? May we not, therefore, fuppofe, that Mines which are 
very rich at one given time and place, may in feveral centuries 
after be impoverifhed in that place ; and other parts of thofe 
Mines, which were then barren, may be now plentifully ftored 
with Metal, according to the folution and tranfmigration of their 
refpe<ftive principles^ which are depofited in fome other magnetick 
nidus ; whofe power of retention, in procefs of time, may be 
again decayed, thofe principles again depart,^ and again be 
arrefted ad infinitum ? This may account for the uncertain dif- 
tribution of Ore, in one and the fame Lode ; which may be 

very 



METALS AND MINERALS. 9 

very rich in this age, and in the following not worth any furthei* 
putfuit. And this may alfo be the caufe of the old Huel Virgin's 
producing near half a million fterling ; and the eaftern Huel 
Virgin's never yet producing three hundred pounds, though of 
feventy fathoms depth, with eight thoufand pounds charge upon 
her, and ftill within forty fathoms of a gulph of Copper Ore in 
the fame Lode. 

This hypothefis, which is formed on my own obfervation and 
judgment of Metals, may not be reliftied by thofe, who have 
adopted the ancient opinion of the produdion of Metals and 
Minerals by vegetation ; nor by thofe, who fuppofe Metals to 
continue always in the fame ftate. But though I am not fond 
of fingularity, I cannot help diffenting from the common tra- 
ditions, for the reafons I have given ; which, I hope, are fo 
plain and natural, as to fatisfy the reader, that there is no need 
of having recourfe to the center of the earth for a folution of this 
matter. In inquiries of this nature, every one has a right to be 
guided by his own experience and judgment. And though the 
fubjed, at beft, is fo obfcure and difficult, that it can never be 
clearly put out of difpute, yet I think, I have evidenced the 
propofition upon which I firft fat out ; namely, that all matter 
is fubjed to rotation and viciffitude, to continual different mo- 
difications, improvements, progrefs, decay, and reformation ; 
and that, at the fame time, the primeval principles and particles 
thereof remain naturally the fame in fome part of the univerfe, 
unlefs difimited by the contrivance, and for the ufe of man, on 
whom all things here below have been bountifully beftowed by 
him, who is the Author and Giver of all good things both in 
heaven and in earth. 



CHAP. IL 

Of Water, the Vehicle and Cement of Metals, Minerals, 

Stones, &c. 

IS H A L L now endeavour to confirm what has been faid, 
by examining what the efleds are, that proceed from the 
caufes I have fuppofed : and to fhcw the propriety of my fug- 
geflions, it will be neceflary to examine into the properties of 
Water, as univerfally admitted by the mofl approved writers- on 
that fubjed. 



€C 
C€ 
ii 



10 OF WATER, THE jCEMENT 

Next to Fire, Water is the moft penetrative of all bodies ; by 
which quality it is fitted to enter into the compofition of all 
Animals, Vegetables, and FofHls : by this, alfo, joined with its 
fmoothnefs, it is fitted to convey the nutritive matter of Foffils, 
Stones, Minerals, and Metals ; pafling fmoothly on, it never 
flops the pores, but leaves room for fubfequent fupplies. Yet 
Water, which fo eafily feparates from moft bodies, firmly co- 
heres with fome, and binds them together in the moft folid 
maftes. It is by the glutinous nature of Water alone, that our 
houfes ftand : for take Water out of wood, and wood becomes 
rotten ; out of brick, tile, and ftones, and they become duft. 
It is evident that Water fubfifts in Metals ; for the filings of 
Tin, Copper, and Lead, yield Water plentifully by diftillation. 
*' All Foffils, and even Metals thcmfelves, are capable of dif- 
fblving in Water, and indeed are naturally mixed therewith ; 
and this holds of all concreted faline, vitriolick, and metal- 
lick juices, of which Water makes a principal part, ferving 
** to dilute, move, change, increafe, and incorporate them 
•* with each other.'* (Boerhaave.) 

As it is evident, therefore, that the Waters flow from the 
circumjacent earth, or ftrata, into, and through the Mines, 
from one vein or fifiiire into another, and fo on throughout in 
conftant circulation, till they are difcharged upon the furface, 
for their ultimate conveyance into the fca ; fo they ferve as a 
vehicle to protrude and convey the acids, falts, and minute 
loofe particles of Ore or Metal they meet with, into their proper 
matrixes or veins, where they arc depofited by the decompofi- 
tion of the acid, and attraded by the Metals, Minerals, or 
Juices, to which they have the neareft affinity ; and in procefs 
of time are accumulated into large heaps or quantities, while 
the other earthy or ftony parts of the vein are carried away by 
the ingrefs and egrefs of the pervading waters : and thus the 
Ores, or Metals, are continually complicated, congealed, and 
cemented, by the decOmpofiDg and ms^netick quality in the 
Mines ; to which the agglutinating petrifying nature of the 
Waters, doth not a little contribute. 

But if thefe pFOperties in the Mines be enervated or deftroyed, 
then their partickft will be disunited and feparated fo fxoall, as to 
render them capable of beiiig protruded and forced away by the 
Waters into the contiguoui fnata ; while tine inopurer pftrts of 
other places are impelled by the Waters into the Mines, where 
they fubfide or lodge, in the room of the Ores or Metals that 
■'- were 



OF METALS, MINERALS, &c. ii 

were thence difplaced. We are feniible that the Loadftone, 
which has (o wonderfiil an attradion, may lofe its virtue ; and 
therefore it ought not to be thought ftrange, that Mines fhould 
be fubjeft to the like alterations, from the intervention of 
accidental caufes. 

The confideration of the nature of mineral fpaws and fprings, 
will fenfibly inform us, that there is fuch a continual percolation 
of Minerals and Metals, or their falts or principles, through th^ 
pores and channels of the earth ; and the goodnefs and provi- 
dence of God are paternally apparent in their falubrious effet^t 
upon the impaired conflitutions of mankind. But there is a far 
greater difplay of his benevolence to us in particular ; for this 
town and neighbourhood are entirely ftipplied with pot Water 
from mineral fprings, and thofe of the moft deleterious miafma : 
nay, for the moft part, our Water for culinary ufes, is taken up 
at the low-floven, or tail of the adit, immediately where it 
difcharges from thofe Mines which are not working ; and have 
run half a mile or more over a bed of Copper, Mundick, and 
every other congeries of mineral pdifons. This is a fad: fo 
notorious, that I can produce many thoufand atteftations to 
confirm my aflertion. To what caufe fhall we afcribe the falu- 
brity of Pednandrea, and Huel-Spamon Waters ? Thofe Mines 
have been wrought at a confiderable depth by the power of three 
fire engines, and have produced vaft quantities of Tin, Copper, 
Mundick, and fbme Lead y yet, at this time, when thofe Mines 
are not working, and the Water is clear, we ufc it for all pur- 
pofes indifcriminat^ly, withoat the leaft tinge, or the leaft 
incruftation upon our hoi^iehold utenfils ; and in twenty-four 
years acquaintance with the jwaftke of medicine, I have not 
met with any one patient, whofe diforder I could attribute to 
the moft trifiing Hnwhokfomenefa in our Mine Waters. 

If the reader will advert to the true caufe of thefe different 
efFeds in one and the &me fluid, he may find it in what has 
been before faid ; and will prefcistly join in opinion with me, 
in the properties attributed to OefkA Lodes : and this will be a 
further demdnftration of the detompofition of thofe Waters into 
their primitive purity and innoeence, by conta<ft with this ferru- 
ginous niedium. Again, s^ a proof cHf « proof, feveral Mine9, 
whofe adits are fo much deeper as to be under the Ooffany bed 
of Ores, do produce Water fit for no ufe but driving mill or 
engine wheels, ^h Water is quite noxioa^, and palpably 
?itric]4ick io^ tht talker particularly at the Mincs^ of Nofi4^ 



12 OF WATER, THE CEMENT 

Downs, Chacewater, and Huel-Vii^in. I know that fome 
may fay, if this be the cafe, thefe Mines will be again reno- 
vated. Probably this, in a certain degree, will be the cafe : 
but let it be remembered, that where the nidus with the decom- 
pofing matter is taken away, the Water from the circumjacent 
ftrata, inftead of percolating through the vein, falls into a con- 
gregated fluid of its own kind. Indeed, where any of the vein 
is left in whole, as we call it, we fee no reafon why it fhould 
not have the fame effed there 'as formerly ; nay, we are of 
opinion, that where a Mine has been wrought till the Lode has 
proved barren in quality, and is left off from extreme poverty, 
if the vein continues, and is endued with the fame decompofmg 
and attradive qualities as the part formerly wrought originally 
might have been, fuch Lode may probably be converted into 
Ores, by the Water now percolating through it, and faturated 
accordingly. 

The Miners often feel a palatable difference in Water under 
ground, at a great depth ; for if they tafte a clear ftream of 
Water, as it flows down upon the walls of the Lode, it is either 
very cold or almofl: lukewarm, or infipid or fweet. In Copper 
Mines particularly, we fometimes find the Water full as warm 
as new milk in one part of the mine, while it i& very cold in 
another ; nay, in feveral of thefe, particularly in Huel-Mufick 
and Huel-Rofe, the writer has flood with one foot in the warm, 
and the other in the cold Water, and has divided and diverted 
them different ways. In the former of thefe Mines, the difco- 
very of this warm Water, has always immediately preceded a 
confiderable enlargement of the Lode, and richnefs of the Ore. 
In the latter, the caufe is not fo abfolutely determined ; as the 
Lode from which it is known to proceed, has not been difcovered 
at that depth ; but where it has been fo, it greatly abounds 
with fulphureous Minerals. 

On the other hand, the Water which flows through a bed of 
Tin, is generally very fine, foft, and infipid ; efpecially if the 
Lode or flrata are of the Grouan or Elvan kinds, and the Tin 
rich in quality and homogeneous. Our clean Pryan Tin Lodes 
likewife yield a foft alkalefcent Water, that, I am fatisfied, 
would be of fingular fervice to all perfons afflided with acidities 
in the prims viae. 

Springs are either temporary or perennial : fbmc fay, that 
the/ originate from vapour, rain, or dews^ coUe^ed on the 

fides 



OF METALSi MINERALS, &c. 13 

iide^ of mountain^, and are thence commiflioned into the 
bowels of the earth, in form of fprings ; others, that they pro- 
ceed from the deep abyfs ; and others, that they are iiltrations 
from the fea, into which all the rivers run^ as into the place 
from whence they came, per modum circulationis. For, " all 
** the rivers run into the fea, ' yet the fea is hot full ; unto the 
** place from whence the rivers came, thither they return again/' 

The Theory of Mefll Mdrriotte and Peraulti that fprings have 
their origin from rains, hath been examined and confuted by 
Mr. de ia Hire. Dr. Halley's hypothefis, of their being produ- 
ced by vapours, though the moft popular, is in a manner over'- 
turned, in our opinion, as well as the former^ by Mr. Derham's 
perennial fpring in the parifh of Upminfterj and various others 
in different parts. Of thofe who have mentioned thatj which 
we conceive to be the only true origin of perpetual fprings, 
TAz OcBANi none have, to our knowledge, afllgned tne oyo 
MODO or proper caufe ; and therefore leave it undetermined, or 
rather give up their unfupported argument in favour of Dn 
Halley's more plaufible and Cbttimonly received, though more 
erroneous, hy|)othefis, of itS' being efFeded by the Condenfatioil 
and precipitation- of vapours and dtwi frbih the top& df moun- 
tains* 

The ftrefs «f our argumtht and the hbvel part of our hypo- 
thefis, is, that in the forhiation of perpetual fprings^ they n6t 
only derive their Waters from the fea, l^ dufts and cavities 
running from thence through the bowels of the earth, like veins 
and arteries in the human body ; but that the fea itfeljf ads likd 
a huge forcing engine, or hydrkulick machincj to force and 
protrude its waters from immenfe and unfathomable depths, 
through thofe cavities, to a confiderable inland diftance. 

One of the hydrbftdtical law^ df fluids, beingj that theif 
prefTure is in the ratio of their perpendicular altitudes, how 
very greats how immenfe mufl that prefTure be^ in the unfa- 
thomable parts of the fea ! and, indeed^ in thofe parts, whichj 
as-Varenius affirms, have been fathomed to the oepth of foui^ 
thiles and a half I Only conceive (if pofTible) a forcing engine^ 
or the befl hydraulick machine^ ading with a force equal to this 
iininenfe prefTuife, upon a body 6f water, in order to carry it to 
any diilance whatever, or raife it to any conceivable height I 
Imdgine then, with what ine^tprefiible force tVit v^tXtt ltott^^>a«^ 

oreffijrc, muA be protruded through thote ca.v\\.\fc^^ ^\x&&s "^"^^ 



14 OF WATEki THE CEMENT 

hollow pafTages, from the bottom of the fea, through the bowels 
of the earth, to various parts of its furface, where they difcharge 
themfelves, as through fo many tubes or pipes, and from perpe- 
tual fprings 5 fome rifing, either from a dud of lefs perpendicu- 
lar depth, where the preffure is not fo great, or otherwife more 
perpendicularly than others j confequently, in either cafe, at a 
lefs diftance from the fubaqueous mouth of the dud ; whilft 
others, running more horizontally, or derived frokn a greater 
depth, , where the preffure is j>roportionably ftronger, or, per- 
haps j from the dud tending for a confiderable length towards 
lie center of the earth, are forced to a greater inland diftance, 
in the confined tubes or veins of the earth, before they emerge 
to tlje furface, which we apprehend they do from various orifices 
ajt\d branches, like capillary tubes from a principal artery : the 
preffure of the fluid ading in this inflance, as in all others ; and 
the immenfity of that preffure in the fea feeming to juftify our 
c^J^ing it a huge forcing-engine, and comparing it to an hydrau- 
|ick machine, whofe power we can eafily conceive to be fufficient, 
from the convexity and globular form of the fea as well as the 
land, to force its Waters through the aforefaid capillary tubes 
tp, the tops of the higheft mountains, even without the aid of 
attradipn, which, no|t. improbably, may in Tome cafes contribute 
fomewhat towards their afcent. 

. That. which gave birth to our conjedures^ and led ds into 
thefe refledions, was the confideration of the Cafpian-fea, as 
ha(ving no vifible outlet j moft of whofe rivers, which difgorge 
themfelves into that grand refcrvoir, we conceived as deriving 
their origin from the fea itielf, being forced, by the preffure of 
the atmofphere and watery fluid, through fubterraneous duds 
and channels to certain diftances, where they emerge in fprings 
and bubbling fountains ; and increafing as they approach nearer 
to the fea, by the acceflion of other Waters from other duds, 
are fwollen into confiderable rivers of frefh Water, affording a 
CQnftant .fupply to keep that grand refervoir " without o*er-' 
'V flowing hill ;'* which frefhnefs, we confider, and fuppofe it 
is generally confidered, as effeded by the fait water being 
filtrated and ftrained through a confiderable body of earth in its 
paflase from the fea to the fountain head. As a juflification of 
this fuppofition, we beg leave to mention, the brackifhnefs of 
thofe fprings, which is frequently complained of near the fea 
coafts ; and which is undeniably occafioned by their vicinity to 
the fea^ whofe Waters are not nitrated through a fufficient body 

of 



OF METALS, MIN^.RALS, Set. i^ 

of earth, totally to deftroy their faltnefs, ^nd render them 
quite frefh. 

' We do not, however, fuppofe, that all the Hvers which empty 
themfelves into the Cafpian or any other fea, ar6 always derived 
from that particular fea into which they return :• for inftance, 
we conceive the head of the Wolga river to be more probably 
derived from the Frozen-fea^ to which its iburce is much nearer 
than to the Cafpian-fea ; and which feeins even neceflary, in 
order to fupply that quantity of fluid, which muft be conftantly 
evaporating from its furface, for the fupply of dews, rains, &C. 
for an extenfively furrounding country. Again ; it is probable, 
that the Nile takes its fource from the Eaftern-bcean or Red-fea, 
rather than from the Levant or Mediterranean into which it 
runs : alfoj that the river Amazones takes its rife from the 
Paci£ick-ocean, and not from the Atlantick-ocean into which it 
flows ': and fo of various other foreign rivers, which, though 
they may take their origin as we have here fuppofed ^ yet we 
further fuppofe, that as they arrive nearer to their mouths, 
th^ may be and are confiderably increafed, and receive large 
additiohsFj.by the like dn€ts and channels, from that lea likewife 
into which they run* ' 

To illuftrate this hypothefis, we fhall mention one inftance 
more in otir own country, of the river TaiAer, which divides 
Devonfhire from Cornwall ; whofe head rifes, we fuppofe, froni 
the Briftol-channel, within five or fix miles from Hartland- 
point ; and after running neai* an hundred miles due fouth, 
empties itfelf into the Englifh-channel at Plymouth ; whilfl the 
river Torridge, which rifes on the fame common, and within 
the diflance of a few cloth yards from the Tamer, after a courfe 
of upwards of fifty miles, difgorges itfelf again into the Briflol-^ 
channel in Barnflaple-bay, not twenty miles N. £. from its 
head. 

Let us adduce the rife of thefc two rivers, as pofitive proof 
againft Dr. Halley*8 ingenious hypothefis. ** Their heads are 
" two perpetual fprings within a few yards of each other, on the 
** pretty level fummit of a vafl high common, one of the higheil 
** in all the neighbourhood ; where there are no rocks or crannies 
<* for the vapours or dews to gleet down by, nor any naoun tains 
** or caverns above it to colled: a body of water J nor any oi\e 
" circumflance favourable to his hypotla^eCis." "LeXXtt Sxotsv 
Gbriflopher GuJ/et, Efq; of Exeter. 



16 OF WATER, THE C E M fe N t 

The Waters with which our Mines abound, are derived both 
From temporary and perennial fountains ; and are very properly 
diftinguifhed with us, by the names of Top and Bottoidl Water. 
Shallow Mines have very little Water, more than comes from 
the furface ; and it is temporary, according as the feafons vary ; 
fo that, without a competent power to draw out the Water 
from the workings, the adventurers are generally obliged to flop 
them, or ** Knock the work," as the phrafe is, foon after the 
autumnal equinox!; otherwife, which is frequently the cafe, 
they expofe themfelves to a great expence, difappointment^ 
^nd lofs. 

Our very deep Mines iite fubjed to Water from both the 
Tources before mentioned ; for in the drieft feafons we know 
t)f, they have a conflant flream ab interno, which requires 
much expence and addrefs to keep under : but in the depth of 
winter, when ^1 the earth is drenched as it were with moifhire, 
we ^re vifibly affeifted by the concurring flreams both of Top 
and Bottom Water ; notwithflanding all precautions are ufed, 
to take up the fuperficial flreams, by launders or grooves cut in 
the walls or fides of the Lode, to convey them either into the 
adit or tye lift of pumps, by which the burthen is eafed for the 
engine, and the bottoms are freed from fo much Water. 

The deepell of our Mi|ics are hot much afleded by the influx 
of Top Water, before the depth of winter j, as it takes till that 
timci to fill the interflices of the earth or flrata, and protrude 
its redundant (beam to the; deep bottoms. Ova mofl ezperi* 
enced Miners will fay, that ** A dry eaflerly wind raifea the 
" iprings ;** but although it may appear fo to our outward 
fenfes, yet a little application to the folution of this phenomo- 
non, will fhew the conclufion to be falfe. 

During three parts ih four of the year, the wind blows from 
the intermediate points of the wefl and the fouth ; and coming 
over a large trad of the Atlantick-ocean, and confequently 
fraught with much wet, difcharges its moifture, as foon as the 
current of air, which fufpended the clouds, is diminifhed and 
broke by the cliffs and hills. It was an obfervation made by 
pur Savioxu*, that the weflern winds brought rain in Jud^ ; 
Luke xii. 54. The fouth wind conving from the coafl of 
Africk, had the faine effed in the Adriatick : Horace, Lib i. 
Ode 3. The well wind is often fo fierce and raging after 
acquiring flrength in the AtlaLntiqk-oc;ean,, that it is fcarce 



OF METALS, MINERALS, &c. jy. 

conceivable with what fury it attacks the coafts of Britain ; and 
^it is very well known, that it commonly blows above half the 
year (which was alfo obferved by Julius Caefar) and that very 
violently, efpecially in the autumn ; whence our Michaelmas 
florms and rain. Philos, Trans. No. 352. 

In thefe inftances, the frequent rains are the confequences of, 
winds, pafling over a large trad: of water j and this may lead us 
to the reafon, why the winds come fo much from the fouth-weft 
in Cornwall, that we have known them blow from that quarter 
the four laft months of the year, almofl without intermiff );;, 
attended by violent floods of rain, which took all the i. v.. 
before mentioned to arrive at the deep bottoms ; about which 
feafon, at Chriftmas, or very foon after, the wind fhifts to the 
oppofite point of the compafs, and generally brings along with 
it the little froft and cold this country is fubjed to ; mean while, 
the Waters are determined to the bottoms of our deep Mines, 
merely by the time they have had to fink down through the 
earth. The impatient obferver wonders at this flow defcent of 
the Waters ; and when the wind fliifts to the eaftward, he very 
injudicioufly attributes the effed to a wrong caufe. 

We confefs, the above feems to us a very natural and plain 
explication of the affair ; but as we have not that deference for 
our own opinion, as always to prefer it to others, we are ready 
to acknowledge ourfelves open to convidion, if a better reafon 
fhall be advanced at any future time. And as a hint to our 
readers, we defire they will confider, how far the denfity and 
confequential prefTure of the atmofphere may contribute to this 
appearance more than a hundred fathoms underground. It is 
true, the Mines are continually fraught with a kind of warm 
vapour, which may be feen to arife from'^^ery fhaft, when thq 
air is cool, clear, and denfe ; and it may be fuppofed, that, as 
it afcends through the natural and artificial outlets of its womb, 
it is more or lefs condenfed by the external air, in proportion 
to the rarity or denfity thereof. But if this folution appears 
plaufible to fome, we defire to be informed, why this fhould 
not be more • apparent, when the wind blows from the north 5 
and why this vapour, if not of the dry kind, fhould not be 
condenfed in the fhafts and gunnies (hollows) of a Lode, after 
the manner of rain, as otheir vapours are, and, therefore, be as 
difllnguifhable in its produdion, as in its exiflence ? 

^ ' ^: F Fron^ 



■t?' 



i8 OF W A T E Jl^ T H E CEMENT 

From the foregoing proofs, that rain Water penetrates to the 
depths of the earth, we may be fatisfied,. that the opinion of 
De la Hire, Calcott, and others, who fay, rain Water does not 
fink two feet below the furface, is altogether erroneous ; for if 
it does not enter into the bowels of the earth, what elfe fhould 
occafion fo vaft an increafe thereof, at, or foon after, its difcharge 
from the clouds ? So apparent is this fad, that if the great in- 
creafe and colledion of Water from the heavens, before menti- 
oned, be obftrufted in its circulation, and coUeded into large 
bodies, by the peculiar matter or form of its recipient, it may, 
and has many times appeared to be the caufe of local earth- 
quakes ; which, we apprehend, may proceed from the Water of 
higher grounds, that gets imderneath a flimy vifcous earth or 
clay, until the force of the confined Water moves it upward, 
and carries the earth along with it in its paflage and. irruption ; 
of which we may produce an inflancc, at Kappanihane in Ire- 
land, A. D. 1697 ; another of Pilling Mofs, in 1745 ; and a 
more recent one, in the late accounts we have had, of Solway 
Mofs in North-Britain : 

As if on eartji. 



Winds under ground, or Waters, forcing way. 
Side-long had puih'd a mountain from his feat. 
Half funk with all his pines. 

Milton. 

As for thofe earthquakes, which are more general, tremen- 
dous, and deftrudive ; it is probable they are caufed by the 
combination of different falts, juices, fulphur, or fome other 
inflammable matter, that rarifies and agitates the air, in the 
deep caverns of the earth ; whereby a convulfion is caufed, 
which fometimes breaks out in fiames at the furface ; and fome- 
times fiiocks and gives the earth a tremulous motion, without 
any rifible fire, perhaps for want of fuffieient niatter to ignite. 
For, if you add twenty pounds of fulphur to twenty of iron 
filings, and mix thefe with water, . fo as to form a pafte ; in fix 
or feven hours after they have been buried a foot and half under 
ground, the earth will begin to tremble, crack, and fmoke, 
and fire and flame will burft through ; So that there wants only 
a fiiflicient quantity of this matter, to produce a true Etna. If 
it was fiippofed to burfl: out under the fea^ it might occafion a 
new ifland : and we believe Delos^ Rhodes, and ibnie other 
iflands were produced by the fame, or fuch like fubmarine vol- 
cano. (Pliny) An ifland in the Archipelago on the coaft of 

Natolia, 



OF METALS, MINERALS, &c 19 

Natolia, in 1767 ; another among the Azores^ in 1720 ; and 
four iflands in a lake, in the Manilla, A. D. 1750 ; are prO' 
duftions in the prefent century, from the fame caufe. Dr. 
Worthington advances, " That the fole caufe of the formation 
•" of mountains, was an univerfal earthquake*" 

The immenfe congregation of Iron, Sulphur, and other 
combuftible materials, with which our mining diftrid is fo re- 
plete, would naturally incline us to believe our fituation more 
obnoxious to fubterranean throes, than any other part of Great- 
Britain. But, by the mercy of our Gracious Presbrver, we 
have hitherto felt nothing peculiarly to alarm us, on account of 
our fituation. Many are of opinion, that our numerous fhafts, 
adits, and other apertures, are the principal outlets, through 
which the mineral effluvia of our Lodes exhale and efcape, 
without prejudice to the lives and fafety of the inhabitants. 

Another 'prodigious, general, and efFeftive caufe of earth- 
quakes, is an clcdrick aether in the atmofphere, according to 
the opinion of the learned Dr. Stukely ; and from this force, 
^extended to a confiderable diftance, through various fubftances,. 
of different textures and denfities, we may attribute the deftruc- 
tion of no lefs than thirteen great and noble cities in Afia Minor, 
in one minute's time, in the year of our Lord 17. Another 
earthquake in Peru, anno 1586, extended 900 miles; and we 
may add that memorable earthquake in our own days, upon 
the I ft of November 1755, which deftroyed Lifbon, and was 
felt over almoft half the habitable globe. 

We may apply either of thefe caufes, under fiich certain 
fituations and circumftances, as may incline our judgment to 
preponderate. But may not all of them operate for the fame 
effeA ? We think they may : and who can lay, it is not fo ? 
For with Job we may iky, ** Lo, thefe are parts of God's ways ; 
♦* but how little a portion i* heard of him? And the thunder 
'* of his power who can underftand ?'* Omnipotence being the 
directing caufe, all thing! are equally accompHfhed by the 
natural inftruments of his power : and when we hear the thunder 
of his voice, and fee the mightinefs of his power, the dreadful, 
though partial convulfions, of an angry, yet merciful God ; 
ought we not to meditate upon the hitherto harmlefs, though 
alarming tokens we have had of his indignation, tempered with 
love ? Of all the natural warnings of his difpleafure, thofe of 
earthquakes are moft terrifick ; coming like a thief in tVva m"^^-* 



20 OF WATER, THE CEMENT 

when the fons of men know not o( it ! We may flee from the 
peftilence, the famine, and the fword ; we may avoid the 
dangers of the fea, and provide againft fire ; we may fecure our 
habitations from lightening, tempefts, inundations ; we may, 
by the ailiftance of fkilful applications, and the wifdom of the 
phyfician, baffle the attacks of difeafe, to the prolongation of 
our lives. But no flight, no prudence, no philofophy, no 
delay, can obviate this defolation : for, it is as the prefence of 
God ! How thankful then, ought we to be I how humbly 
fliould we walk before him, who hath hitherto fpared us, in 
the midft of his judgments ! O Lord God ; for the abundance 
of our fins, thou art greatly to be feared ; and yet we fee that 
in great mercy, thou prefideft over all thy works ! 

. Though it is remarkable, that the Water of a Mine, at or 
near the fea cliffs, is very eafy and fmall, efpecially when the 
Mine is funk under low Water mark, or works unaer the fea j 
yet it is abfolutely certain, that it is lefsin proportion to the 
ground difcovered under the level of the fea, than above. How 
this fliould be, is one of the moll puzzling queflions that can 
be put to the Miners, who, to a man, ingenuoufly confefs their 
ignorance of the true caufe of it. The gentleman and the 
philofopher.are equally at a lofs to account for this fa<9:, except 
Mr. Bennallack, who fays, " That in the places where he has 
" had opportunities of judging properly, the only apparent 
** caufe is, that the flrata being more compad, and confe- 
" quently more free from thofe fundry kinds of fiffures, which 
** the Miners in general call Cafes, there are not the fame con- 
" veyances for the Waters of the furrounding country to flow 
** into the Mine.'* In Huel-Towan in the parifh of St. Agnes, 
where they are not many fathoms under low Water mark, the 
fads of the Water being lefs, and the ground more compad, 
are inconteflible ; nor, in that place, does any other matter 
appear conducive to it. We believe this may be one natural 
caufe in fome particular places, but it cannot be always fo ; and 
we likewife believe, that there may be other contributing mat- 
ters, which may be different, in different fituations. We' will 
have reourfe to the mofl fimple and plain enquiry into the form 
and texture of the earth, in the folution of this phenomenon, 
diflind from our knowledge of the preffure and gravity of 
fluids : but before we proceed; we beg leave to illuflirate our 
fubje^ft, by a very remarkable hiftory of a cafe in point. 

The 



OF- METALS, MINERALS, &c. 21 

The Mine of Huel-Cock in the parifh of St. Juft, is wrought 
eighty fathoms in length, under the fea, beyond low Water 
mark ; and the fea, in fome places, is but three fathoms over- 
the back of the workings ; infomuch, that the Tinners under- 
neath hear the break, flux, ebb, and reflux of every wave, 
which, upon the beach overhead, may be faid to have had the 
run of the Atlantick^ocean for many hundred leagues ; ' and, 
confequently, are amazingly powerful and boifterous. They 
alfo hear the rumbling noife of every nodule and fragment of 
• rock, which are continually rolling upon the fubmarine ftratum ;, 
which, altogether, make a kind of thundering roar, that will 
furprife and fearfully engage the attention of the curious ftrariger. 
Add to this, that feveral parts of the Lode, which were richer 
than others, have been very indifcreetly hulked and worked 
within four feet of the fea ; whereby, in violent ftormy weather, 
the noife overhead has been fo tremendous, that the workmen 
have many times deferted their labour under the greateft fear, 
left the fea might break in upon them. This proximity of the 
fea over the workmen, without their being incommoded by the 
fait Water, is more wonderful, than the account which Dr. 
Stukley gives, of his defcending into a coal pit at Whitehaven 
one hundred and fifty fathoms deep, till he came under the very 
bed of the ocean, where fliips were failing over his head ; being 
at that time, deeper under-ground by the perpendicular, than 
any part of the ocean between England and Ireland. In his 
cafe, there is a vaft thicknefs of ftrata between the Mine and 
the fea ; but, at Huel-Cock, they have only a cruft between, 
at moft ; and though, in one place, they have barely four feet 
of ftratum to prefcrve them from the raging fea, yet they have 
rarely more than a little dribble of fait water, which they occa- 
fionally ftop with oakum or clay, inferted in the crannies 
through which it ifliies. In a Lead Mine in Perran Zabuloe, 
formerly wrought under the fea, they were fometimes fenfible of 
a 'capillary ftream of fait Water, which they likewife prevented 
by the fame means, whenever they perceived it. 

Now, a very large proportion of our Mine Water is tempo- 
rary ; and, as I have faid before, is denominated Top Water, 
which in great part finks into the Mine immediately where it 
fells, by the peculiar loofe texture of ftrata where Mines are, 
which muft be cavernous and fifliired, to conftitute and form 
thofe receptacles of mineral particles called Lodes, and their 
lateral branches : confequently, the ready accefs of this Top 
Water, muft be very fenfibly perceived by the Miners ; and 

G TMSt^ 



22 OF WATER, THE CEMENT 

more efpecialljr muft the difference be feenj when compared 
with a part of the fame Mine under the fea, entirely free from 
fuch Water. The fubmarine ftrata of our Mines, muft be 
totally impervious to any Waters, which fall into the fex. It 
cannot be otherwife. So that fuch parts of the Mines, are quite 
free of any Water locally above them. 

The next paradoxical confrderation that occurs, is to account 
for the abfence of the fuperfluent fait Water, from the fubma- 
rine workings. 

We have obferved a kind of ilime or mucus upon fome 
marine ftrata, which is fo glutinous as to fill up every pore 
and cranny of the rock that is covered with it. This glutinous 
{lime, we take to be a marine foil or earth, for the vegetation 
of grafs, ore weed, and other fea plants. ; the fea is replete with 
it : every fhip at the end of a long voyage has . her bottom 
covered with it, and a marine grafe vegetates therein. This 
viftouB matter thickens by degrees, as if purpofely defigned to 
hinder the Water from penetrating into the earth ; which, i% 
moft effefttially does, according to my judgment pf the matter « 
Vpon a rough beach, this ilime may not be equally depofrt^, by 
means of the conftant fridiqu of rocky fragments, under th^ 
a^dn of the tide 5 and other parts may. be covered with loof^ 
(and and pebbles, which afford no bed or reft for this foiL J^ 
fuch cafe, it penetrates through the furface, and iinds a q^ie^ 
dcpofitory, in thelmall clefts and interftices of the ftrata, belotv 
the force and adion of the fea j and in time, probably, in-, 
fcruftates and fills up thofe very minute fiftures, with a petri- 
fadive gluten, if it is at all charged with fuch pfinciples ; and 
we have neither theory or rcafon to diffent from that opinion» 
as we think it ihuft partake of every principle which is folubU 
by Air, Water, and Salt. 

Thus have we demonftrated, that Top Water does not fpeci-r 
fically defcend into the Mine where it falls upon the fea, and 
conieqiiently that ptrt of the Mine cannot be incommoded 
theftby like other parts ; and that the minute pores. and fiffures 
€fi ftibrnaritie'ftrat& are akndft totally impenetrable by fait Water^ 
thn)\^h meant' of the |>etrifadive tenacious gluten, with whic]| 
tkty am fmeaicd. The .fads, added to the eomtp^^ or dok 
c^fofmation of Xfttata in £ame parts of: the earth uikder the (^^ 
yn& ktvty AS t(^e-pr«fume, for a proper folution of this dilficull 

pNbltm^ -l ^ui \- :.. .' J.. •.:•".,.;: •..•.•; j^ .. ... ^ . ■.-7 

----- ' ., ' ' That 



GF METALS, M I N E R A L S, «Jib. ^^3 

That there is a petrifying quality in the earth of its juices, 
is manifeft to thofe who are coftverfant in Mining, and confider 
the nature of the Stones which are dug out of the ground ; -for 
they frequently meet with large folid rocks, compofed of feveral 
imall Stones united together, of different forms, colours, and 
properties, with refped to the fame individual Rock or Stone ; 
which is a manifefl indication, that its different parts were ori"- 
ginally loofe and diflin<3: from each other, until they were con^ 
joined into an entire folid mafs, by fomething of a petrifying 
principle, which cemented them together. It is more thafi 
probable that Stones, like Salts, and mofl Foffils, are the pro- 
dudions of a fufpcnded lapidifick matter in a fluid, which 
gradually hardens into Stone, by the evaporation of its fitter 
p^ts. j 

Mons. Tournefort obferves, " That in the famous labyrinth 
** of Crete, feveral perfons had engraved their names in the 
** rock, of which its walls are formed ; and that the letters fo 
** engraven, inflead of being hollow, as they were at firfl, flood 
** out from the furface of the rock.'* This can no otherwife 
l)e accounted for, than by fuppofing the cavities of the letters 
filled infenfibly with matter iffuing from the fubftance of thfc 
Tock, even in more abundance than was needful to fill them. 
Letters cut hollow in a living rock of Limeflone, fill up, in a 
"cdurfe of years, with fpar ; and what were made in Creux, are 
found in Relief. This has been feeri in Gothland, by the 
eminent Swede. The fpar flands higher, as the time is more 
diftant ; and has been feen, in fome places, a quarter of an inch 
above the level of the furface. (Hill) 

Thus is the wound of a knife healed up, much as the fra<9iire 
of a bone is confolidated, by a callus formed of the extravaiated 
nutritious juice, which rifes above the. furface of the bone. 
Such cicatrixes have been obfetved to be fottticd on other Stones, 
which were reunited, after they had been acddentally broken. 
The many inflances we have of thofe cicatrixes iA Granite or 
Moorflone, upon the furface of every kam or rocky hill lA 
Cornwall and Devon, will clearly put this matter out of difpuCe-; 
as our Stone-mai<ms always chufe fuch for fplitting in the very 
cicatrix, which generally is about a quarter df an inch above mb 
other fuperficies of the f^ne ; »ld fplits with more eafe^ than 
any other part of the fame block, becaiife it was before fepa^ 
tsited, and had been again reunited by its^ pettifaftive gluteiK 
Hence it is manifeft, that the iiXCA. juicdi^kick ^ya^i^^^ye^ \^<s^^ 



24 OF WATER,- THE CEDENT 

ferves to rejoin their parts when broken. We find, that Water 
is fo full of ftony matter, and (o ready in part to turn into 
Stone, that it fills every crack and crevice of the moft folid 
rocks with Stone of the moft pure kind. Spar or Chryftal. If 
Water contains a quantity of ftony matter, then Water is able, 
in fome flow way and in the courfe of nature, to diflblve this 
ftony matter, though we cannot make it do fo in any of our 
operations. If Water can diflblve ftony matter, Water may take 
it out of one place of the earth, and carry it to another. It 
will perhaps appear, that the original power of encrufting and 
petrifying lies in the earths and clays themfelves, a thing few 
have thought upon ; and that the Water ferves as a vehicle to 
carry the ftony matter out of one place into another. All this 
being underftood, it feems natural to fuppofe, that not only the 
petrified fubftances found in the earth in fome places, but even 
the beds of Stones themfelves, owe their origin to thefe particles 
contained in the earth, and to the agency of Water, which can 
.diflblve, remove, difperfe, feparate, and bring them together 
again in various forms and combinations. If Water can diflblve 
thefe particles of ftony matter j Water can in the fame manner 
keep them fufpended for a time, arid let them gradually feparate 
and congeal afterwards. Water, therefore, can a6:, when it is 
thus loaded with particles, as a cement or agglutinating liquor 
to bind them together, or to introduce changes in them. For 
inftance. Water can fill the pores of clay ; and if fuch Water 
fill the pores of a bed of this earth, and afterwards^ draining 
gently away, leave that ftony matter behind, it does, in that 
cafe, cement . that bed of clay into a bed of Stone. (Owen). 

This petrifadive quality, which ferves to conjoin and cement 
Stones together, we miift allow capable of inclofing, within 
itfelf, fundry extraneous bodies, which it may be in contadl 
with, fuch as bones, fliell-fifli, and many other things, of 
which natural hiftory has given us fuch very ftrange accounts. 
I fliall add a particular domeftick inftance, of which we have 
been very credibly informed : namely, that fome few years fince, 
at this town of Redruth in Cornwall, fome labourers being put 
to clear and level the ftreet for a pavement, they found a piece 
of hard Stone in the ground, with abundance of common fmall 
pins of Brafs, interfperfed in and throughout the Stone, in fuch 
(manner and form, that all thbfe who law it afterwards, were 
i:pnvinced, it was not done artificially, but that the Stone was 
jR>Fmed and produced by petrifadion, fubfequent to the time the 
pins were dropped into the ground. Dr. Plot, in his Natural 

Hiftory 



OF METALS, MINERALS, &c. 25 

Hiftory of StafFordfliire) fays, ** That near Newcaftle under- 
<< line, there was found a Stone with a man*s fkull, teeth and 
« all, inclofed in it 1** 

From what has been laid, I prefume it may not be abfurd to 
infer, that every earth or clay, in fome places, may be converted 
to Stone in procefs of time, at fuch a depth where it is undif-' 
turbed, by being never lacerated nor molefted ; and alfo where 
it abounds with an uncommon quantity of juices, of a lapidefcent 
quality : but this property being extenuated or deftroyed, the 
earthy Stones may, not improbably, again return to their primi- 
tive earth or clay. Thus we fee fome forts of Stone, when dug 
out of the ground, and expofed to the air for a coniiderable 
time, do moulder again to earth, at leaft in appearance ; 
while others, of an earthlike quality, are indurated, and become 
more comptfd and durable, by lying above- ground. Hende 
fome have ittisginedj- • that all the^ terreftrial globe, and every 
individual inanimate thing contained in it, is nothing elfe but 

Water, rendered folidjby^pfetrifkdion; 

. • I .. . I. ■ . ■ . • 

Thales, tiie Milefian', held Water to be the firft principle of 
all natural bodies, of which theyconfift, and into which they 
refolve. He endeavours to eftablifh this opinion, by arguments 
drawn from the origin and continuation of moft things : firil, 
becaufe theieniihal and generating, principle of all animals, is 
humid ; and fecondly,- becaufe all ki«ids o( plants are fo much 
nourifhed by Watfer; • that; when thev want moifture, they 
wither and decay. Sotne have not iieutated to fither this .phi- 
lofbphy on Mofes. ' Tlife great prince of philofophers, Ariftotle, 
with Lucretius, Thedjfhraftus, and Leonardus,' were of the 
feme opinion, v Nay, Hippo'crateis lays great ftrefs upon it; arid 
of later days- the gteat 'Sendivogius, with the.moft learned of 
the Spagyrifts, who own that Water is an univerfal principle. 

This Cryftalline or lapidifick juice, Mons. Geoffroy lays,, is 
more heavy arid fixed thaii (imple Water ; and.confequently is 
not evaporated with it, but is left behind : and thus the forma- 
tion of Cryftal is perfe<!Hy like that of the:Gryftals of falts. 
For thefe Cryftals only arife with thofe regular figures they 
sfft&f ai when a Wat^r' impregnated with laltsj is (lowly evapo- 
rated at perfeft reft in a moift place. The evaporation of the 
Water is neceflary, that it may not keep the lalts too far afun- 
der ; and. I^e flowri^ ^f the evaporation, that the (alts may 
hkve time to take that arrangement, which agrees beft vritk 

H x^€^ 



2& OF WATEK, THE. CEMENT 

their rcfpe&tve figures. The applksitioa of thi& to- Rock Cryf- 
taly is obvious s it is only needful to conceive, that a Water 
charged with a quantity of Cryftalline juice, Itad infinuated 
itfelf through the clefts of fome Rock, where the aqueous part 
gradually evaporated. 

An unfaline Cryftal earthy though not in fuch plenty as a 
£tliiie, h yet as intimately mixed in Water,, nay in the fuUeil 
degree of clearnefs pailes through the clofeft fbrainers *, conic" 
qnently, the cryflalHzation of iklt is here <k>t improperly 
alleged for a model or pattern, (Henckelk) 

It muft be coniidered, that this. Gryflalline juice is not 
equally diilufed in all parts of the Mind^ fo that &ock CryAal 
would not ariie in all places, even feftiiig aiide the Aecefli^ of 
other conCurrcDt circumftaiicts, MhicH .^ not often meet, if 
the Walter impregnated with CiyftdlUne. .juice happens to pene-* 
trate x taah o£ earthy which t» the m0^ ufu^ oftfe^ it wiU 
conned and bind together: the parts, th^rtof by m^ans of thif 
juice ; and afterwards, in proportion as the watery part evapo- 
rates, the cotipoimd will gcow^ harde^-f and at . laft become 
Stouc, Add'lx>tiiisy that it.w;ill ap^toa^h nearevto th^ n;MtUf!i& 
of Cryftal, that ia, it will ht more bard, and tsanfparenty.ac-. 
cording as the' quantity (>f. that juice is greater | and at thf; 
£ime timr hare liiner graifi,: accor4ing as. the niolecules of the 
eardi are £aialler'and odoa^ homog^fieoua^ : Of this kind ar^t 
Matbles and Aiaba&ers y in lonte of >vhich|.. one |nay. difcern 
thttads or veins, as tranfpaneoit as if they were whjolly CryU^^^ 
T&e £}tone& mod oppoiite hereto^ and moflrimpeifc^i are ChaUc 
and doles, which are little eliie befides earth ill bou|»d together^ 
with a Teiy finall proportion c^ GryftaJUine juice, .wJi4^ leaver 
them ftill frtahle. . Between th&fky it is eafy to imagine, thete 
are infinite degrees. 

CofxnlliM Leonaxdus fays^ that ^VStodeft which Aboqnd moil 
*^ widi the txrrehe^ are thick and dark ; neithier. ^e they free 
<< itfOA Watef/*^ And Ariftotle,. : in his book of Minerals* 
eXj^ttiSiy &ftf 5f Putt earth doth not become a Srone, becauib 
**-k mbeuna oootinilationy but a. britdeneis ^ the prevail 
*^*' 4siaefi in h^; petmio k iiot to oonglntinare -, ifid. k> by che 
*^ ' aqitfeODV ismd with die tenten^ Stones tat mo4^ " By, ^ 
aftttoiUy he tticatiA aainndai»uft>or vUcoMs liUmiditf^i j^sgpctxioaiqi 
ivlfb i tetmkfe r ind mxmj^g^ Ur'lhidi^o&citfii:^ jiroportiaA 



OF METALS, MINERALS, &c. a? 

of fuch homidity with the dry terrene, dirers and t^ious 
Scones are produced. 

The particular circumftances which attend the formation of 
Stones, vary the efied of theie general principled diners ways. 
For inftance, if a portion of this juice, diluted in Water, hap- 
pens to be, furrounded with earth, and the juice be not in 
qusuitity fufficient to petrify the whole earth as faft as the Water 
evaporates *, there will arife a mafs partly cryftalline and tranf- 
parent, and partly opaque, difUmilar, and earthy : and fnch 
we prefume is the diiFerence of the Caples of our Lodes, and the 
contiguoiis flrata ^ the former being fometimes more compa^ 
and firm by its contiguity to the juice percolating the vein, and 
the latter lefs fo, by its proportional diftance ln>m the Lode If 
the fame Cryftalline juice be in the middle of the mafs, only the 
middle will have a Cryftalline appearance and iiymne^ ; fuch m 
the huge rocks of Cryftal (Quartst) we often fee rife outof a vein 
or lode, which commonly implies a failure of Met&l ia tliaf part 
of a Mine. 

This Cement may be divided tsto thtee d&pees of puirky : 
^e firft a coarfe Quarrar,: which i« the moft impure, ana eoveti 
no particular form ; the fecondird^lkal, which fomis Hexa^ 
gonal columns, cufpidesj and pyramids, and U the connecting 
ba£s of Slate, Killad, Granite, or Moorftone, Sue, ^c if by 
a ilill greater degree of purity, the Stone becomes fped^cdlly 
heavier, of better Inflm, and reflfti fire almioft to imm«itflbility^ 
then it is called a Diamond ; and the Ruby, Sapfihire/ Ame-* 
thyfl, &c. are but this Diamond tinged and rtavcctdy as to 
lufbe and hardnefs, by ibme metalline tint^ 

I . . , . . . 

1 • • » ■ ' ■ 

What is vulgarly called Spar with us, aftd which is (6 pkflj^ 
fully fcattered upon the furface of every heathy common, is not 
the real Spar ; and is, by niof^ Lithologifts, better knowing by 
the German name of Quarts, for want of a proper 'finglrfh 
appellative^ Spar, by itfelf clear and uhmi»ed, is i^eeftiKly 
found in this county. Indeed, the reafon of its fcaliiei^ t^^ be^ 
caufe we have little or no calcarious flrata to produce it. The 
late Sir John Hill, in his hiflory <6f Spar, whidi he diwA» into 
eighty^ftiijie fpseie^, f^ys, ti^ Limeftond is only edowtd 
hardened Ohsilk) and Marble Uf the fameV UaMu in i 
pui<er LimeftoAe, and Limeftoiie u eoifirfdr Marbk/) Watet 
being facmfafiid wifth ^ prineiplcp of SuI^^ImT)^ ahd t^ith tihaiki 
Ici^ptf Oft k» grsiduiloourfe horizofinily i^oiif^ tlui'limd tfocfe^ 



28 OF WATER, THE CEMENT 

till it meets a fiflure, a perpendicular crack or opening, dividing 
one part of the rock, from another. Here jt ouzes forth ; and 
meeting with a lighter air, fufpends and evaporates flowly. 

. We have faid before, that flow evaporation, and perfed reft, 
are the requifites of Cryftallization. The Sulphur and pure 
Chalk thus united, form one folid body j which cryftallizing 
gradually, fometimes appear in regular rhomboidal particles ; 
and is the fubftance properly called Spar. That the Spar formed 
in the fifliires of rocks, is thus waflied out of Limeftone itfelf, 
Is certain ; becaufe none but Limeftone rocks have Spar in their 
fiiTures. Rocks of a Cryflalline matter, or formed of a vitrifi- 
able Stone, have always Cryftal, but never Spar, in their crack.s 
or fiftures. It grows continually; for wherefoever there is a 
crgck in a Limeftone rock, new or old. Spar always fills, and 
overruns the furface. Therefore the calculous nature of Spar, 
is of jits »eflence ; and no form, nor all the other charaders in 
the wprldj could conftitute any produdion a Spar, that wanted 
this. It always ferments with acids, and burns to lirtje. 

: The formation of Spar is yet a fubjefk of enquiry, . , Its atoms 
are all Spar ; each particle, into which ^wecait widiQUt violende 
divide it, is. the fame in albijefpedis as ^jhe Y^hole : . imd as the 
Foflil world admits of no generation by egg or feed, it feems 
moft probable, that all the variety of forms, in which we be- 
hold this Protean Mineral, are owing to no caufe but the ar- 
rangement of rhombs, into as many forms as they are capable 
of producing. It fills the cracks of its ovm rocks, and of no 
other ; for Cryftal columns rife from Cryftalline rocks ; iand 
from Metalline maftes fradured grows Mundick ; each feparated 
from the great mixed body we lee fplit, and each formed into 
fiigures by its own laws. 

The obvious fcarcity of Spar in this county, is abfolutely 
proved in the almoft total abfence of Limeftone, whence it is 
mineralized ; neither have we yet feen a perfed Sparry Rhomb 
in Cornwall. . 

. It may be difficult to perfuade the vulgar Cornifh, that we 
have KtUe or no Spar in our Mines ; but ^that fo it is, every 
unprejudiced obferver may be convinced by the teftimo|iy of hi$ 
<wn .fenfea. They denominate every fpecies of Quairtz and 
(^ftd iindifcviipi^ately, eiccept the Pfeudo-Adainantes, Spar ; 
fddCb^tio 'their opinion almoK all the ftreets tin the .bounty are 



OF METALS, MINERALS, &c. 2^ 

paved with Spar inflead of Quartz ; and with them every 
Cryftalline rock under-ground bears the fame name. It is time, 
however, that this confufion and mifnomer of Foffils ihould be 
abolifhed, and fuch miflakes and falfe diflindions laid afide for 
the fake of order and propriety. Be it, therefore, henceforth 
remembered, that all thofe ma^fes of white and yellowifh Stones 
fcattered upon the furface of our lanes and commons, which are 
only ufed for paving and hedging, are Quartz, and have no 
Spar in them. If they were truly of a Sparry texture, they 
would fave us much expence and labour for Limeftone, which 
is now imported from Wales and Devonfhire ; befides the cheap 
and ready manure they would afford, for the cultivation of our 
land. 

Plain Cryftal hardens into any figure, of which its own 
gravity^ and the matter in which it forms, will admit ; and we 
find it veined in all our Killas, Caple, and every part of our 
flrata, that is generally and vulgarly denominated the Country 
by our Tinners ; yet it is perfed Cryftal, breaks irregularly, 
yields fire plentifully, is very hard to the graver, and will not 
ferment with Aqua Fortis. It will fometimes form itfelf in 
hexagonal opaque columns, cufpides, and pyramids, of an un- 
common large fize, but of no value. 

But if thofe pyramids are of a. fine pellucid Water, they 
become the Pfeudo-Adamantes of the purer kind, and are 
thence eminently called Cornifli Diamonds ; and are by Dr. 
Grew, and others, reckoned fuperior to the Briftol Stone, and 
every other diaphanous Cryftdlization in Great-Britain. 



CHAP. III. 
Of Metals and Minerals, and the Fluxes for afiaying them. 



TH E inferior Metals, efpecially Copper and Iron, are 
the eafieft of any to be diflblv^ by moft acid menftrua, 
their parts being very different, unequal, and heterogeneous in 
themfelves, and more fiifceptible of any outward force or im-* 
preifion. We take this to be the caufe, why thefe two Metals 
are more fubjed than others to be corroded and injured by 
exposure to the air, which abounds with vojiatile acid judts^ ana 



ZQ OF METALS. AND MINJERALS, 

thereby becomes a menftruum, that readily adheres to, refolves, 
and corrupts thofe tender imperfed Metals ; whereas Gold and 
Silver, whofe parts are moft folid, denfe, and homogeneous, 
receive little or no damage by contad of the acid falts. Lead 
and Tin likewifc, not being eafily refolvable by Aqua Fortis or 
any water of that kind, are not near fo foon prejudiced by the 
faline pungent particles of air, as Copper and Iron are ; which 
probably happens, becaufc they have a greater degree of fimila- 
rity of parts better united ; or becaufe they contain ibmewhat 
that approaches to the nature of Sulphur, whofe property it is 
to reflft all acid menfb-ua. 

The word Ore, as alfo the word Mineral, in the largeft ac- 
ceptation, comprehends any impure Concrete or Foifil, that 
contains either a Metal, Semi-metal, or Mineral juice ; but if 
the fpecies of the thing fignified, be added tp the word, then 
the particular fenfe or meaning of the expreflion is limited and 
denoted. Thus it is ufual to Iky Copper Ore, Lead Ore, &c. 
The Ore of Antimony, The Minerals of Copper, of Lead, and 
the like; fo that the words Ore, and Mineral, are only fynonymous 
terms, that imply any kind of Mineral FoiHl without expreifing 
its nature. Neverthelefs, a barren Mineral FoiHl, which yields 
no produce in the fire, cannot well be termed an Ore, though 
it is called a Mineral ; for it is improper to fay, the Ore of 
Mundick, 6cc. Cuftom however prevails fo much in the terms 
of our Miners, that they often call fuch Minerals as they know 
are of no value, by the name of Ores ; and, therefore, to be 
more clearly underftood in what follows, by the word Ore, I 
mean only a Foflil or Concrete, which produces real Metal, as 
Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, Lead, Iron, and alfo Quickfilver ; 
by the word Mineral, I confine myfelf to the more crude Foffils 
or Concretes, which yield Sulphur, Vitriol, and other fuch 
brittle bodies ; and by the word Semi-metal, I mean Antimony, 
Bifmuth, and Cobalt. I prefume it neceflary to make this 
diftindion, to prevent the perplexity in which thofe who are but 
little acquainted with the fcience of Metals, are often involved. 

All tlungs in the bowels of the earth, which occur to. the 
con^deration of a Mineralift, are reducible to the following 
clafi^ I firft. Earths and Stones j fecondly, Concrete InfpiflVted 
Juices or Bitumens, * sa alfo thofe which are liquid ; thirdly^ 
SemiHBQetats ; and fourthly, Metals. We fhall fp^ak of each 
'€# ^efe ill t4eir pffoperoord^. . V: :;..:'. 



A N D T H E I R FLUXES. 31 

Firft, of Earths ; of which there are many forts of different 
colours and natures, whether fimplC) or compound ; and are to 
be efteemed among Ores or Metals, no further than with regard 
to the plenty or fcarcity of Metals or Minerals they feem to 
indicate ; or elle as indications which may be the beft method 
to extrad the Metal that is intermixed with them : but I fliall 
not here profecute the inquiry into this fubjed, becaufe I ihall 
have occafion to take particular notice of it hereafter. 

We {hall likewife fay nothing of many remarkable Earths and 
Boles, as they have little or no connexion with Mines or Metals ; 
fuch as Bc^e Armoniack, Terra Lemnia, Fuller's Earthj Lac 
Luns, Spanifh Bole and Terra Sigillata, except the Steatites or 
Soap Stone, which is in fuch plenty, and fo diverfified and 
beautiful, at the Lizard Point, as to have invited many Foililifts 
to infped its fituation, colours, quantity, and properties. The 
varieties of this Foflil, at the Lizar-d only, are divided by Dr. 
Borlafe into ten, whofe No. i which is the Steatites quae parato- 
nium antiquorum. No. 13 of Da O^, and the argella albiifi- 
ma ponderofa tenax p. 17 of Hill, is found in veins about two 
fingers breadth at Gew-Grez cove, where it is carefully feleded 
from the other forts, barrelled up, and almofl wholly engtoffed 
by people employed under the managers of the Porcelain Ma- 
nufaftories. But the No. 14 of Da Cofta, which he dc&ribes 
as taken by himfelf from our foap rock, he eminently denomi- 
nates Steatites vera ; which I think he ought to have ftiled the 
Steatites Cornubias, as he recommends it to the China manu- 
fadories lately eftabliflied in this kingdom, and doubts not but 
we fhall be able to furpafs the manufadories of all other Euro- 
pean nations, fince none have thofe Steatitiae in fuch plenty and 
fo fine. It is remarkable, that letters written with Soap-ftonc 
upon glafs, though infenfibly fixed, are not to be moved by 
wafliing, but always appear upon being moiftened by the 
breath. 

The curious memoir in the tranfadions of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences at Paris, for 1727, communicated by the learned 
and indefatigable Monfieur de Reaumur, fully informs us of the 
art of making Porcelain, and the true fubftances ufed for that 
purpoie by the Chinefe : he has in that memoir judicioufly 
confidered China as a Semi-vitrification, and on the principles 
of burning the ware ix) that exad f);ate, he has eftabliihed the 
perfedion of the an. Now as all Earths vitrify, it is evident 
no trtie Porcelain c$n, be made only of Clays, but othftx ^oo^- 



32 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

fary fubftances are required to hinder their perfed vitrification ; 
and for fuch fubftances they can have recourfe to the Talky . 
clafs, the Foflils of which almoft evade the force of fire, and 
on that account furnifh us with the fifteft and beft ingredients. 
On this principle it is evident, that no fpecies of clay whatever, 
can be finer or fitter for the making up of China than thefe 
hardened Talky Soap Clays, wherein nature has blended the 
neceflary Foflils, Talk and Clay, ready for our ufe. Even a 
very fine common white Clay, properly tempered and mixed in 
fuitable proportions with our moift Talky Granite, or Moor- 
ftone, impalpably triturated, may furnifh us with the propereft 
materials to be had for a China manufadory. It remains, 
however, ftill to be obferved, that the Clay for China muft be 
very fine, extremely white, and cleared from every heterogene 
foil ; for which reafon, in St. Stephen's and Breage parifhes, 
they pafs it through many lotions with clear water, before it is 
put into cafks to be fent off. Where we have feen a natural or 
adventitious mixture of Clay and Granite, with us, commonly 
known by the name of Grouan Clay, it has always anfwered for 
bricks to build fire places and furnaces with, equal to Stour- 
bridge and other Clays ; infomuch that plenty of it has been 
fent to Briftol, and the Welch Copper-works, for the purpofes^ 
before mentioned ; befides that famous yellow Clay in the parilh 
of Lannant, which has produced fuch an handfome income 
every year to Humphry Mackworth Praed, Efq;. The manu- 
fadory, which was fet up within thefe few years at Truro, for the 
making of crucibles, is a very notorious proof of the ftrength of 
our Clays, when mixed with Granite, to refift the moft intenfe 
fire : no other crucibles are now ufed by our afiayers ; and the 
inventor has received the appointed premium for the difcovery, 
from The Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufadures, 
and Commerce. . Thefe crucibles have not one leaky neft among 
fifty ; and the foreign pots, which were ufed till lately, had 
fcarcely fifty found crucibles among a hundred ; fo that if the 
proprietor knows how to advance his intereft, he may export 
great quantities every year for foreign ufe, and fave a confider- 
able fum to this kingdom, which formerly went out of it for 
this neceflary article in metallurgy. 

Stones are either common, or precious. There are alfo fe- 
veral forts of Stones peculiar to Metals, which are frequently 
met with in Mines, that, by their colours and confiftence, 
often denote either a profitable or barren Mine ; fuch as Spar 
Stones, Quartz, and Fluors refembling Cryftal, by the Germans 

termed 



AND THEIR FLUXES. 



33 



termed Flufle, from their propenfity to melt in the fire, which . 
are no bad fymptoms of Metals, except thofe Stones be hard, 
opaque, and untra^^ble. There are feveraji other kinds of 
Stones worthy of notice, which we omit here, and refer to their 
proper places, when we fhall fpeak of the different kinds of 
Lodes with refpe<9: to the Earth and Stones they contain. Of 
precious Stones, there are great diverfities of kinds, colours, 
and value ; yet there are few met with by Mining in Europe, 
of any great intrinfick worth : the knowledge of precious 
Stones, however, is not properly the bufinefs of a Miner. 

Secondly, by Infpiffated Juices, and Mineral Waters, we 
mean all Mineral Suftances, dug, or flowing out of the earth, 
either in a coagulated or liquid form. Of the .latter fort we 
(hall not fpeak further at prefent, but fhall divide thofe of the 
firfl kind into three forts, viz. Saline, Sulphureous, and Acid. 
Of the firfl are Sal Gem, or Sal Foffile, Nitre, and the like ; 
of the fecond, are mofl kinds of Bitumens, as Naptha, Afphaltos 
or Fix Judaica, Petroleum, Sulphur, Pit-coal, &c. LafUy, the 
acid forts are Vitriol, or Copperas, of which there are great 
varieties, produced either by nature or art. Native Vitriol is 
made in the bowels of the earth of an aqueous liquor impreg- 
nated with an acid fait, and of a cupreous or martial Mineral, 
ilridly united, both to a combuflible fulphureous fubflance, 
and to another body of a more fixed terreflrial nature. (Boyle). 
The common green Vitriol or Copperas of the fhops, is an 
artificial production ; great quantities of which, are manufac- 
tured by my friend Ephraim Reinhold Seehl, Chymift, at 
Blackwall and Deptford. 

Dr. Rouby, a curious foreigner, fet on foot a manufactory of 
Roman or Blue Vitriol, at Treleigh in Redruth, about five and 
twenty years fince ; which dropped, only with a lofs of ninety 
pounds, by mtans of fome difputes and difagreements among 
the perfons concerned. It was coUeded from the waters which 
were left from the lotions of Black Tin, after it had been cal- 
cined in the burning-houfe, for the difcharge of its Mundick. 
This water, being flrongly impregnated with vitriolick particles, 
after it had been decanted clear from its dregs, was kept con- 
ftantly boiling, by a gentle fire, for feven or eight days, in a 
leaden boiler ; when being evaporated to a pellicle, it :was 
drawn ofF, and fet to cryfbdlize in proper vefiels. The time 
for cryiliallization, was generally three or five days, according 
to the different degrees of impregnation of the water ; eigjkt 

K X«Q* 



$4 OF l^ETALS ANTIK MINERALS, 

tbhi of \K^hich, Weil fatorated with vkraolick particles, would 
yifcld a tort of ver)^ fttie blue Vitriol, fai? fuperior to the Hunga- 
rian, or any orhef t have yet feen ; at that time, worth about 
eighty pounds, and the expence of making about fifty. The 
materials are (o plenty with us, that we could undertake to fup- 
^1^ the whole wofld with thiis mcrchandife from CornwaH, by 
a eh^dptr prOcefs than the foregoing. But the domeftick de- 
mand for this felt, does not exceed twelve or fourteen tons ^. 
annum ; and our remote diftance from the centre of the king- 
dom, will occafiort fo great a charge in commiffion, freight,; 
carriage, &c. that it will hardly be worth the trouble and ex- 
fience of apparatus and making. Befides, without a patent for 
tfce fold making and vending thereof, it would foon be in the 
6ands 6f too many perfons, for the continuance and profperity 
ef the tiiidertakiflg. Add to this, that they now make it at 
BfJrminghim bf what they call pickle, and render it at nearly 
lialf th^ price they formerly fold it for : and we imagine, that 
thfe continent ittay be fupplied from the Cyprus and Hungarian 
Mines wkK art inferior vitriol^ of courfe cheaper, and what 
may ajlfWef their purpofe almoft as well. 

Thfeffe ftfte alfo other forts of Copperas,- which are diftingui£bed 
by their di^reht colours, as Chalcitis, Melentaria, 6cc. which 
are bhly different degrees of the fame recrementitious Mineral, 
aiid ^t ndvp- veiy little regarded. Other acid Foffils, are native 
or rock Alum, or common Altim^ which is made by art ; but 
the Alom de Pluma, Alumen Plumofum, feems rather to be the 
Amianthus, Afbeftos, or ISarth Flax, whofe fibres endure tlw 
fire and will not burn. The laft, however, is rather a Stone 
than a Mineral ; and has been found in the parifhes of Landa- 
WfedMck and St. Clare in Cornwall very fine and perfed. Dr. 
Grew in his Mulfeum of the Royal Society, fays, " There is a 
" kiittd of Afoefto's, which grows in veins in a Clay and Mun- 
^ dick Ld^j between beds of a greenifh earth, in our Cornifh 
*^ Mih^S ;" but Wis neVer yet few any thing of the kind in 
tAtem. 

Tte ififebliStoAre <5f «W white Mtmdick, if carefully fwept from 
tite firtiftds 6f o«f borfikig^houfes) and well feparated from th« 
^ittmiM^s ibot aKid §eiiokc mixed with it, may prodiice, by 
idbttfihied'^dflt) &trs& oif die b&^ white Arfenick ; and the more 
l^w idunditk ¥nfty;^e a ^M& delicate fbaw coloured fort* 
if9t^ Ti6t4i(f^i&a df itidtf) SA tftdtiKtioB a( one tenth Sulphur^ 
^i pirl^ d#)t V «Ni 'bf a fother addition of Sulphur, a 



ANDTHEia F hV X E S. 3c 

\ . 

very fine red Arfenick may be obtakiedi. But> if J am rightly 

informed, the moft profitable torture this Mineral can undergo, 

is the ruducing of it into a beautiful Ultramarine,, which is 

more valuable than Gold itfelf. 

The Society for the Encouragement of Arts, has repeatedly 
offered premiums for the belt compofition to pay over £bips 
bottoms, in order to defend them againft marine worms, which 
abound (o much in fome parts of the Eaft and Wefl-Indian ieas, 
that veffels new off the ftocks, have been frightfully bored in 
their firft voyage. Our county being altc^ether maritime, and 
the Mines being fituated in the moft narrow part of it, between 
the two channels, many of our adroit Tinners are equally con- 
verfant with naval and fubterranean affairs. So true is this, 
that in St. Ives and Lelant, during the fifhing feafon, they ar^ 
wholly employed upon the water, to the great hinderance <i£ 
the adjacent Mines ; and when the fiihing craft is laid up agamft 
the next feafon, the fifhermen again become Tinners, and dive 
for employment into the depths of the earth. We have more 
than one inftance, of a common labouring Tinner, after he has 
many years worked under-ground, becoming fo complete a 
failor, as to be entrufted with the command of a large veflcl to 
the Baltick, the Levant, or any other part; of the globe. This 
may feem ftrange to fome of our readers ; but if it were much 
to our prefent purpofe, we could make it appear, that there is 
in fome parts of the two employments a great analogy, notwith- 
ftanding the elemental difference. It is a maxim among us, 
that a good Tinner makes a handy Sailor. 

It is not, therefore, to be wondered at, that many of our 
Tinners and Sailors have reciprocally attended to the object of 
the above-mentioned premium : the poifonous qualities of our 
Mundick have engroffed their attention accordin^y ; and they 
have complied with every diredion in regard to the payment of 
timber with this poifon, but all to no purpofe. We have tried 
it in a preparation of our own, fubtilized in fuch manner, as to 
be free from thofe cracks after it is laid on, to which the 
Mineral, by its fpecifick gravity, when mixed with pitch and 
tar, is fubjed. It will be needlefk to defcribe how we have 
tried it upon'fbme of his Majeily's packet boats at Falmouth, «b 
the experiments did but partially fiicceed to our wifh : fufSoe k. 
tp fay, that no payment, however ddbterious to animal H^ 
wiU an^ver ovr ^xpedations, imleis it .caa be kid oa in (otak 
•manner, and of foch ^onfi^isiice, as to be eqoallr £xuxith and. 



36 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

free from the leaft crack or reparation ; and be of fuch impene- 
trable hardnefs when dry, as to equal Metal, which alone is 
proof againfl: the piercing auger of the Teredo : even petrified 
wood may be bored by the jaws of this worm, which we are 
told will penetrate Stone itfelf. Mons. de la Voye fpeaks of an 
ancient wall in the Benedictines abbey at Caen in Normandy, 
fo eaten with worms, that a man may run his hand into moft of 
the cavities. (Philo. Trans.) Hence we will take upon us to 
fay, that no payment whatever, even the moft poifonous, will 
effect the refinance required ; for the worm firft of all introduces 
its auger, which is a callous, fiiell-like, infenfible inftrument, 
through the matter which is laid upon the wood, and continues 
working, till it has made a deep impreilion into the fubftance 
of the timber, when it takes a turn, and works along with the 
grain of the wood, which it then feeds upon, and not before: 
whereby we fee, it has efcaped beyond the defigned caufe of its 
deftru6bion, before the vital or animal part of it comes into 
a&ion ; fo that we may be afTured, that no payment will fecure 
our fhips bottoms, but impenetrability itfelf. 

A quantity of the preparation here fpoken of, was fent fome 
time ago to an eminent fhip-builder at Rotherhithe, who re- 
turned for anfwer, " That he was very well fatisfied, the com- 
pofition would fulfil the moft fanguine expedations ; but, he 
thought it not the proper bufinefs of a fhipwright, to advance 
or encourage any fuch undertaking, however laudable in the 
eye of the publick ; and he fuppofed every other artificer in 
his way, would be of the fame mind :*' and in confequence 
of this reafoning, a few hundreds weight of the preparation were 
thrown into the Thames. We likewife recommended a trial of 
it to another fhip-builder in this county, who ingenuoully faid, 
** That he would firft wait fome trials of his own upon Mun- 
'* dick very finely pulverized :" but he would not regard, or 
did not underftand, my reafons againft the bare poflibility of 
his fiiccefs. 

The efFed, however, that cannot be obtained by external 
application ih the payment of a (hip's bottom, may be produced 
by previoufly faturating the planks of which the bottom is 
formed. The planks that are laid upon the bottom or fide of a 
ihip, are firft feafoned in hot water, in order that they may be 
ilexible, and yield to the form and ihape of the mould, upon 
wJiich they, are laid. It is, therefore, onlyneceflary to infufe 
4md mix with -the boiling medium, a quantity .of the above- 
'- . mentioned 



(( 
(( 



AND, THEIR FLUXES. 37 

mentioned compofition, which is one of the moft a<ftive, impal- 
pable, and fubtil mineral minimas, fpecifically to be obtained ; 
and will infinuate itfelf and enter into the pores and vafcular 
conllitution of the timber, which being thus wholly faturated 
will have all the power and aculeated exertion of the moft 
effedive poifon ; fo that if the Teredo penetrates through the 
outward part of the wood, whenever he turns to feed upon the 
grain of it, he will be immediately deftroyed. This digreflion 
will, we truft, be excufed by many of our readers, on account 
of the importance of the fubjed to commerce and navigation. 

We fhall now go on to obferve, that thofe rapacious poifonous 
Minerals are oft'en intermixed with Ores and Metals in the earth, 
though not fo often diftinguifliable ; and from thence in a great 
meafure proceed that afperity and volatility which often happen 
to Ores in the fire, and which an unikilful refiner is not capable 
of underftanding and correding. We fhall, therefore, in few 
words, endeavour to give an account of thofe fluxes, which are 
moftly ufeful in the fmall examen of Metals by fire ; in which 
bufinefs the aflaycr or artificer ought duly to know and confider 
the diiferent properties of acids, alkalies, and neutral falts j 
and how they ad with eagh other and agree with Metals. 

Sal Nitre, or Salt Pejre, is a native Salt ; and is almoft pe- 
culiarly the product of the Eaft-Indies, from whence our Eaft- 
India company import amazing quantities. They have in a 
great meafure monopolized this article ; and itsvaft confump- 
tion in the manufadory of gunpowder, &c. muft render it a 
very important branch of their trade. It is alfo faditious^ and 
may be made at home from the offals of flaughter-houfes, 
ftables, &c. It is a neutral hermaphroditical Salt, heing neither 
a tnie acid .nor: alkali, though it is eafily convertible to ather : 
it feems partly acid and^viery volatile, ; yet partly fixed, and is d 
great purifier, of coarfe Medals, and will alfo deftroy and devour 
them, if not warily and; judicioully handled: it is intended 
further to liquify the fluxes with which Gold, Silver, and 
Copper are reduced and purged in the aflay or crucible ; which 
it does when expofed to the a£tion of fire, in a. pure and dry 
flate, and foon flows with thofe bodies like water ; whence it 
comes to be ufed in Metallurgy as a flux for thofe Metals. 

Tartar, Argol, is a hard brittle faline fubftance, with, which 
the fides of wine cafks are incrufted ; and is red or white, ac- 
cprding to the colour of the wine that produces it^ An ingenious 



38 OP METALS AND MINERALS, 

author fays, " It has Bacehus for its father, fermentation for 
<* its mother, and the eaflc for its matrix." J^ cohfifts of a 
peculiar fixed fharp Salt, not improbably inclining to Urinous 
or lixivial Salts. This Salt in Tartar is exceedingly ufeful in 
fluxing and depurating fome Metals, efpecidly Copper. Tartar 
alfo contains a vegetable Sulphur, which is very powerful in 
reducing and embodying the burnt or vitrified talx of Copper ; 
for which reafon, it is juftiy feiftfeemed the principal ingredient 
in the affaying that Melal. It is very good likewtfe^ as well as 
Nitre, for purifying coarfe Silver, and for Making Silver tough 
and malleable. 

The moft imperfed Metals, and the Semi-metals, melt more 

eafily by adding falts to them, than they do of themfeives. 

However, they always lofe a great deal of dieir fubftance by 

this means, vv^hich happens efpecially with regard to Copper, 

whereby an advantage to the buyers of Copper Ore, who fmelt 

in their large furnaces without thofe devouring and 'deftru^tivc 

fluxes, mufi neceflarily arife. For if I buy five huindred tons 

of Copper Ore by a'fample of one ouiice^ whkh 1 havt twed 

with fonlc very finall lofs of Metal by the abforptioii or tapadt]^ 

of my faKnc mix ; feely-, the amount of Metal wh^ick will i» 

laved upon fo, large a quantity of Ore being fmelted without 

fiich io^, muft be very confiderable. Certain it is, that no lofs 

can haij^iyeh to tile %uyer Whd purciiafes hy the iprodtite of his 

"iariiplc ; for it is impbffible for die f^iipte to yieW more Metatl 

fha^it conta&iis i aiJd the waftc upon fmeking k 4»ge txody of 

prfe, is contp3ihx.v/ely Tmall, 'cwteris paribus, T6 that of the 

ikmple. 

fejrt, in '(kdtr to pftverft this lofs of Me^ ih foffie de^e^ 
yoti Msiy ada/fome kind of fA body, t)»t •#iH -tfave 4t ifirom 
tt^fti^TStion, ^jattij tcducc the J»fetal, The te J<«ip«: for *4tefe 
iip^ti'Adti. is Vdyi^ell pi^epar^ by Gifeitfer ; ttftdlrlftti it6.«cid«nir 
is tte'e c^ed . Fhi5rtrs Nigsrt-, or Btick ??luX : hHii ^*te ihttttli ih 
giV^ it as pUr«1be?ft4-eaudng «ux, acciertKlihg tb otfi-toWn taef^tH. 
bf *()yepai^tiidli, in 6rir 'cliapti* lifWin ^flayiftg. IF^tar, Ijeing 
biihft alorie, ih VeflBs *clofely ftttit, orndetonati^ v^h Nitre, rife 
Ihdft quickhr'Aaiiieft, 'and^us rttafins a, <6tiMiitBblt -ptOit d£ 
the Cm, -v^onch it cohtsaiis ^hiihisMify, -and is -feed <^Ottgh : 
£bt this, reafon, it very eafily turns into a reducing flux. This 
Stbt, : di^foffe, (m ai;*cbnht'df its idkalihe ffelts, di^lves "S^^ths 
itffii Stotes, aild- ch^ges* A*fli nito i6i to()effea: ^if«, ^b^'fe 
liiSftfei^te 'rlteltiiig 'fife. Wt 'Ae «€« 'b8i% -dF Jfe^'ifi^ft i&ftid 



nature 



> 



AND THEIR FLUXES. 



39 



nature, ftill remains concealed therein, and is requifite both to 
preferve Metals from being deftroyed, and to reduce fuch as are 
already deftroyed. 

Difierent combinations of the above falts are ufed by different 
affay-mafters with us, for trying of Copper Ores ; but the Black 
Flux, or the White Flux, (which fhall be given hereafter, and 
which fome call their Refining Flux) with careful management, 
and proper attention to the crucible during the procefs, will 
equally anfwer the purpofe notwithftanding the appearance of 
myftery which our alTayers afTume. 

Rock Salt, or Sal Gem, Sal FofUle, and Common Salt, ai« 
all of a mild nature, though they become acid menflrua by 
diftillation. Common Salt is of great utility in the refining of 
Copper in the aflay, becaufe it fwims on the matter in fufion j 
in pouring out of which, the Salt firft flows out, and greafes 
the lips ^ the crucible, if we may ufe the expreflion, infbmuch, 
that the Metal may be poured forth, without fticking to the 
fides of the veffcl. It is likewi'fe ufefiil to prevent the deflagra-^ 
tion of the Metal in fufion, which otherwife may be burnt and 
deftroyed ; therefore it is always at hand with our affayers to 
fprinkle into the crucible, when a flame ifTues from the liquified 
contents, which it immediately <iamp8 and puts out. 

Borax, Chryfoeolla, 'Gold Solder, may be termed the <?um 
ol" Metals, from its xifefulncfs in foldering them. It is a neutral 
fait, almoft infipid to tJie tafte, of a very mild nature, -and not 
corrofive ; and tlio*^ it "flows not exceedingly liquid in the 
fire, yet it m^es Meta!k eafily fofible. Its chief ^intention iii 
aflaymg, is to fuftain and fof^end the recrements of Petals in 
liieir impure fcorie ; or to thr&w fucJh drtffs upon the furface m 
a vitrified form ; *w4iei-eby -they are purified irom tjieir hetgro* 
geneous matter. Borax is an artificial depuration fromaceittaiii 
mineral juice called Tincal by the Arabians ; and fome German 
authors, fay, * * That a native ^hryfocolla «r >BoraiK, »is Jug but 
** of Copper Mines;** hnty^ 'never Jfcnew ^of its dbeing U)\ta4 
with us. I 

Sandiver, -Scoria ^itri, is ^the 'faces and 'dregs df gkfs. (Tt lit 
an Alkali, yet feems not void of Sulphur ; for «n ebuUitioa 
en^es when it is melted with Nitre, and it is ufed, though 
feldom, in a£&yiiig of ' Cerpper '; but it its 'exe^ent itb tobfled 
burnt ^ilmor, ^n^^Siktr 'filings, ^:a-B'lx)df^ jietilttflwaiysfnialBn 



40 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

the Silver foul and brittle, which therefore is further cleanfed 
by melting with the proper reducing flux. 

Alga Marina, Kelp, Kali, Fucus, or burnt Ore-weed, con- 
tains much fait, of an alkaline quality ; as do all forts of burnt 
weeds, and Flemifh pot-afhes much more, being better pre- 
pared. Kelp is the ftaple commodity of the Scilly-Iflands, 
where great quantities are made in the months of June and July. 
All thofe kinds of lixivial falts, are not very corrofive, and are 
proper in fome cafes for proving of Copper Ore. 

Sal Ammoniack, Sal Arenarius. In former ages, a genuine 
native Sal Ammoniack was brought from a certain place near 
the temple of Jupiter Ammon, whence it took its name ; and 
was faid to proceed from the urine of camels fed only on green 
vegetables : but the fait we now have, is factitious from the foot 
of camels dung burnt ; after which it is fublimed into cakes. 
It is exceffively volatile, and is chiefly ufed in making Aqua 
Regia, which its diftilled volatile fpirit ferves to mortify, 
whence it becomes a precipitator of Gold. It is of ufe alfo in 
foldering ; and in tinning of Copper and Iron veflels, by making 
the Tin adhere to them. 

Common glafs is fometimes ufeful in trying of Copper Ore ; 
for, in melting, it is of a thick ropy conuftence, and therefore 
ferves to entangle and fufpend the impurities of the Ore, fo 
that the Metal is better difengaged from its incumbrances and 
dregs, or purged and feparated from its defllements. For thefe 
reafons, feveral forts of Earths, Spars, and Fluors, with Iron 
Slags and Ores, may in fome cafes be ferviceable ingredients as 
fluxes for Copper Ore, by their ropy and abforbent qualities. 
We know an inftance immediately at hand, where the very 
Slag of Slags is re-melted with impure Copper Ore for thofe 
purpofes. 

: Charcoal, Carbo Ligneus, is endued with a vegetable Sulphur, 
ktid is therefore often of great coi^fequence for reducing to a 
body the Ores of Tin, Copper, and Lead, being ufed as a flux 
and fuel both. Culm, fo called, is the popular flux for aflTaying 
of :Tin after it is drefllbd< Pit Ctial is entirely improper for any 
reducmg:. flux. . 

• ' * - ■ ' 

::.irhirdly; .We copie now to fpeak of Minerals and Metals 
more paiticulfiirly i and (hall endeavour to diftinguifli nioft of 
;„. them> 



AND THEIR FLUXES. 41 

them, as they are met with in this county, by their various 
names and ufes. We will here fub-divide Minerals, firft, into 
thofe of an impure fort or kind, and of no value for Metal ; and, 
fecondly, into thofe which are of ufe, and yield fome produce 
in fufion, fuch as Antimony, Calamy, and other Semi-metals. 
By the firft fort of Minerals, we underftand all Cachymiae, 
Marcafites, Pyrites, or Fire-ftones ; which feveral names are 
well comprehended in the word Mundick, whofe great Empo- 
rium is Cornwall. We ftiall here but lightly touch upon the 
natural hiftory of this Mineral Glebe, having already given our 
thoughts upon fome of its properties and ufeful applications. 
The figures of Pyrites being extremely various, the following 
are the principal : Pyrites Idiomorphos, which is fpherical, and 
hemifpherical ; in this laft form, it is generally found radiated 
and lamellated, oval, cluftered, criftated : angular, confifting 
of four or fix fides ; and this laft cubical, or teflTellated, oblong, 
rhomboidal, cellular or honey-combed : fiftular or piped : all 
of which are common to Cornwall. (Henckell's Pyritologia.) 

It may be generally divided into three fpecies, viz. Marcafita 
Argentea, Aurea, and Alba Ponderofior. It may be alfo clafted 
under numerous fpecies of Pyritae, fuch as the Gymnophyris, 
Pyritrichum, Pyritrichiphyllum, Pyricubium, Pyripolygonium, 
Pyrodogonium : but as all thefe names will only ferve to con- 
found the bulk of our readers with technical difficulties, it is 
fufiicient to fay, that the forms and colours of this Mineral are 
innumerable. 

• We find it very plentiful in Lodes of Tin, Copper, and 
Lead ; with which it is fo intimately mixed, that it commonly 
impoverifties the value of each of its companions, notwithftiando^ 
ing every known method is ufed by fire, water, and various 
manududions, to feparate and cleanfe them from it. Though 
it is fo generally diflxibuted in thofe Lodes, it does not incorpo- 
rate with Copper Ore ; but is disjund, yet not entirely feparable. 
But from Tin, its union is fometimes infeparable by water ; 
efpecially if the Tin is of a lax, fandy, pryany, or clayey 
texture. Its conne6:ion with Tin in the hard Stone, is often, 
the fame, if the Stone is of a peachy nature, and where the 
moleculae of both Minerals are equal. In either ftate it being 
fpecifically heavier, no lotions will ferve the purpofe for dif- 
umion, but the moft perfed uftion muft be complied with to 
evaporate part of it, and reduce its ponderofity within the power 
of future ablutions to carry off : when we come to defcribe the 

M XSNR?^<A 



42 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

method of dreffing Tin, we fhall explain the procefs for burning 
it. After all that can be done, Mundick is fuch a mortifying 
inmate, as by its communication corrupts the goodnefs of the 
Metal, and renders it harfh, brittle, and ill coloured. 

Many are the Lodes of pure folid Mundick, without any 
mixture of Tin, Copper, or Lead. It may in general be faid, 
that Pyritae are to be met with in as many different forms and 
pofitions, as other Minerals are : fuch as vein-wife, when the 
Ore ftretches downwards, oftner floping a little, feldom quite 
perpendicular. Squat-wife, or in a horizontal pofition ; that 
is, if not always quite level, yet hanging much, and dipping a 
little. (The fame as a true Lode plot) (Henckell). But as 
thefe Lodes of Mundick are not found to produce our Metals, 
after fome little trial they are not deeply enquired into, and are 
foon relinquifhed. If- they were patiently funk upon, they 
might poflibly produce Tin or Copper in depth ; and it is a 
general maxim among the Miners, " That a large Lode •of 
** Mundick commonly rides a good horfe :'* indeed, we know 
feveral inflances of very large Mundick Lodes, anfwering the 
purfuit of the concerned with abundance of Copper Ore in 
depth : from whence many writers have maternalifed this Mi- 
neral for Copper, which is baflardifing the daughter, whofe real 
mother is GofTan ; and yet Mundick does partly contain the 
feed or vitriolick principle of Copper, and therefore it ma:y with 
propriety be termed the father, and Goflkn the mother, or 
matrix, to fecundate the feed. 

• Mundick is continually forming concretions ; and, perhaps, 
none of the Foffil kingdom will fupply us with more recent and 
vifible proofs of the like adivity, in the fame fhprt fpace of 
tinie : we think, we have feen it make con£derabIe advances, 
fn". three or four years. Poldyfe Mine has lately fumifhed the 
cfiflbus with many fpecimens of Cryflals of all fizes and ihapes ; 
particularly of an hexagonal column, terminated with hexagonal 
pytamids at both ends, four, fix, and eight inches long, to fix 
i'if 'the circumference. Some of thefe Cryflals are beautifully 
6lwtaa and clear ; others have one or two planes tinged with a 
browriifli ochre, two or three of the planes, both columnar and 
pyramidal, are granulated with very minute glittering fparkles 
OT Mundick, variegated like the rainbow ; the oppofite fides 
^e coated half an inch thick, with high bliflered incruflations 
Hce grapes J others, are totally capped with Mundick at one 
pyramid, aiid quite clear at the other ; many of them fo 
*--' beautiful 



44: ^^ METALS AND MINERALS, 

Other crude Minerals of no efteem, are thofe of a ferruginous 
quality, which the Miners diftinguifti by the names of GofTan, 
Cal, (more properly Gal) Cockle, Sec. Our GofTan Lodes 
often produce Tin at a ftiallow level in tolerable plenty ; and 
chiefly that GofTan which is of the moft ferruginous flamina, 
and we believe from thence denominated Gal, which is old 
Coriiifh Britifh, and fignifies rufl ; and being really an inferior 
Iron Ore, anfwers in name to its appearance. The Germans 
call it WolfTram, and define it a kind of Manganefe. In this 
kind of GofTan, after the Tin is feparated from all other impu- 
rities by repeated ablutions, there remains a quantity of this 
mineral fubftance, Gal ; which being of equal gravity, cannot 
be feparated from the Tin Ore by water ; therefore it impover- 
ifhes the Metal, and reduces its value down to eight or nine 
parts of Metal for twf!fity of Mineral, which without this brood, 
lo called, might fetch twelve for twenty. Afterwards it is coveted 
by fome of the Smelters, to mix in their large furnaces, where 
it ads in conjundion with fome forts of Tin as a defirable flux ; 
and increafes, though it may depreciate, the lump of Metal. 

The general definition of Ochres in Cornwall, may be thus 
fpecified : the rufly Ochre of Iron called Goflan ; the green 
and blue Ochres of Copper, Verdigreafe ; the pale yellow Ochre 
of Lead, of a GofTan appearance, but like Calamy ; the brown 
and blackifh yellow Ochre of Tin, called GofTan, Cal, Gal ; 
and the red Ochre of Bifmuth. Thefe Goflans or Ochres, are 
commonly called the Feeders of their refpedive Metals ; and 
where they are found, the Metals are generally, and very juilly 
fuppofed to be not far ofF. 

Cockle (the Skiorl of the Swedes, and the Schorl of the 
Germans ; in Englifhy Shirl) is a brown or blackifh glofTy flonyr 
matter, intermixed with Tin Ore in fpots and veins ; often 
fhining and refembling the Cryflals of Tin Ore, from which by 
its weight, it cannot be well feparated ; and in the Stone is not 
unfrequently miflaken for it, to the difappoin^ment of the 
Tinner, when it comes to the tefl of the fire. This Cockle 
compofes a part of the mofl beautiful charge of our Granite or 
Moorflone ; in which it is fo variegated with black and white 
Talck, that when the fun fhines upon it, the beholder is dazzled 
with its fplendour. 

Talck, which is the Lapis Specularis, and has the feveral, 
names of Gold and Silver Talck, Glimmer, Glifl, Catfilver, and 

Black 



AND THEIR FLUXES. 



45 



Black Talck, is very plenty in Moorftone as before ; but oif 
fuch fmall diameter as to be no way valuable, unlefs in the 
Stone, for its lucid appearance. There is another fort of Talck 
common to our Tin veins, a bluifli Irpn Ore. If Talck gets 
among Tin, it is a very deceitful brood, as it imitates the colour 
of the Tin with which it is in conjunction ; and when damped, 
it preferves its foliaceous laminated form, whereby the water in 
the buddle flips over its leafy fubflance ; but if it had been more 
granulated or angular, the water might poflibly have more force 
upon it, and feparate it from the Tin, on account of its peculiar 
levity. In this fituation, it is known among the Tinners, hf 
the name of Clift, Glift, or Glidder. However, Talck and 
Cockle, feem to be of the foliaceous ftony kind, and are menti- 
oned here only as troublefome companions with the Ore of Tin. 

Fourthly ; Semi-metals. Hill, fays, " The Tin Mines of 
** Cornwall aiFord great quantities of Bifmuth, though it is 
** very little known there." This is a great miflake ; for Bif- 
muth is ve^ well known here, and our Tin Mines never yet 
afforded any quantity worth the faving. That we have Lodes 
of Bifmuth, and thofe of Cobalt and Bifmuth together, is very 
true ; but hitherto of little worth. According to the opinion 
of foreigners, no place exceeds Cornwall for variety and plenty 
of Minerals. " Beecherus refcrt de.Cornubia, in dedicatione 
*' alphabeti fui Mineralis, fe credere nullum terrarum locum 
" reperiri, qui mincrarum multitudine ct varietate antecellat." 
This fliews how great reafon we have to lament our ignorance in 
the examen of other Minerals befide thofe which produce Metal. 
If thofe of our county, who have leifure and ability to look 
into the contents and properties of our various Foflils, would 
employ their talents for that purpose, we fliould not long remain 
in our prefent darknefs ; a little time would bring to our know- 
ledge the value and ufefulnefs of .much neglected treafure. 
Even ignorant pretenders to docimaftick operations, might in 
time blunder out ibme curious. difcoveries ; and accident might 
effed, what prudence may not accompliih. Unfortunately for 
us, none pry into the concealed contents of our numerous 
Foffils ; for the attention of the natives is principally engrofled 
by Tin and Copper. 

Bifmuth in the ftate of Ore, is ufually of a bright filverjj 
white, and of an obfcurely and irregularly foliaceous ftnufture. 
Sometimes it appears granulated ; ^d at others, the granules 
9re large, and the mafTes coarfe ; in which cafe, every feparate 



46 OF MfiTALS AND MINERALS, 

granule &pf)ear« of a cubick form. It is fubjed to fewer varia- 
tions in its Ore, than moft other Minerals ; but is fometimes 
turned yellow by a^n over proportion of Sulphur ; and fometimes 
is very deeply tinged with the matter of common Mundick, and 
is often miftaken for it. (Kunkel, Boerhaave). 

It is eafily feparable from its Ore, and may be made pure by 
merely melting the Ore alone in a crucible in a moderate fire : 
when it is in a more impure ftate, it is procured by an addition 
of the reducing flux before mentioned ; but if the fire be too 
Herce, the Bifmuth will be loft. 

A fmall portion of Bifmuth increafes the brightnefs, hardnefs, 
and foncwoufnefs of Tin. The ufes of Bifmuth are, for making 
Pewter with Tin ; for foldering fome Metals ; for printers 
types ; foils for mirrors ; for anatomical injedions ; for imita- 
ting Silver on Wood ; for purifying Gold and Silver by cupella- 
tion ; and for rendering fome Metals fitter for being caft into 
moulds, as it increafes their fufibility. 

Zinc ; the Ore of tvhich is Lapis Calaminaris. Great quai>- 
tities of Tutenag were till lately imported from the Eaft^lnjdics^ 
but the late Dr. Ifaac Lawibn obierving, that: the flpwer$ of 
Lapis Calaminaris were tiie fame as thofe of Zinc, and that its 
tffe<fts on Copper Were alfo the fame with that Seini-metal, never 
rcattitted his emleavours, tall he found the method of feparating 
pure Zinc from that Ore, Cadmia, or Lapis Calaminaris, is a 
fpimgy fubftanice, of a lax and cavernous texture, yet confider- 
ably heavy. It is found in mafles of various and irregular 
figures, with rugged and uneven protuberant furface9. . When 
frioft p'ute ^d petted, it is of a pale brownifli gray colour ; but 
its lax and %Jagy tcktures, make it very Habb to be iJouled by 
csSraneoui fliiatter, attd theneeit is' often found, trellow or red- 
fiifh. it is mdderately hard, but will not give hrc with Steel ; 
Id will net cffervefce? with AqwaFortis ; and it calcines in a 
ftttaM fire to a pale rfed. -In fedf th« Ochre of it is a GofiTan ; 
aftiJ though; theabovifcdefcript^ is thie' true and genuine Mineral 
6f'^nt,y^t that Sem^nSettl' is liot confined to that Ore alone, 
but is mixed in great abundance in its difieminated particles 
among the matter of the Ores of other Metals, particularly 
«f-''Leadi' ■.:*'•■■ • ..•..;•.•.■ 

'^'Mock I^isiid, fiSack Jkk, atid^ blende lof the Germans, is 
x^itBy a cc^t^^n^Mited Stkxe Ore^ (and fome of it even very little 



48 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

remainder of the one hundred and twenty tons above mentioned, 
is chiefly the produd of a Mine near Saltafh, belonging to 
Mr. Thomas Reed and partners. 

The direction of the antimonial veins, is moflly from north 
to fouth ; but there are now and then fome fmall quantities 
found in veins which run different courfes, and which, from 
their fuperior produ<9: of other Minerals, are denominated ac- 
cording as the different Metals predominate. Antimony lies in 
its veins or Lodes extremely unequal, but generally more fo 
length-wife than in depth. It is not uncommon to have the 
vein two or three feet wide, and in driving as many, not only 
the Mineral, but even the vein itfelf will be fcarce perceptible. 
We have not known any of this Mineral wrought more than 
fourteen fathoms deep. The Mine of Huel Boys above men- 
tioned is about twelve fathoms, and in the bottom promifeg 
continuance. 

Foreign Antimony does not come to us in the ftate of its Ore, 
but what is, however, called Crude Antimony ; which is ob- 
tained from its earthy and more ftubborn mineral particles, by a 
kind of eliquation, in the following manner. The Mineral is 
put into earthen pots pierced in their bottoms with fmall holes ; 
thefe pots are placed in a furnace, where they receive the ne- 
ceffary heat for the fuflon of the Antimony j but much lefs than 
is fumcient to fufe any other of its mixtures, except Lead, with 
which it is often combined, and which even this fufion will be 
fufHcient to melt with it into the fame mafs. For this reafon. 
Crude Antimony ufed medicinally fhould undergo an examina- 
tion, to difcover whether it has Lead in it ; as I am informed 
it may have a confiderable quantity without altering its ftriated 
texture, and for which reafon I am inclined to believe, that 
Englifh Antimony is the leaft proper for medicinal ufe, as it is 
more liable than Foreign to a fatiimine mixture. This Crude 
Antimony comes to us in the form of the pots or moulds in 
which it has been melted. Some of the Antimonial Ores of this 
county, without any fuch preparatcMy fuiion, have been fouod 
to produce at leaft as large a quantity of Regulus, and equally 
fine, as the befl Fordgn Crude ; and as they generally lie very 
rich in the earth, this fufion is mofUy rendered unneceilary. 

Mr. Reed has ereded furnaces in Feock parifh, on Reflron- 
guet river, for extrading its Metal, commonly called Regulus 
of Antimony j which is performed by mixing the clippings of 

the 



AND THEIR FLUXES. 49 

the Tin-Plate Workers with the Mineral Ore, firft well cleanfed 
from its llony earthy parts, and lanelting this mixture in pots 
containing from a half hundred, to one hundred weight : in 
which operation the reguline part of the Antimony, freed from 
its Sulphur, by the latter's uniting with the Iron in the before- 
mentioned clippings, by its fuperior gravity finks to the bottom 
of the pot, leaving the other parts in a light mineral-like fcoria 
on the top, which readily feparates v/hen cold. The foreign 
Ores of Antimony are melted in London, for thcfe purpofes, in 
the fame manner ; only Mr. Reed's is done in an air furnace, 
and in London they ufe the bellows as in other fmail founderies. 
The ufe of the clippings is for the fake of cheapnefs and conve- 
nience, for a fomewhat lefs quantity of fmall Iron alone will 
effe<5t the precipitation. Regulus of Antimony may alfo be, 
obtained by fubftituting, for the Iron, Copper, Lead, or Tin ; 
but thefe muft be added in a much greater quantity, and the 
operation confequently will be attended with much more ex- 
pence, and greater difficulty, and are, therefore, fubftituted 
only on very particular occafions. The greateft confumptions 
of Antimony, belides the medicinal, are made by mixing its 
Regulus with Tin to make Pewter hard and fonorous ; and with 
Lead, &c. for Printing Types ; though it has feveral other 
ufes. 

Cobalt, is a denfe compaA and ponderous Mineral ; very 
bright and fhining, and much refembling fome of the Antimo- 
nial Ores. It is fometimes found of a deep, duiky, bluifh 
black ; very heavy and hard, and of a granulated ftru6:ure, 
looking like a piece of pure Iron where, frefli broken : at other 
times it 13 found more. compa£t and heavy, and of a very even 
texture, not granulated or compofed of any feparate Moleculae, 
but. refembling a.djiiky njafs of melted Lead on the furface^ and. 
will bear to be cut with the knife. The inner part, where it 
is always very?bright whenfrefli broken or cut, is alfo found, 
in fome places, in a miich .more beautiful appearance than either 
of thefe, being of a fine bright filver gray, and of ; a beautiful 
ftriated texture, the ftriae running aU great lengths, but very 
llender and varioufly bent, undulated, and in fome parts broken< 
It is alfo fometimes foft, and covered, with a bliifh coloured 
efflorefcence, which is geneirally rich in Regulus. 

We have given our thouj^ts upon the fubjeA of Arfenick, 
and fuggefted that it may be cheaply rendered by our Mundick 
fublimations, after the maimer in which it is ^rocwi^d ^\wsv 

O COc»Sx\ 



50 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

Cobalt ; and the more we look into, and confider the operati- 
ons whereby Arfenick, ZafFre, and Smalt, are obtained from 
this Mineral, the more we are convinced, that a fkilful hand 
may improve upon the hint in relation to the different forts of 
our repudiated Mundick. 

We have had but one Cobalt Mine that ever was diftinguiihed 
by that name in this vicinity, which was difcovered accidentally 
by Mr. Beauchamp, in an adit that he drove through fome part 
or his eftate at Pengreep in Gwenap. He difcovered a Lode of 
three feet breadth, which contained a branch of real Cobalt ; 
and it happening about the time when the Society of Arts, &c 
offered a premium of thirty guineas for the befl Cobalt to be 
difcovered in England, he was honoured with the reward for his 
fpecimen, purfuant to the advertifement. It did not hold in 
depth, but foon deferted the purfuers ; who were likewife very 
foon after obliged to fufpend their fcarch, by a prodigious influx 
of water to their workings. 

At Huel Trugo alfo, a Copper Mine near St, Columb, fome 
of the purefl Cobalt has been worked. It was in a fmall vein, 
four to fix inches- big, in which there were no other mixtures. 
It crofTed the Copper Lode, which was pretty large, though not 
rich ; and the Cobalt lay in the vein jufl where it joined the 
other, but did not hold to any length, fo as to make it worth 
purfuing. It was very fine, and fuppofed by fome who think 
rfiey know the value of it, to be wwth more than fixty pounds 
^ ton. It was of a pale red, or rather bloffom colour ; and, 
6r being expofed to the air for any confiderable time, the 
ftirface was covered with a farinaceous fubflance cefembling the 
fbblimate of Arfenick, which it probafcly was j but left the fine 
colour fhould evaporate, the proprietor, Mr, Chanipion, ordered 
it to be put into cafks £lled up widi water. The common air 
was, or feemed to be, the menfWuumy which difTc^ved the 
fiirface of this Mineral, vrhich it is probable in {)rocefs of time, 
as it became longer ejipofed to it, would 4ave totally crumbled 
i]^t6 that. floury fubftanqe. Cobalt is alfo fuppofed to be in no 
ffAfdl quantity in Dol-G6th Copper Mine, for the afTayers gene- 
rtlly find their pots tinged with blue ; yet it feems to be fo 
blended with Copper "and Iron that it does not difcover itfelf in 
a mineral ftate, being probably but in the general term of 
Mundick. Very good GolkAt has 9X(o been difcovered in Dud- 
naft's Mine in fllogan pari£h ; And m a Mine wrought for Tin 
Miid Gal Aear Pons-Noeth in PeiraA-ArwothaU. 

'^ In 



52 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

Cryftal. It is feen in Lapis Lazuli, and fome of our pebbly 

, ftream. Tin. It is not uncommon to meet with Grains of folid 

Gold in our ftream works ; and fome large pure lumps have 

been met with in thofe works for Tin Ore, of which the late 

William Lemon, Efq; grandfather of the prefent Sir William 

Lemon, Bart, had one that weighed fifteen penny-weights and 

fixteen grains. That there were fuch grains, called Corns of 

>7 '/^ ^ Gold, formerly obferved in ftream Tin, we have the authority 

„^,^U*^ of Mr. Carew, fol. 7 ; and in the Bayliff of Blackmoor, a M. S. 

f^S^- in my pofTeftion, written by one Mr. Beare in queen Elizabeth's 

'■''^^;^fiio time, there is an account of a gentleman, '* who at a wafli of 

^ /'^^ ** Tin, at Caftle-Park near Loftwithiel, took up out of the 

M&X^, ** heap of Tin certain fine Corns, Hops, or Grains of Gold, 

r'iiliw', " which they called Rux ; and. at the fame time, fhewed a 

%!Xf^iS '* Gold ring on his finger, made of certain Gold, which he had 

/>-w«^;^ " gathered out of the Tin at a wafli in a ftream work, together 

,f^,tcU>**<^' <* with another Gold ring, each of fixteen ftiillings and eight 

pence value." He.likewife tells us of " two blocks of Tin, 

carried by one Mr. Robert Davy to Bourdeaux, which were 

by two Florentine merchants valiied to be worth all i the reft 

" of the Tin there, by reafon of the Gold contained in them." 

The late William Glynn, Efq; grandfather of the prefent 

leailied recordei' of London, had a large Gold feal ring, m^de 

of Gold found in the river under his houfe ,at Glynnford. 

Whether the great Mr. Boyle had heard of thefe fads, or that it 

w^ a notion of; his own, . it is it^oA certain, that he imagined a 

good quantity pf Gold; might be:extra<fted; out of Tin, without 

prejudicing the Metal ; and to that purpofe, fent down Ghrif- 

topher Kirbyj Efq; (w^l knowii -for having been unhappily 

drawn in by Dr. Oates to couptemaiice his plot), to make fpme 

experiments therein, in the latter part of the reign of king 

Charles' tj|e^'fe%:pnd. : But, in a fg^v? ippnths.after king James 

pame to the crowti,^ Mr. .Kirby being apprch^nfiv^ of foiiie ill 

iifage on accojiut qf Q^Cepj. fled intQ HollaAd^ „frQm whence he 

retiffilcdwi^,; the prince, of Orangp<; and Mr* Boyle's death 

happf ning^ inuich about the feme time, this- prpje^ fell to the 






^ Of all Metals, Gold is eafieft to.be amalgamated with Quick- 
filyer ;fo that a Gold ring being a little touched with it, will 
be no longer ufeful to the owner if the Quickfilver is not 
fpeedily burnt off in a ftrong fire. It is diffolvable in Aqua 
Regia ; but a, true Aqua Fortis mak^ no impreffion on it ; for 
il you pMX. into it a piece of gilt Silver wirt, :\*^offe Silver- is half 



AND THEIR FLUXES. 



55 



a grain, and the Gold but one ninety-fixth of a grain, drawn 
into the length of an ell, the Silver will be eaten out, and a 
tube of Gold fhall I'emain, which, notwithftanding its extreme 
thinnefs, will be ftill opaque. The dudtility of Gold is beyond 
all imagination. By exad weighing and computation it has 
been found, that there are Gold leaves, which, in fbme parts 
of them, are fcarce the three hundred and fixty thoufandth part 
of an inch thick ; yet, with this amazing thinnefs, are ftill a 
perfeA cover for Silver wire ; nor can the beft microfcope difco- 
yer the leaft chafm or difcontinuity to admit any known fluid, 
or even light itfelf : but this depends altogether (incomprehen- 
fible as it is) on its being free from Sulphur ; for mix but one 
grain of Sulphur with a thoufand of Gold, and it is malleable 
no longer. Neuman fays, " A fingle grain of Tin added to the 
** foregoing proportion of Gold, will have the fame effed ;" 
which, we fuppofe, muft be owing to the Arfenick that is 
concealed in the Tin. Yet Antimony, which contains much 
Sulphur, purifies it exceedingly well, and, by abforbing and 
deftroying all its heterogeneous afTociates, promotes its lique- 
fadion. 

Although Gold has fo great a fpecifick gravity and folidity, 
yet its interftices and pores are found to be much larger than 
thofe of Silver, but not near fo numerous. Fine Gold is fo 
very perfed and durable, that it is never injured by lying in 
the ground for thoufands of years ; nor will any fire vitrify 
or deftroy it in a common natural fufion : yet by expofing 
it to the rays of the fun, in the focus of a peculiar large 
lens or burning glafs,' it melts ; and being fufficiently con- 
tinued thus in fufion or calcination, it emits a fiime,- and 
becomes a ponderous glafiy fubftance or fcoria of a purple 
colour. [Doubtful] 

To render this Metal more hard than it naturally is, they 
alloy it with Silver or Copper ; yet it cannot bear to be mixed 
with Brafs, which makes it brittle, by means of the Calamy. 

Platina is found, not in Ore but in fmall grains ; yet not 
pure, but mixt with a fhining black fand : there are likewife 
ufually mixt with it, a few fhining particles of a golden colour. 
When expofed to the fire by itfelf, it is extremely hard to mdt ; 
but fufes readily with Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, or Tin, 
and incorporates with them. A piece of it was put into ftrong 
Aqua Fortis, and kept in a fand heat for twelve hours^ but 



54 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

when ;taken out, w^si no way corroded, and it preferved its firft 
weight. It appears then, that no body comes fo near Gold, in 
fixednefs and folidity. .. Cronftedt fays, it is heavier than Gold ; 
^od therefore the Jiqavieft of all bodies hitherto difcovered : for 
though Jthe fpccifickjgravity of Platiha, in the hydroftatital ex- 
periments made by Dr. Lewis, is found to be, to water, only as 
l.7>Ppo.to i,oooi yet, when melted with other certain Metals, 
its fpecifick gravity has, by an exad calculation, be^ri found to 
be. confiderably augmented, even fo much' as to 22,00b. If it 
CQuld be nia4e as dudile ais Gold, it would not eafilybe dif- 
(ingui/hable. from it by its other properties. ' It entirely refifls 
the vitriplick. acid, which diiTolves or corrodes every other" 
known jnetaliick boAy, except Gold. ; yet it ditfers froni Gold, 
in givii^g |ip ilain to tl]ie folid parts of animals, nor ftriking a' 
purple cQlour with /iif in ; it is, therefore, a iimple Metal, of a 
piartjcular kind, eflentially different from all thofe hitherto 
known. Platinahardens arid iliffens all Metals; one more thian' 
aopther, Jbut Lead the pioft. 'J^in bears much the le^, and 
Gold and Silver the greateft quantity, without the lols of theii^ 
malleability. Though it is of an uniform texture, bright and 
(hining. {jer fe, takes a. fine poli0i, and does not tarnifh or 
ruft ; yet it miakes Tin tarnilh foon, and Lead very qulcfcly. 

., The fcienc3es> .commerce, and arts, muft receive great advan- 
:^ges from the applic^tipn of a new perfed Metal to ufeful pur- 
^ofes.; whigh, to the fixidity.and indeftriidibility of Gold, unites 
a,Jxardner$ apd fplidity aJmoK eq^ual to tho^e of Iron. We re- 
gret, ^hatialthpugh,lai:ge quantities of it are found fn ^inferica, 
it is here fo exceedingly rare. 

The caufe of the great /carcity of Platiria is, th^t th6 Spariiii 
miniftry have prohibited the fale of it, or thb extrailioli of it 
^Qin .the^Mine^, Thcf^. prohibitipins were certainly from good 
.motives .ind \vife intentipns v , for . this Metal was no fobtier known 
than.it;w3is emplpycd foT the.adulteratibri of Gold, for which 
purpofe it is very fit, as it iuftains all the ordinary trials of 
Gold, .has !. the fa^e ^e^ifick gravity, and renders Gold ipuch 
fcfs.pale:.thai|i Sftver.|,..1rh9 ufe of iai Metal, with which frauds 
.fo pcgudldal iinigh,t.j)e .cpipmitted^ with impiihity, was neceffa- 
rily. iatevd^^.:. ^ut ^ce tjie l>eft chymift's in EuiA)fe hafc 
cxar^ine4 Elating tjc^, have puBlifhed certain arid ea{y biethdds 
J»7 ,which. the f^uJleft ;q;uiQtity lof Pktina niixed witli tSoM may 
.be difcovered j and by which tKefe Metal's xnay be fep^rateid m 

^Kirtefjfcr 



AND T H EI R F L U X E S. 55. 

whatever proportion they may happen to be united. Thefe 
methods may be fefen in the memoirs of the chymifts, who have : 
examined . this matter. We fhall here only relate one of the 
moft convenient and lefs troublefome. It is founded on a pro- 
pertyj virhich Gold has, arid Platina has not, of being capable 
of precipitation from Aqiia Regiaby martial Vitriol ;. and upon; 
a property which Platina has, and Gold' has not, of being.capa- 
ble of precipitation from Aqua Regia by Sal Ammoniack. 
When, therefore^ we would difcover^ whether Gold be allayed; 
with Platina, let it b6 diffolved in Aqua Regia, and in tJus: 
folution, which will contain both Metals, let (ome Sal AmmcK- 
niack diffolved in water bfe ad<ied, and the Platina will be precis- 
jjitated in form of a brick coloured iediment. If.. on the otiusr 
fide, we would kiiow whether Platina contained any ,Oold ;: leC 
tliis Platina be diflblved in Aqua Regia; and to the foluitionv 
add a folution of martial Vitriol in water, upon which' the. 
Kquor will become turpid, and the Gold will form a precipitate,, 
which may be eafily (epafated by decanting and titrating the 
liquor. We msf then- affirm, that the reafons which induced 
the Sptthifh miniftiy to interdi<9: the ufe of Platina, no longer 
exill ; and we hope, thaJtf when they are once convinced of this, 
the ptrblict will be no Itonger depi ived of a fubflance which may 
b^ fo aidvantageous- to' Ibciety. Didionary of Chymiftry. 

Quickfilvef, Mereur^ ; which names it feems to claim from 
its relative velocity to the god Mercury, as well as the planet. 
This Metal, if it really can deferve that name, is almofl fimple 
as eleinent, wheil in a fluid ptitified ftate^ It is fometimes 
found in that fbrni, and is teckoned preferable to that which is 
procured from thfe Ore of it^ called Cinnabar. Mercury will 
amalgamate with all Metals, except Iron ; and is, therefore, 
fdmetimes adulterated wilh Lead or 'Tin, becaufe of their 
cheapncls. 

The detedion of fuch frauds is of great confequence to the 
niedicinal ufe of Miercuiy ; and^ thdrefbre, that which is of a 
livid or pale colour, any wAf tefettibiing powder, and runs into 
^obules not ekaMy fphfcrical) hxit obioUg like little worms or 
tears, oti^t to be it:je^d. A very minute qitantity c£ Left^ 
lat]rely diluted', vfrfe ^e toW by Dr. Baker, is of pernicious and 
fam C()ni(tqti^n\des to l^e of thofe wh^ talke it into their bcxHes ; 
jnibmuch as to heave given name to -a |>a;vticukHr dildt<der dm tbiofe 
parts, called the Oolicfk iof the Dunbtdiii^, whic^ was «iideiiiAal 
ih Cornwdl and Dcirdh ^ the ^ttr I'f^^ ttid >«!itxxtB& «»««) 



56 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

autumn more or lefs. I have met with thofe who have been 
tortured with this excruciating and uncommon diforder, which, 
though feldom mortal as a Colick, leaves behind it a fpafmodick 
Afthma, and an incurable Parefis. All this is occafloned by a 
few grains of Lead diffolved in the cyder which is made in 
leaden veffels. If Mercury thus ftored with Lead is taken into 
the human body, what is to be expeded but that we may intro- 
duce the greater enemy to expel the leffer. To releafe the 
impure mixture with Quickfilver, you may rub a little of it in 
a marble mortar with fome vinegar : if the acid becomes a little 
fweetifh, Lead is certainly ipaixed with the Mercury ; if the 
vinegar is tinged, fome other Metal is to be fufpeded ; but it h 
quite pure, when a little of it, held over the lire in an Iron 
kdle, totally evaporates. It remains to be remarked, however, 
that Quickfilver difTolves in all foflil acids. There is fcarce any 
cohefion at all in the parts of Mercury ; for a fingle grain there- 
of, by the adion of a lens, is diviHible into millions of globules 
invifible to the beft eye ; but by the application of a microfcope, 
they will afford a diftind profpeA ot all the neighbouring ob- 
jeds. This incoherence of Quickfilver is the reafon why it is 
fo extremely volatile as to rife in a fume by the a&ion of a very 
fmall fire ; but being mixed with Brimftone, it embraces it 
moft tenacioufly : and may then be reverberated by a great 
degree of fire, till it becomes fuch a red (ubftance, as is fold in 
the (hops by the name of Faditious Cinnabar, or Vermillion. 

We have no records to inform us that Quickfilver was ever 
found in this county ; but why this fertile Mineral diftrid fhould 
be exempt from the produdioa of it, is no way clear : perhaps 
it might be found, if proper diligence and obfervation were ufed 
to get at it ; though indeed if it was fuppofed to be in any im- 
common Stone of a red or gray colour, the common method of 
aflaying would only ferve to fend it up the chimney in an invi- 
fible fume, which ought to be faved in clofe veffels. 

The chief Mines for Mercury are thefe of Hungary, Spain, 
Friuli, and Peru. A Mine in Friuli is fo rich, that it always 
yields one half Quickfilver, fbmetimes two-thirds. The mifer- 
able flaves condemned to work in thofe Mines, are afFeded with 
tremors, and proceed to falivate ; then their teeth drop out ; 
and they are feized with pains all over, efpecially in their bones, 
which the Mercury penetrates ; and thus they die. A common 
precaution they ufe is, to hold a piece of Gold in their mouth 
to imbibe the effluvia and intercept their pafiage into the body. 

Dr. 



AND THEIR FLU ;X E S. .. 57 

Dr. Pope tells iis of one he faw in the Mines of Friuli^ who in 
half a year*s time was fo impregnated with the Metal, that on 
putting a piece of Brafs in his mouth, or even rubbing it in hi& 
fingers, it would turn white as Silver. Nor can this be won- 
dered at, fince it has been known to amalgamate the Gold ear- 
rings of the falivated wearer ; and I have myfelf feen very minute 
globules in the rotten procefTes of fome bones, when I difleded 
under the inftrudions of the accurate Dr. Hunter. Non femel in 
fepulchris argentum vivum capitibus reperi. Anton. Mufa 
Brafavolus, in tra<St. de morb. Gallic. 

Lead, Plumbum ; alfo Plumbum Nigrum, to diftinguifh it 
from the Plumbum Album or White Lead, which was the name 
given by Pliny to Tin, although it is radically a diftind Metal. 
It is ftiled Saturn, from the Planet of that name. It is feldom 
found malleable and. purely metallick ; for what have been taken 
for. fpecimens of native Lead, have produced, very often, three 
parts in four of fine Silver ; from whence many have fuppofed, 
that there is no fiich thing as native Lead : I have however feen 
two fpecimens of it, in the pofleflion of Mr. Bennallack in this 
county. 

This Metal feems to confifl in part of an impure leprous earth, 
of a fulphureous nature ; and it abounds alfo with fomething 
very acid and corrofive, though cold, and caufijig paralytick 
complaints in thofe who are much concerned in the melting of 
it. It may be di0blved in many forts, of weak acid menftrua, 
much better than in thofe of the greateft ftrength ; and it will 
incorporate indifferently well with Quickfilver ; but does not 
admit of ignition, for it m^lts in a very fmall degree of heat; • 

♦ ••■•.-' 

The only. Lead Ores which we have feen in Corjiw^ll^ gro 
thefe fowr forts :.ifirft, .the lead coloured bluifh gray^.-pf no 
particular foirm ; fecondly) the Antimoniated ibriated glittering 
Ore; thirdly, the fteel grained; and laftly, the.teffellatedjor 
diced Lead : moft of which are fo extremely rich both for Silver 
and Lead, as to beweUworth:th6 wofking^ if th& Cornifh L^ad 
Lodes were- of a larger fize, and more lafiUiig than they generally; 
are.. . Xhe. finall profits arifing firom this Metal: hitherto wrought 
w[itl\us, have daqiped the ardour of our adventurers in theitv 
jjutfuit of it ', and the Lead which has been difcpvered in dxe 
well of the county, has for the moft part <^ered itfelf mciri 
dentally, when the Miners have been fearching for Copper, with 
which it is more generally afTociated than with Tin. For my 

Q Qsrsv 



fl OF^ UlETAL^S AND MINERALS, 

dwA part, i Have never feen it blended with Tinj- IrtJtivitK 
Copper frequently ; and alw^s very ridi for Siiver, but in nd 
Quantity. Black. Jack and Mundick are very cktie companion^ 
xnth it 5 but they, and Copper Ore, are all oif them diftind 
and difosmibfe from each o^er, in the Stone or Mineral jftate; 
In feM<:hing for Copper Ofe in Nanflcuke Downs, in a very 
promifing GoiTan, we discovered a leader, fix inches wide, of 
very rich Lead of the Antiraoniaicd kind upon the north wall o£ 
the Lode, The Silver in it was plenty, infomuch as to render 
the Mineral worth /". 1 8 or jf. 26 ^ ton without any dreffing* 
It produced about a ton and half, and then totally difappeared. 

It is a miftake of thofe who think that Lead becomes brittle 
by extrading the Silver fr&m it, for it is rather more dudile.: 
The deleterious properties of Loul I have already hinted at, ia 
treating of Quickfilver ; and I may obferve in this place, that 
toiy fatumine preparation given inwardly, muft be very ha*^ 
zardous, unlefs adminiftered under: the diredion of (a ikiifut 
praditioner. 

In degree next to our provincial Metal, Tin, this iAand has 
been famous in the annals of pad ages for its peculiar produdion 
of Lead; «ind the kingdcmi ki general hat been more remark* 
able for the quanity produced, infomuch that Pliny iaith, << Ii| 
^ Britain it runneth ebb- in the uppermoft coat of the ground^ 
'^ and thit in fuch abundance, that, by an txpcefs a6k among 
^ the idanders tliemfelves, it i> not lawful to dig ^nd gather 
^ Ore above fuch a proportion fet down by ftint.**- And Sir 
Jo(hua Child, in his difoourfe of Trade,- tselU us, " That our 
" Lead and Tin, which are natives, and b)r God's blefltng in- 
** feperably annexed to this kingdom, carry on much of our 
** trade l3d Turkey, Italy, Spi^in, and Portugal $- *■ bfefidefr great 
** quantitiet that are CM to Holland, t<y France,' and to the 
** indiesy fts is well known to all the merchant? t^t trade to 
» tkofe parts." ; 

*■■*■' ' ' I "'" •■ i •■ ' • " • , , \ ' • • * 

' • • * i ' • .♦ ■ I . .. • ■ • .' I - ■ ' • I . j_/ ■ . # 

^ w 

We hate had Aittny suicient Mines of Lead in Com^i^, par^ 
tieiikrly in Perran Zeibulo ; the iQarres in St, AHen;- and elfe-> 
#iiere. * It is faid that the wars in France were tahlti on by 
tlk<e^ Silver of thofe and the Dev<m{hire Mines* Tkt pre in the 
Gah-eb, when hll Wrought about ii^tty years fince^ ^waw fo rich 
xA-Silver^ ' '^s to yield 6ne hundred dunces to one tdn d^ Lead. 



ii-^ 



I, /.'C,' 



I 



J> 



AN B T H E I H F L 17 X IB. & ' y^ 

:' Silver^ Argeatum, € Luna, imda its ^cttribfit«d ))ianet; Of 
all Metals, Gold excepted, this Metal is foxrnd moft freqiieiitly 
aditive ; and it is, indeed, found in that ftate, more commonlv 
than in Ore ; and if jrou break the fhcmy Glebe or Mineral, you 
will fbmetimes find ^lid grains and lumps of 'malleable Siiv^ 
contained in them. Silver is uftially mixed, with other Metais^ 
particularly in Cornwall with Copper and Lea^, though but tk 
a, fcattered form and minute quantity, in tlie former no way 
adequate to the expence of extrading it. 

Real Silver Mines diftind from any mixture with other Mi^ 
nerals, we hate none in England. Wte read of fuch, but th&f 
give us no produce to value ourfelves upon them ; and indet^A 
the two nobler Metals are foreign to our country, at the fame 
time the' bafe and more ufeful Metals are beftowed upon us in 
common with the reft of the world. In our kingdom of Dan^ 
monii Silver Mines were difcovered in Edward the firft's time, 
when 337 men were brought from the peak in Derbyfliire' to 
work them. Edward the third had great profits ftom tjiem ^ 
and queen Elizabeth prefented a cup made of Silver to the earl 
i»f Bath, with an infcription upon it, from which in&riptixm 
Mre tnuft- conclade, that thofe Silver Mines, To called^ w<ehi 
abfohitely Lead 'Miaes rich with Silvier^ 

' In ^wedbn they have a Silver Mind 150 ^thorns deep^ of 
which they have no reo^ds fo ancient as the firft difcoverj^ of it j 
yet we do not apprehend it is a very profitable concern t neither 
are there any very dch Silver Mines in Denmark, although therd 
is ptieie^ed^ in the Roy^ Mufeum at Copenhagen, a piece of 
native Silver five hundred and fixty pounds weight, with thfed 
other fpecimens, above three and two hundred weight in each, 
^hetc areilikewife fome confiderable Silver Mine^ in Hungary; 
but none in £ur(^ it it liikely, of a produce: equal to^ tht 
Hanoverian MineS) ioihe tif • whidi an worked at the chit^e of 
our tnoft eraciotts foVtereigft, and otheTi let dot to iki^ to hk 
private and ^eaf emolument, I |»i«fttme the £n^ M4ne of 
Potofi in Bdtu, has Qxce<»ded €ff&f bthtf qtia^tef of the gld^i 
in the richneA and qua^^ of thii valuabki Mssd, Fbmt^ 
gteat veuiv whidi is about fiac kei vnis^ do ifkM out foine fifii^ 
fprigs of little acicount^ 4&d yet heri; they f^dhe fhihy^ght 
millions five ^hundred diou&ad poands^e^ht^SUvet yedrly i 
dne pound of tl^e^ Ors' yieidlag :one ottktsis: of ^ne Sil^ tit 
vHich rate, they muft raife yearly two hundred fifty-fix thifafkki^ 
two hundred and fifty tons of Ore, before they can anfwer that 



6o OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

account in Silver : but by Gerard Molino's account, they muft 
raife a great deal more. The vein nms diredlly north and fouth, 
floping, hadeing, or underlying, in the hill towards the eaft. 
They have an adit or level, which they were twenty-two years 
driving ; but they do not difcharge their Ore through it as 
formerly, becaufe it is become very long and crooked ; there- 
fore they carry up their Ore on their backs, each flave about 
fifty pounds weight in wallets, on ladders made of ox-hides, 
three and three in a row, one of them having a candle tied to 
his right thumb, to light the reft. This work employs above 
twenty thoufand Miners, and is wrought' day and night above a 
thoufand yards deep (fee Acofta in his Natural Hiftory of the 
Indies) : and feveral merchants that have travelled into thofe parts 
relate, that this mountain, by reafon of the numerous fmelting 
houfes upon it, looks at a diftance as if it were all on .fire. 
(Waller on the Mines of Sir Carbery Price). 

Cramer allows but four forts of Silver Ores, fundamentally 
fuch ; others being only impregnations of that Metal with 
foreign Minerals. The firft is a vitrean Ore of an irregular 
figure, fulphureous, and of a lead colour : the fecond is a horny 
Silver Ore, femi tranfparent, like rofin in colour, of no external 
figure, but clofely examined' it confifts of. very thin plates : the 
third is a red or fcarlet Ore : and the fourth h of a light gray 
colour: and even' this contains more Copper than Silver, even 
fo as fcarcely to deferve the name of Silver Ore. Oftentimes 
Silver is found, like Wire, woven one within the other, between 
the rocks ; and fometimes it will refemble Lace, by the Spaniards 
called Metal Machacada, which, fi-om its defcription, I appre- 
hend to be like our native Filagree Copper. . 

Silver readily amalgamates with Mercury, and is eafily difiblved 
in genuine Aqua Fortis ; but will not yield to Aqua Rqgalis, 
nor any other water impregnated with Sal Gem,; Marine Salt, 
or Sal Ammoniack : thefe kinds of Salts, or. their diftilled 
waters, may ferve to precipitate a diflblution of Silver from 
Aqua Fortis, only for this ill confequence, that Silver thus pre-r 
cipitated becomes very harfh and ftubbom for fufion, and is 
alio rendered partly volatile, fo that it evaporate considerably 
in the fire : this is that precipitation or Silver^ which the 
modern Chymifts call Cornua Lunse. This Metal per ie, is fo 
foft, that it is expedient ta allay it with Copper or Brafs to fit 
it forufe. ti , 

Copper, 



AND T H E I R -F'L U X-£ S. 6i 

Gopper, Venus, or Meretrix PiiBlica ; a common proftitute 
from its reception of all menftrua, other Metals having- thc^ 
peculiar diflblventSr The acid particles of air will readily diC^ 
folve Copper, and fhew itfelf by an aerugo or ruft upoa.the 
Metal. Oils themfelves diffolve Copper by means of a Salt con- 
tained ih them ; for even the ends' of- tallow c^andles whiehithe 
Miners leave under-ground, if touched by any ' cupreous watcri 
will prefently be tinged green. This^folubiIity is fo extreme, 
that a fingld grain diflblved in fpult of . Sal Ammoniack, >Afill 
give a blue -dotour to 256,^06 tkneS its own bulk of- clean 
water ; and' a . faint, yet difcernil)l^ one, to 'above 530^,620 
times its bulk. ' Copper iniufion, will not bear the lead-drop 
of wateiii for i^f the moulds^rbe'wet?, itflieis into numerous p^^ 
tides, like {hbr from a sunV and-lnay-deftroy the perfons hear 
iti^ctf'Which'F once met with a' drfmal inftande in one of the 
w<tfkmen at Hayle Gopper-houfe. - • : : . . /. . c 



• Native Gopher is firequeuily.fotiAd in our -Mines, near- the 
day or furface,* or'cbmmonlybikt afew^^thooii dtep ; thou^ 
there are fomfefe^iv^iftft^ces"6fi(iP being' found very deepy parti*-' 
cularly in the Mine of Cooks Kitchen, from whence feveral tons 
have been fbld to the Cdmifh Copper C6mpany, forimincidiate 
fufion, as it cafaieout of the earth. : •*-• '^ 

-' On the fide «f a rivulet, ten leagues to the'fouth of Lake 
Superior in North America, there is a fingle lump of native 
Copper, about four tons weight, free from any mixture but ar 
few fmall black Stones of an Iron nature, and fome very fine 
grains x>f Cryftal. Lake Superior, north from- Uiis- lump' of 
native Metalj is very widci No vein of Copper was difcovo-ed 
on the fouth fide of the Lake, near this lump ;• but fome fenut 
very fmall ones on the north fide, not worth the purfuit. This 
1 had from two credible Miners of Redruth, who were fent over 
td make difcoveries in confequence of this fingular appearance. 

We have before obferved, that Copper is the mbft eafily dif- 
folved of any Metal, even by common water ; hut certainly the 
diffolution muft ^e quicker, if that Water is charged with acid 
or alkaline principles. Wherever Copper is found, there is 
always green or blue Vitriol, which are foluble 4md eafily mix 
with every moifture. The adion of thefe principles, will, 
purfuant to their relative ftrength, diflblve and defecate the 
Gopper particles they meet with, from their impure and hete-* 
rogene admixtures ; and keep them fufpended, till the^ «tci 

R ^xt^'sii 






6d OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

arreted by the magnedck nifius of QoWka, when it is varkmfly 
depoiitcd, Staladical^ Guttatim, Machacada, or oUierwif?, ai 
we may judge from the prefliire, form, and ^tuation <i i« 
when found. 

The Staladical, is generally of a braiTy colour { and £0 h, the 
blifteied buttony Ore, which U prqtuberant in a iemi-*circuliut 
form, occafioned by its defcent guttatim, into a (oft and yield-v 
ing bed of clay. But the vitrioUck folution that forms malieaU^ 
Copper, is the ftrongeft that can be obtained ; ^erefore it is 
the more readily attra^d by the ferruginous particles of the 
Goilan through which it percokties, and in v^ry little time, 
aflfumes the place and form of its magnet, in quantity, ceteris 
paxibua> as the folution and the nidfif are mor^ or lefs abPQdant, 
Being thus fituated and circum£binced, it likewise Ibmifi.tli^ 
Filagree, Laced, Machacada Copper of AlonSQ B(ifba.; which 
is the precipitation of Copper on the laminae of Gof&n, inter> 
feeing in ^ dire^ons, aiid le^viltg unequal a|iiitie«^ Qf ^m^us 
angles between the fepta,:. the ftfu6b^iire» ther^bt^^ ia ^e^y e^ 
lukr, s^d makes it look. Hke oopper laee th$t- haii beeiii bwet, 

Thefe three forts, however, are nsry kvfcfti and moi* of 
them are faved for the cabinets o£ the curious* thaQ are pftel^ 
in the furnace. Green Copper Ore is likewife very rare in 
Cornwall ; and ia feldom h pure, as ^ be takea for a -gf^ of 
the Tuckois kind. Blue Copper i^ leldom met with, «»d it| 
fileem only among lihe euri6vs« 

Gray Copper Ore is one of the richeft forts in this coui^t^^ 
It looks like a kind of Lead ; cuts with a knife, to a very 
finooth f^ce ;. a|id will produce thi greateft q^aotity of Metal^^ 
of afty Copper Ore. 

Bkck Cpppes Ore, of a bluiCbbkck, ia aljfeveryrioh. This 
is either folia, or fandy, being mixed with a light tender Cryftal 
and &iidy Mwidick. It is & l%ht, that «t yM. hot bear the 
ufoal drefBs^ by water 9 but is eeaerally grli*^]^ out and pfut 
to t^ pile fp>r fale, aa it ri^ iro^n the Mine*. Beit^ in, this 
eonddtiion,. it partaket of M>indi<ck, GofTan, £ar<^ aed Cjiyibdy 
Iblar^ly, thajt the ioJtnoiick valu^ of the Qq^ will be earned 
off witk it It i& &id, thait formerly feve^ tJbfwfami pounds 
worth o£ thisi Ore. waa thysi wafiitd m/o. thfN rb^e^, and diA 
charged into thf not^ fea: fionjij tks^ old Pool Mio& This kM 
of (^ in the iLode ia oftentineii fo fair^ that ifrisft^ be raifi^ 

aftd. 



A N D T H E I R- F L tT X E B. > 6^ 

And dre^d ^t ^of fmelting, at that rate olF a fhilling out of the 
pound, iti the price it fells for ; Any ^ ^^^^ known an inftance 
of its bding done for ten pence. In this cafe, the end or ftool 
of the vete will run of itfelf,ttike fand, againft the WorkmaA 
with tiic ufc of his iliovel only. This Ore generally lies fkallow | 
and felwehty years ftgo^ when Copper was not feapched for afid 
little known among us, the 'thinners threw it into the rivets ii 
refufe, by the name of Poder, which fignifies duft, Mundick, 
or waft6« After it became well knowtt, and was wrought for 
fale, it feldom exceeded jT^ los, f ton for fever^ ye^rs^ YfhUi 
there WiS-e but ont- or two purchafers. 

-.■-•'. . ■ . ' ' ' 

Red Copper Oh h rather fettce, but it is valuable. There 
k a kfeid of red, ftetl gt^fled', goflany Ore, that looks very 
rkh, said is wo^itotA jTi^ to ]f 2^ ^ ton, according as i6 
i& impi'^ated with Oal Or KAnj which rendiers it haiSi an^ 
f^ubbott^ for fincltiftg. ftit ^f all Copper Ores, that whittt 
^» by- thie hdSB^ of Peaodi^ Ore, ka furpalfes the reft fo^ 
lieauty aitid elegaikJ^of'^t, While it is new ahd fi^i^ ; fcu^ aft^fi 
it h^ h^ti long Qkj^kd to tk€ lalts of t4i& atmofphere^ ictf 
beautiful colour fades away. The interior of this is yellow. 

of yclloifr Copptr Ore, I have obferved four forts ifl general. 
Thefirft: H fomki ikallow impng black Ore, fmall, or not irt 
large rO^ks ; and it ciui be if^ly fcraped into a yellow dull of a 
rich appearance. The hQ^md is the £ne gc^d coloured flakey 
Ore, that is rich to the eye and in the crucible ; its real value 
may be from ^^2 io jTi^ 4^X6ti : it is this kind of Ore which 
fhoots into diftiA<St and rtgi^Ur* tetrahedc<ms, ^ometrically' 
disfined ^ triang^kr pyraiftid of four equilatetal triangles : th^y- 
are alwa)fs fcfi^l',; dimna, tegular, and of the higheft poliih i- 
are very commoii, and as^ oommonly overlooked by the luperfi-^ 
ciai obferver. Th^ third U ti perfed brafs coloured Ore, which 
rifes in great q^KUititiefiy anii ib- reckoned the bed colour t£ any 
for its continUAiee in ^ Mitie i wheik this comes up in plenty, 
the XTiners pleafe themlelves with the fight of it for that reafon, 
although the vtdtie may ht iktt mort thaft from £y to jTio 
^ ton. This coloured Ore feldom rifb& l»efor^ the vein is foult 
fifty fathoms deep, or at leaft not in great heaps ; the richer' or 
more ihcdinftaRt Ores bein^ fuperincumbent. But the fourth 
^fid deepeft Ooppeir Ott ia o# a pale yellow, pretty much cor- 
rupeect with Mun^ek, and of at^ inferior price, being ^om^ 
£^ to J[& ^fon. Tke il^idioi^ quantit^i, howeinery ^ecom-^ 
p«^ce» fop ki Hft^td^y and diat^s of dfrdUn^; foif it k tL<Q^ 



67 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

which contain a volatile animal Salt ; and being fo cemented, 
they quench it in water, whereby its pores are fo greatly con- 
ftringed, that it immediately grows fo hard as to acquire the 
properties of Steel. 

Of all the fubftances concurring to form the terreftrial globe, 
Iron feems to have the greateft ubiquity ; as it is well known 
to enter into the compofition of Earth, Stone, Plants, and 
Animals, fo truly, that from the aflies of either you may vifibly 
and fenfibly perceive its exiftenqc, even fo as to be difcovered in 
various fecretions from human blood, in milk, urine, fat, &c. 
as may be proved by drawing a Loadftone (whofe property it is 
to attrad Iron only) over their calx, afhes, or refiduum, when 
the Iron particles will be drawn out of them, and adhere to the 
Magnet. 

Iron is the moft ufeful to human life : it is our defence and 
fecurity ; and no arts or manufadrories could exiA without it. 
Navigation, trade, and annmerce, would be at a ftand ; and 
.even the art of difcovering other Mines and Metals, could not 
be pradifed without it: fo that this, which is confidered as the 
bafefl of Metals, is indifpen£ibly neceffary for all the various 
ufes of mankind. Befides the innumerable kinds of inftruments 
made of it, it furnifher-excellent remedies in many difeafes : by 
its figure and gravity with the hiunan blood, it becomes a 
deoburuent and reftorative in cold and relaxed temperaments ; 
but in full and fanguine habits, it is inflamat«»-y and dangerous, 
unl^ preceded by venefedion and other evacuations. 

Tin, Stannum ; Jupiter. 3*D in the Chaldee fignifies- (lime, 
mud, or dirt} and wli^ tliie Phenicians came into Cornwall, 
and faw this Metal in its ancient flimy ftatc, they called it, 
*< The Mud:'* from thence the name, llin^ (in Cornu-britifh 
Stean, in Latin Stannum) has proceeded, and i&flill continued. 
Some of the ancients called it Plumbum Album, Whke Lead, 
ta diftinguilh it, perhaps, from common/l^dad. Itwa^-bythem 
called White Lead^ from its qoiour and purity ; but -tney did 
npt know it to be, radically, aboidier Metal. . We find no Latin • 
name in authors for thie O^e oB Tii^; pvobably, becaufe the 
ancients wef& Unacquainted with it as a Metal charaderiftically 
diftind froiBi Lead. Neither do the Tinners- or Minet>s call it 
Tift Ore ; for' they give k the name of Tin-ftuft a» it rifes out 
oC the earth ; and they diftinguilk it by feveral inctd^its which 
happen often tt> it, either £rom the Ores, ovcnide Minerals 

intermixing 



AND THEIR FLVX£di 66 

intermixing with or torrupting of it; as PryaAy, Peachy, 
Goflany, or Mundicky Tin-ftuff : or clfe actoi'diiig to the degrees 
of finenefs, or fmallnefs, that it is brought to, by ftampiifg of 
it to a powder. Being ptilveriztd fiwe, wilhed, and cleahfbd, 
it then has the name of Black Tin ; and is, therefore, fit to be 
fmelted into White Tin, cw Metal. It docs not acquire a teal 
blacknefs by its pulverization, but is of various Colours accord- 
ing to the colour of the ftuff with which it is principally mine- 
ralized : it moft commonly, however, partakes of a brownifli 
or duiky liver colour ; and obtains the name of Bkck Tin, in 
contradiftindJon to its metallick colour and properties. 

The exiftence of native Tin remains a doubt among the 
curious, to this day ; but I never heard one r^afon advanced, 
why it cannot exift. Although Tih is the lighteft of all Metals, 
its Ore, when rich, is the h«avieft of all metallick Ores ; info- 
much as fometiiftes to have a greater fpecifick gravity, than a 
piece of pure Tin of the faihe uzit : this is probably occafioned 
by the abundant quantity df ft^'undick With whith. it is com-^ 
bined. 

The Ores of Tin may be generally cldffed into 8hbde, Stream, 
and Bal or Mine Tin. The Shode is disjunA,- and fcattered to^ 
fbme declined diftance from its parent Lode ; and is pebbly, or 
ifmoothly angular, of Various fizes, from half ah ounce to ibme 
pounds weight. Sti^atti Tin Ore is the fame as Shode, but 
{mailer fized, arenaMOlM^ and in its ftate, is in the fonh of 
fmall pyramids of varidtts planes, very broad at the bafe, aiid 
tapering to a point at the top. Itt polifli and colour, thefe 
grains, fo called, are gld% jet black, refinous, or red, and 
are the pfeudo garnet, ruby, t<^az, &c. The largeft fingle 
grain of Tin that we i^^ftcmber to have feen, is in the pofleiHon 
of Mr. Giddy, Surgedflj in Penzance, which weighs) two ounces, 
four pennyweights, aaid tWenty-twd grains. Streaxd Tin Ore, " 
is the fmallep loo(e particles of the Mineral, detaehed from the 
bryle or backs c^ {imdry Lodes^ which are iituated on billy 
grounds, and carried down* from thence by the retiring waters 
of the diluviuflS) ot flddd^ c^ ^bfe(|U<ftnt dates j being colleAed 
in large bodies or hea^^ i4$ the valleys. In the folid rock of 
the valley, there h no Tin Of e ; but inunediatdy upon it, is 
depofited a la^r of Streanli Tin of various thicknefs ; perhaps 
ove5r that, a Itifet of earth, clay, gravel, &c. and upoii that 
agaiff another ft^atum of Tin Ore; and fb on (uceeffively, ftratum 
fuper ftrat^ni,- according to thefr grtj^ity, weA ife ^fes«oS. 



68 OF METALS AND MINERALS, 

pefiods of their comiiig thither, to the depth of eighteen feet 
at a medium in St. Auflell Moor. In St. Blazey Moor, at the 
depth of twenty feet, they have what they call Stream (Tin Ore) 
about five feet in thicknefs in the bottom, great part of which 
had been anciently wrought before Iron tools were known, 
feveral wooden pick-axes of oak, holm, and box, having been 
lately found therein. Over this they have a complete ftratum 
of black mud, fit for burning ; on this a ftratum of gravel, 
very poor in Tin ; on this another ftratum of mud ; and upper- 
moft gravel s^ain. 

.t 

Bal or Mine Tin Ore, frequently rifes very rich ; and inftances 

are plenty, where it has been difcovered in the richeft and pureft 

ftate imaginable. Under fuch circumftances, it has been carried 

to the fmelting-houfe, as it came out of the earth, and the 

proprietors have received ten parts in twenty of it in Metal, the 

fmelter having taken to himfelf perhaps one part more for his 

J yJ^^J,^,^ expence and profat : Polberou in St. Agnes, which belongs to 

•g^ Z^ the Donnithorne family, produced great quantities formerly. 

,^ ^^ife^^*- I^ t^c yc^ '750 i^ is faid, one rock of Tin from that Mine, 

,^^,/ij^^^ weighed 1 200 pounds, and produced one half in Metal, clear 

^ .»» » * "K of all expence to the owner, who gained jf 100 ^ diem for 

*^*ri^,/^^'{ovait confiderable time. 

^ 44^^tk4»^ I obferve that this kind of rich Tin Ore, which confifts of 

iT** S>* ^^ blackeft grains or Cryftals, is ufually found at a moderate 

/^***^jr ^^P^^> o^ within the day fide of forty fathoms. Grouan Lodes ; 

\^a\/i^!^ fb called from their participation of the nature of the adjun<% 

^^iJittHmA? ^ and incumbent ftrata, do moft ufually produce thofe very rich 

x > „ /i i fe» ■ >* <«. Cryftals. But a lofty folid unformed Tin Ore, is commonly 

4^1^ *^*^^^ ^^^ produdion of all kinds of ftrata ; and, according to my 

•^^ -*--*^^ pbfervation, is in itfelf more independent of any contingent 

'<^.cc<s>-4>»^ influence. I have feen the fame folid lumps of black and dufky 

tUCtMUd J^'' liver coloured Tin Ore arife equally alike in form, colour, and 

^ ,^IL>/CMp^ appearance, from Lodes in Grouan, Moorftone, Ironftone, 

^^^ ^<^i^K^ilas, or Cryftai ftrata. Goftan never exhibits a rich fliew of 

^ ^*^ Tin Ore; for it is in that nidus more difteminate and minute.. It 

, iJ vd^ ' ieldom continues in Goflan, above thirty fathoms from grafs. 

U^-Uy^^^^' Bift if we defcend from the loftinefs of Tin Ore before defcribed, 

'•> '^^/^^T*\^ way find it, although invifible to the inexperienced Miner, 

Z^"^" '*very . rich and fniall grained; in which pofiture it is fcarcely 

'^t!^ known, but by the exceeding gravity of the Stone in which it 

is enfluined, and the different colour thereof from the adjacent 

ftrata* Sometimes it is in blue, gray, black, or brown coloured 

Lode-ftones, 




A K D T H E i R F LUKE S. Sg 

l^^dde-ft^nes, cvtreiiiely fmaU ; tbnetisoes temcd in the Stones, 
and )»alichy throu^ouc die Lode^ whereby it may be kpatated 
luul forced as it fifes, to the faving of much expence in dreiling : 
in ^het places it may be priany, peachy, fiooicany, or mun*- 
dicky, with wMch vt may be either very prevalent or icanty ; 
but in the la«ter, mnd where O^sper paitiotpajtes, it muft be 
well burnt before the true value or it can be known. 

'tkk Mdtiil ^ms to be eaidty asid nery luiphureous ; alcnofl 
<bfc and pli&ble as Lead, but more white axkd beautifiiL Bend 
k pieoe "of pute Tin, or bice it haid, and it will pre a crafhing 
noilb Cft flridor ; kvx. its ^rity is heSt, known by obierving the 
whiteiyefs or d^cacy «^ ks ^ain, when broke <^ fhovt. Tin^ 
^^e tiead, t« more «aiily 4iflblved in a weak aoid menftmiuni, 
than- in a Ibong one. It may be eafily amalgamated with 
Quickfilver, and melts almoft as readily as Lead ; therefone, it 
will not bear ignition. It is not naturally very fonorous ; but, 
Weomftfr fbf v£eA ;f>r«periy -oomaiiKt (with Copper, it will ;not 
enSfy dhSvtft ^ tcft bf we ^ for as iboa as the ^heat becomea 
vi^AeiA 4t -ailbinefe tt^ i«rm 'Of aHulvhorn ^fh or caix, which feon 
lo^ itsHttidky, and k changed iuba -a powder «alkd Putty ^ 
^tAatdti pow4er is <slfo tMAe Iff oakinabion «f T^a, hut is redu* 
^Me^iiito Tki dgaiii hf naming with a proper (flux. . 

Sefides iies vlfefiilners in utenfils per ^fe^ it <s alfo »eceflary for 
c<]K^efnftg the in^Ae ^ Gasper, Srafs, 4ind &on MidEEdsj to fM&* 
feifyt ^^m*^>iAi^lfSotae*i&t ^3ulklaIy u;fes ; wiieoce thereis a laice 
€«Mfum^i«m^ ^eifnuAg Sr»& 'ware aad «he likei: <it is «ifend 
«dfo *fA Ittllda4ng % %ut >I Mievt the compound Metal of Bewter, 
Tff whiiclh 'k ^ J^ ^nfidrpid ingredient, os preferable for\iihaU: 
^[mi>pefe. ^dlides 'it's demdftidk lufes, it is >a moceBJary aitidq, 
Vhen^d^dhred in 4^^tta il>0#t}s, fo the «iew ticarlet or Bpw <lie. 
Andif 9'iam^kglyitt^Maed, -our molft ibeautiful 4»m1 ^kfting 
coloured fine cloths owe their fuperlative excellency to the re- 
teni^vetiels -j^veh bf ^eur iist^ ^grain Xln 9 Momiah, ithat the 
fEnglillli^fu^^ffine^roaftdkllhs, ^din^^nxhy^heihdlp/of^this 
^higfedient^ 'vae '4>ec«Ae Haatrnvs 4r atl^nankete «f '<ithe ^asmm 
•WOrfa. -♦ 

ft 4s more '^<han probate, •^uit^l^^i^k-die-'af ikc'Wjmm 
*gBitted^e v«fy-^great'Yeptttai;toi k ^haid' among liieaiiciettts, «i 
<!gfeat'patt, iT'tttM^wbolfly, tfirem^&iir l^e^ftouf l^iin^the eoii^po^ 
<§tton^f tlfeh: dieilixtfF, «»'tlK 9^inJto«it mm fMf imtheiroiPti 



70 OF METALS AN0 MINERALS, 

management and dircdion. I think' the known fads of its being 
their monopoly, the exceeding ufefiilnefs of it as one of the 
non-colouring retentive ingredients, and the fame in all parts 
of the world of the unfading colour of that purple which is 
fuppofed to be given by the juice or faliva of a certain fhell fifh 
called Purpura, do very much preponderate towards my con- 
jedure. 

We may be- certain, that almoft the fole traffick to this iiland 
four and twenty centuries ago, was for this Metal ; and we have 
before obferved, that in thofe very early ages, our Tin was fold 
to the Phenicians, who (like the prefent Hollanders, the grand 
carriers of Europe) tranfported the commodity in their bottoms 
to all foreign parts. " Tyrus, O thou that art fituate at the 
" entry of the fea, which art a merchant of the people for 
'* many ifles." (Ezekiel). 

Jefus the fon of Sirach, the author of Ecclefiafticus, lived 
247 years before Chrift. In fpeaking of Solomon's glory, 
chap, xlvii. verf. 18, he lays, "By the name of the Lotd God, 
*• which is called the Lord Godof Ifrael, thou didft gather 
" Gold as Tin, and didft multiply Silver as Lead.** Which 
fhews that Tin in thofe days, viz. 247 years before Chrift, was 
exceedingly plenty in the Holy Land. And it is remarkable, 
that Tin and' Lead in this place, - are both' mentioned, and 
diftinguifhed ; fo that the latter cannot be> taken or meant for 
the former, as they have- been miflaken and confounded together 
for one Metal by others, though charaderifUcally different. 
By the fhips Solomon fent out, he had a return in one voyage 
only, of no lefs than 420 talents of Gold 5 therefore it is ex- 
preffed, i Kings x. 27. " Money was. in Jerufalem as Stones 
" for plenty." How vaftly plentihill muft Tin have been then 
in Jerufalem, to be fpoken of in the above figurative way ? 

We cannot, however, fay pofitively, that no other country 
produced this Metal in thofe days ; but if it was then known in 
-other nationsr, it was very little fought after, and was eftimated 
as a ftaple by no country except Cornwall. Pliny fays, it was 
found in Gallicia and Lufitania, but not at a depth or in 
quantity to merit much attention. A Tinner, in the time of 
Richard earl of Cornw^ and king of the. Romans, upon fbme 
difguft at home, went over to Saxony, and taught the natives 
to feek for Tilt, and render it merchantable : they have to 
" . thit 



AND THEIR FLUXES. 71 

this day fome workings for Tin, though of no further account, 
than for their own confumption. Alonzo Barba, fays, that 
they had rich veins of Tin at Onjro and Potofi ; but their 
vicinity to fuch immienfe Mines 6P Sili^, itithe reafon of their 
being never worked to any purpole. A great deal of Tin has 
been imported into Europe thefe latter years from the Moluccas, 
fome bars of which the writer has feen equal to the beft Cornifh 
Grain Tin. ■ • . » 



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fro o K 

* < I I *■ t . . . V 



c 



B O O K IL 



C H A P. I. 

Of the Strata of the Earth, and the Fiflures in which Metala 
are found, their Diredion, Inclination, or Underlie. 



BEFORE we difcover the recefTes of our Metals and 
Minerals, it will be convenient for the reader to have fomc 
knowledge and acquaintance with the circumjacent Strata, 
which enclofe the objeds of our enquiry : purfuant, therefore, 
to the plan of a late ingenious author, upon our entrance on the 
fubjed before us, we will examine the (hell firft, and then con- 
fider the kernel. 

The Strata of different countries are various ; and from en- 
quiry I cannot find that they are influenced by the atmofphere 
or climate in any degree : and they are not only various, but 
alternate in their extent, breadth, and depth, in all parts of the 
world. In the Mining countries, they are found of different 
denfities and gravity. Stratum fuper Stratum throughout ; fome 
hard, fome foft, then hard and foft again. Thus we may find 
uppermofl, a Stratum of Granite, or Moorflone-rock j then a 
fofter Granite, called. Grouan ; now Kellas ; and fo on, to 
the concave of the grand abyfs. Half a mile diflant, the layers 
of Rock or Stone will be altogether changed in their pofitions 
or complexions ; whereby no abfolute rule can be formed, to 
decide upon the certainty of meeting with this or that Stratum, 
before the induflrious Miner has laid them open to view. 

I fhall not. attempt to defcribe all the Strata that are to be 
inet with ; but (hall confine myfelf to Cornwall, and even that 
piEirt of it which is difpofed for Metal, within compafs of my 
(wn j$erfbhal'fnfpedion. 

The general law of attra&ion evidently appears in the diflri- 
bution of our Strata ; and their fpecificK gravities feem not to 
determine them fo much as might be expeded : whence we 

may 



OF STRATA A N D PI S S U Jfl E S. 73 

may argue, that when folids and fluids formed, (and from a 
ftate of chaos became divided into diftind bodies) the parts of 
the former being deferted hy the latter, mull needs grow clo{er; 
together. But the maiTes of Earth, Stone, and Clay* were not; 
at this time merely paffive ; they formed larger and more com- 
pa<i bodies, every where, according to the mutual attradion of, 
their iimilar parts within proper diAance. It muft be further 
obferved, that as all fimilar parts ftruggled to come into contact: 
with each other, fo at the feme time they deferted, ■. repelled-,; 
and exprefTed all difHmilar and contending particles ; confe- 
quently, maffes of different natured particles, feceded andjled 
from each other, every party (if I may be allowed the ex-r 
prelllon) tending to unite and combine with its lik^. Dr/ 
Worthington, in his Scripture Theory of the . Earth, fays, 
f< All matter gravitates towards all matter ; (o all hoQiogentous 
"parts of matter gravitate ftill more powerfully towards each 
" other, whereby they are more clofely united and compadsed 
•* together, according to their fpeciiick textures. Each therc- 
" fore will aflbrt . themfclves, arid affemble with their kin4^ 
** refpedively.** Thefe caufes then, viz. the defdrtipn of mQi-r 
(hire, the union of fimil^r, and the mutual repulfe.of diffimilai; 
particles, muft all have contributed to form th^ ipafles of pur 
terraqueous globe into fuch feparate portions as we now £nd 
them in. This accounts for the diVerie diftribution of our 
Strata, which ;by this theory will not be founded upon chance 
or cafualty, as was the cafe by Mr. Hawkibee's return to the 
Philofophical Society in the year 171 2, when he bored to, the 
depth of thirty Strata of a coal pit. . 

However, in the natural clafs and order of our Strata, I (hall 
make my obfervations in proportion to their hardnefs and fp^ 
lidity, beginning with the tendereft firft. 

Soft Grouan, though a Stratum, can fcarcely be called a 
Stone ; for it is rather a Tandy or priany Stratum of Moorftonf 
gravel, not cemented together, but lax, arenaceous, and mixed 
with difperfed Stones of Granite. It generally lies at the extrcr 
mities of the Moorftone Stratum, or hard Grouan. In fome * 
places it is fo £ur or foft, as to run out againft the workmen, 
and requires a great deal of timber to fecqre it ; but notwith- 
ftanding this, it enclofes numbers of Tin Lodes of conflderable 
value in the pariihes of Weodrbn, Camborn, Crowan, Redruth^ 
OWeaap, lUugiAQ, &c. 

U ^»s«. 



;^4 OiF STRATA, ANI> FISSURES, 

' Slate is comsaon to many paxts c£ our county ; but, in -qua- 
lity of Slate, is not difpo^ to fecerne Mineral juices, although 
fome thin efflorefcencies of Mundick have been (een on die 
edges of the famous Delabc^e Slate-ftones. The Slate, or 
Sheify-done, is always uppermoft next the loamy ibil ; but, in 
depth, it enters into the nature and coniiflence of real Ktllas. 

Of Kiilas I have obfenrcd fix Ibrts common to us, the white, 
the red, the yellow, the brown, the cinereous or bluifh, and 
the deep blue. The firft is very white and tender, and from itt 
exceeding tendernefs i« called Fair Ground ; it requires much 
timber and boards for binding, and (ecuring it from filling the 
Mine, and endangering the workmen's lives. The red is not fo 
fiiir, but is well difpofed for C(^per, or Tin Lodes ; the latter 
prcfoabiy. The yellow i« but indifferently difpofed for cither. 
The brown, which has various ihades or lighter and deeper 
eoikmrs, is generally a hard St(Mie, and ctmtains Lodes of Titi 
more commonly than Coppier. But of all the Kiilas, the cine- 
i>eous or pale blue is moft <lefirabk, as the enclofing Stratum of 
a-6dpper Ldde. We find it the moft common and agreeable 
el»eft that enclofes our ca^nets of jewels. Conftant experience 
Will incline ^s to give this Stratum the preference to all others 
hr Copper Mines, on aqcount of its generally accompanying a 
rich Mine ; and becaufe itis tender and agreeable to work upon 
in the linking <o€ (hafts and the driving of drifts or aidits out of 
th^ Lode. It is this kind of Kilks which we call Feafible 
G^tmd, i.^e. to be eafily broken, and yet Urm enough to ftand 
without the fupport of binding with timber and boards. How- 
ever this will oftentimes, by infenfible degrees, wear out as we 
call it, and become a deep blue, hard, unkindly, and coftly 
Kilks, neither favourable Co the Mine nor the labourer. It will 
require great addrefs, and much gunpowdei' ibniettmes, to break 
and make way through it. A Kiilas in its befl flate, is foft, 
tender, fieaky, and httj y will cut to any form underground, 
and requires no timber ; but if it is hard and untra6table, and 
^otks YA very fmsdl &reds of Stone, it is ual&vourable to work 
or «!nclofe Metal. 

Etv<m, at a fiiallo^ level, is agrkty kind of Stone, moft like 
Ti ^oarfe Freeflone, but in depth is exceeding liard. The two 
^tnoft common colours of this Stone are « bhii^ grey and a yel- 
Jo^ Freeftone. It <:omfnonly yidkk gre«t q«at)ititdes of w«ter ; 
and we take it to be of the fame kind widi that 8tooe which 
lies on the Culm veins in Wales. It fonjietimes runs in a direc- 
tion 



AND THEIR DIRECTION, ^c. 75 

tion north, and ftrnth, contrary to thfe metalUck veins, whkh 
generally keep their courie through it, but the Lod^s are fre-» 
qucndy fqueezcd up by it3 accompanyifig them fome length in 
their courie, or ^e Tplit into many fmall branqhes. Sometimo) 
the Figures or Lodes arc thrown mort on one iide, out of thek 
diredl courfe as it were, by the extreme hardnefs of this Stratum, 
and afterwards they recsover their courfe again. At other timei 
the metallick veins are elevated or deprei&d by it, though they 
always recover their former diret^on, and unite again i fdr 
this Stratum wears out at a great depth, and is fucceeded by 
KiUas. 

Moorftone or Granite. The name of Granite, which, theffe 
Strata have univerfally obtained, is a modern name given them 
fay the Ittdian writers, on aidcount of their being concreted into 
grains, or in a granulous ftruifture, and not compa& and uni~ 
form as the Marbles, &c% are ; thence Grantta 1. e* ^ grants 
compofita. The parts of Granite are not homogeneous, but arp 
difieKnt concretions of Quartz and Micss. The varieties are 
compo^ of block and white Talc, a dead earth not unlike the 
white Boles or Pipe Clay, and true Cryftal* 

We have five {brt$ comni(»i to las^ viz. the white, the dove 
coloured, the yellow, the red or Oriental Granite, and the 
bliack or true Cornifli N^ i of HUl. Either of thefe as a Stra>- 
tum, is called a F{ard Grouan Country, (in the Swcdiih tongue 
Graberg, and Gfaften) and the two laA are frequently fo,hard 
and inrincibie as ta tire the^ podence and pocket, of the advea- 
turers, and the labour of the workmen. Grouan Strata are 
difpofed for Tin, which in fuch fituations is generally of a rich 
quality, or caniiat long j».ibught alter or wrought in its.almofl 
impregnable walla. They ane ieldom likely for Copper Ore ; 
and were long thought t9 he wholly adverfe to thgt Mineral, till 
the great Mine of Tiefavean prored that rule exceptionable. 

The Ire-Aone^ 4)r IroA-ftone, k hy rnvtch the hardefl of all 
Strata, and bosrowp this name from its extreme hardnefs^ and 
not becaufe it contains Iron. It is of a dark blui/h odour, like 
Lead that has been long expofed to the weather ; and ufually Co 
hjard, that it muft be wrought with Steel borers^ aad then blown 
by gunpowder, it <often keqts & courfe caft and weft like la 
Lode, but is -oomnumly {(T-ery wide; and therefoi» it is incty 
tedioos and chaiigeabie. Where an adit muft be driven acrofs 
-^rcH)g^ it. it iathis dtratnain that is uppccmoft. thcotigh gceat 



76 OF STRATA, AND FISSURES, 

part of the middle of Camborn and lUugan pariflies,* where 
many principal Copper Mines are enclofed in it. Tin Lodes 
are very feldom found in Ire-ftone, but very rich Copper Lodes 
in many places are natural to this Stratum or country. We do 
not obferve that it ever gets into the Lodes themfelves, although 
there are fome dark hard peachy Stones very like it in fome 
Lodes. The author of a familiar difcourfe concerning the Mine 
adventure, fays, *' It is a conftant obfervation amongil all 
' Miners, that the harder the rock, the richer the Mine ; na- 

* ture generally makes the cafe ftronger or weaker, according 

* to the richnefs of the treafure therein contained : for where- 
' ever the fides of a vein are cracked and broken, the mineral 
^ water that feeds the vein, runs off, and the vein proves dead 

* or very poor : but when the fides of a vein are folid and fijrm 

* vidthout cracks, the mineral feeder impregnates and enriches 

* the Mine, and the fame proves quick and rich in Ore." 
This cannot be a general rule, for our theory and obfervation 
prove its falfity. It cannot depend upon the confinement of 
mineral water in one particular place, that a Lode fhall be rich, 
in- Metal, fo much as upon the ftrength and peculiar attradion 
of the nidus through which it circulates ; for we conceive the 
attradion to be inflantaneous : therefore, water charged with 
mineral falts or particles continually paillng through a vein, will 
more abimdantly impregnate that vein, than if its principles are 
decompofed, and the water is left pure and unmixed. This is 
the reafoning of mofl experienced Miners 9. - fer when a rich 
Lode of Copper, &c. is cut with abundance of water following 
the difcovery, they always declare, ** It iai a very promifing 
*' circumftance." 

The foregoing Strata are only common to Tin and Copper 
Lodes in this county, and if we have not fpedfied more which 
may be thought of by the difceming Miner, we will never- 
thelefs take upon us to fay, any others that may be mentioned 
will only prove to be varieties of fome of thefe. We cannot 
learn, that there are either Chalk, Marble, or Limeftone, in 
any part of our mining Strata ; coniequently real Spar is foreign 
to our country. 

Now when the general affimilation of kindred particle^ hap- 
pened, and folid bodies were feparated from fluid; between 
the diffimilar, certain cracks, chinks, and FifTures, in various 
diredions and contortions, wereciFeded at their extreme angles.;- 
but as the matter of each Stratum became more compad and 

denfe 



yS OF STRATA, AND FISSURED, 

and commerce and the ornameat& of life) would be endlefs^ and 
the expence of proctiring exceed the value of the acquifition. 

" Thefe Fiffures," fays Agricola de Ortu, &c. " were the 
** channels through which the waters retired at the time of the 
** creation into the ocean, when the dry land made its firft ap- 
** pearance :" and Woodward in his Nat. Hift. thinks they arc 
breaches made in the Strata by the retiring waters of the deluge, 
prior to which sera (according to his hypotheiis) there could be 
neither Fifiure nor Lode. The opinion of the former is eafily 
refuted ; for the walls of the Fiffures in fame places are too 
hard to be overcome, and to yield to the power of any current 
of water ; and in other places too fair and tender to endure the 
force of fuch a torrent : befides, their eaft and weft diredion, 
have not th^t tendency, in our parts, to difcharge into the ocean, 
as they might feem to fhow, if their courfes made for St. George's 
channel in the north, and the Britifh channel in the (outh. 
With regard to the latter opinion, our Shodcs will notofioufly 
evince the miftake ; as the Fiflure muft be antecedent to the 
matter of its contents, whofe Shodes, it is generally betfeved* 
were feparated from the ftiperior part of the Lode by the retiring 
diluvium. 

The infide of thofe Fiflures arc commonly glidered or coated 
over with a hard, cryftalline, earthy fubftance or rind, which 
very often in breaking of hard Ore comes oiF with it, and is 
vulgarly called the Caples or Walls of the Lode ; but I take it 
the proper walls of the Lode arc the fiden of the Fiflure itfelf, 
and not this coat, which is the natural plaifter upon thofe walls, 
furnifhed perhaps by the contents of the Fimires, or from 
Dozings of the environing Strata. We can prcfently fee the 
breadth of a Lode or of a branch, by the incrufted {ides of the 
Stones of Ore,* if brought whole to grafs, although we were 
never under-ground to take the meafure of it j therefore it is 
common to fay, ** I perceive the breadth of this or that Lode, 
<* to be (b many inches wide ; becaufe here are the fmooth 
** walls or caple^ affixed to and broke off with the Stones of 
<^ Ore." But this can be only ia fmall Lodes, and bard Strata, 
where the Lode breaks Aotiey. If a Lode is inclinable to yield 
any fort of Ore, it is the more promifing provided the caples or 
Walls of the Lode are regular and finooth, or at leafl if one of 
them is (o ; but if they are uneven and ruggcdj it is the leTs 
ejicouraging. There arc, however, but few Lodes or Fiflures 
that make tegular walls, tttitil they arc £snk an. sl few fathoiii&. 

Thus, 



AND THEIK. I>IR,5QTIQ«, ice. 79 

Thus, the mcdhiUary or \an^t ptaK oi 9i ^iff^T4^ ia. w^iijcK ^^ 
Ore lies, is all the way environed and bovjni^c^ by t^q wa^U, py 
coats of Stone, which are generally parallel to each other, and 
include the breadth of the veift or Lpde j fo tl^ wh^n the 
Miners dig down or along ia a laige li^de, then the r^pf^ }, e. 
the upper, the hanging wall, or inQupib^lit Vfull of t^e l^q|d^.q3; 
FifTure, is (in a certain pioportion %cQQr4ipg tp its i^qlij^tiQB 
or underlie) over their heads j and the Iqwer, or ptJiQf WfilJ <??[ 
rind, i& under their feet : and further ,^ whatever aiiglc of i|i^« 
nation ibme Fiilures make at iird in the firm ^14 ^t^f^t^a t^ey 
feldom vary from the fame in depth ; th^re afe, howev^^r>. foipR^ 
exceptions to this rule. Some FifTure^ are very ttpcertaii^ ^4 
different in fize ; for they may b^ very fm*U np^ the furfecfi, 
or very wide in depth, and vice Yer& } but a,a %^ xh^ regul^ 
breadth or largcnefs of Xiodes in their length or dire«^iofty th?y 
generally make a great variation ; for although a Fifllire m^y b^ 
many fathoms wide in one particular pkce, yet, a little fur^j^^i 
eail or weft, it may not perhaps be an inch wide. 

This variation ipay happen from feveral ia%\ifts, feut pf^^ff 
cfpecially in very compad Strata, when the Lo4? ^ Fiffyr^ if 
fqueezed, as it were, through means of hard rOQk$» wlu<i fi?f ip 
to comprefs and ftraiten thp Fiflure. However^ a trt^e ^q^, 
Coiirfe, or Fiffurc, is never entirely cut out or deftroye4 by hard 
rocks or Strata j for the Fiffurc gdwayfi eontiny^s throiigh th^ 
hardnefs, yielding ^ rib pr firing of metaUick Ore, or. elf? of 9. 
veiny fubftance ; which often fervcs for a leader (ox the Minprp 
-to follow, until it fometimes brings them again to 9. IgrgQ ^4 
rich part of the impregnated Fiffurc : all whi<^ vgrj^ty of iize 
in the length, breadth, and depth of Fiffurcj, (hew5 thftt they 
are the immechanical operations of nature, to fix and fettle 
different congeries of mixed bodies into their peculiar fhftpps 4nd 
pofitions. 

As to the length and depth of FifTure?, perhaps they feldpni 
admit of any period or limitation ; for none can tell how long or 
how deep they reach : but in regar4 of their breadt)}, thiQknefs, 
width) or iargenefs, they are limited am^ varioD9» Though the 
depth of Fiffures is unlimited beyond th^ power of mail to ToUow 
after, yet it appears in general, that their fniitfulnefs £^ Afe^ 
is diftin^ and limited. The' richefi flate for Copper is bslWQ^P 
forty and eighty fathoms deep, and for Tin between twenty q^ 
^xty ; and though a great quantity may be r^d of j@i$h^ St 
V-' ; , , , / f9«rf€«re 



86 OF STRATA, AND FISSURES, 

fourfcore or one hundred fathoms, yet the quality is often de- » 
cayed and dry. for Metal. 

The Fiffures then of Cornwall, which are produdive of 
Metals and Minerals in their progrefs or diredion, are extended 
eaft and weft; or, more properly fpeaking, one end or part 
of the Fiffure points and runs weft and by fouth, or elfe weft 
and by north, or thereabout ; and the other end looks or tends 
eaft and by fouth, or eaft and by north : and thus they often 
pafs through a considerable trad of country, with little or no 
variation in their diredions, except they are obftruded by fome 
intervening caufe ; of which hereafter, when we come to fpeak 
of the interruption of Lodes, &c. Henceforward we fhall not 
always take notice of their deviation from the cardinal points of 
the compafs J but, for the moft part, fhall confider them as 
tending eaft and weft, as the only Fiffures which are filled 
with Tin and Copper Ores in Cornwall. 

Befides this eaft and weft diredion of Fiffures, there is yet 
another of a contrary manner and tendency, which the Miners 
properly name, the underlying of the Lode, or the Hade. 
This is the defledion or deviation of the Fiffure from its perpen- 
dicular line, as it is followed in depth like the flope of the roof 
of a houfe, or the defcent of the fide of a fteep hill. Inftead of 
it» tending diredly downwards to the center of the earth, it in- 
clines either to the north or the fouth, or nearly fd. Suppofe, 
for inftance, one fide of the roof of a church to be a Lode bared 
of its incumbent Strata : the length of it eaft and weft, will fhew 
what I mean, by the diredion of the Lode or Fiflure ; and the 
flope or fide will explain its inclination or tendency downward ; 
that is, the north fide of the roof underlies north, and the fouth 
fide underlies fouth : fo that if a Miner fhould dig down per- 
pendicularly where he firft began, or cut the Lode, then it 
would foon be gone away from him, either to the north or to 
the fouth : therefore, when it happens thus, they arc often 
obliged to fink new fhafts or pits on the underlie or inclination 
of the Lode, to cut it in depth, for the eafe and conveniency of 
winding or drawing up the water and Ore in a perpendicular 
line. This underlying varies much in different Lodes, and 
fometimes alfo in the fame Lode ; for it will often flope or 
underlie a fmall portion different ways, as hard Strata on either 
fide may feem to force it. Some Fiffures do not alter much from 
a perpendicular; and fome do underlie a fathom in a fathom; 
that is, for every fathom which they go down in depth, they 

are 



A N D T itRI R ni RE G 3: 1 OH &^' 8t 

are alfa gone a fkthom further to the fouth or to: the north, 
which ever way the inclination or underlie may be. ^ Other 
FiiTures, again, underlie fo &ft, or- obliquely, that they differ 
not much from an horizontal portion, and they are thence 
called Flat Lodes, or Lode Plots. There is another fort of Flat 
Lode or Lode Plot, which underlies irregularly with refped to 
other Lodes or Fifliires ; for this underlies or widens horizontally 
for a little way, and then goes down perpendicularly not unlike 
fiiairs, with only a fmall ftring or leader to follow after ; and 
thus they alternately vary, and yield Ore in feveral flat or hori-r 
zontal FiiTures. Yet this kind of Fiffure is very rarely met 
with^ ai>d is wrongly called by the Tinners, a .Floor or a Squat^ 
which properly fpeaking is a. hole or bhalm impregnated with 
Metal, that makes no continued Hne: of diredion, or regular 
walls ; nor yet goes down any cbhfiderable deptl^ ;..for>when a 
Floor 'Of. Ore of this fort is dug away, there appears no footftep 
er fign of a vein or fiffure, either under foot, or pointing or 
leading any where elfe. Alonzo Barba, in the Spanifh tongi», 
calls it a Sombrero, which fignifiea a Hat or a Heaped Mine, 
where Metal is found in a heap together. In Cornwall, they 
call.it a fiunny of, Ore or Tin ; and fometimes '*. The , Pride of 
** the Country ;** which lafl epithet we apprehend more pro^ 
perly belongs to the Bryle or loofe fhattery back of a Lode^ 
when it is very rich for Tin or -Copper, inunediately to the day 
pr fur&ce. Inflances.of Bunnys of^ Ore are very rare with ui. 
We have heard of fuch among the T^ Mines in St. Jufl, near 
the Land*s End.; and tliat there are feveral fuch chafins, im- 
pregnated with Copper or Lead, in .Wales, and the north of 
England, where they .are called Pipes of Ore. In the latter we 
have been informed.of a Pipe. of Copper Ore, called.Eaton Mine^ 
which is two hundred fathonu deep, the Sough or Adit being one 
hundred fathoms below the furface. When thofe Pipes are ex- 
haufled, if they '&nd water dome in lipoh them,, they work to 
meet it, without regarding what point of the compafs it flows 
from ; and this: oftentimes leads them to another Pipe or Bunny 
of Ore. . Likewife, if a few Stones of Tin are found difj>erfed 
in our foft Grouan Stratum, by properly remarking the pendency 
of thefe Stones, and where thcheavieu part of them points, it 
may be nearly guefled how far off /another, little Pipe or BunnT 
of. Ore may be; or, at leafl, they will bring you, to what u 
more natural, a true Lode^. aa: we.: every day experience in our 
difcoveries of Tin Lodes by Shodeing, as will be hereafter 
4efciibed. < > ^i 



82 Off 5TRATA^ ANK :^II«t'URFSV 

After all ; the Fifliwcs which arc tommoil^tib usy rRw ri» pcr^ 
pendiculaf, a^d the iodined, let their dire^bix fae eidxer north 
and fb^tHy or fiafl and W£&. . ^ tiiey impregnatjsd with Metal, 
or quite barren and void of Ore, they are ufuaUy fuch as w^rhave 
above dcfcribed ; and when any Flopr, Pipe, pr Bunny b£ iOce 
is met with, we look upon it a$ a very wiconwnon difpofitioa 
of Metals ia Cornwall. 

Perpenxiijcular and horizontal FiiTures, piiobiably remain ,lii:tlet 
altered from their £iA pofiition, when they wreoc- originally; 
formed at the induration of Strata immediately after the waters 
4efertcd the land. ^efpefUng the former, mo find tikem ^lonr 
commonly iituate in level ground, and at^adiilanae fickDii hills/ 
or the fea fhore, where the Strata might make Ms re&ila^ice to 
fecQOidary ac;pidents. But with regard to th^ latter, w^ find 
that the upper and under i^afies pf Strata, am difiTereot in theii 
folidity, aj^d other properties; whence their 'farination, purfu*^ 
^t jto their diitind and patural efforts to join each with its like^ 
^d to fepaxate from thofe whidh are unUk^. Hence it is varf 
^^par^nt to us, that . inclined JFifiures owe theh: defleiftion or 
tuidbiHe, :^ io fome iecondary cai^fe, violence, or fubfidende: of 
the ieacthc for thpiigh perpendicular FifTures ^rc {eldom feen^ 
ysit. Jiie iDcliiied at a scry confiderable deptbi hcpamel ^iQr^ 
dob^ni&gbt, Bie central Strata being -not {o liable to.be wisfted 
Roni their primaiy^^ofition,. as thofe more neas to thevfiirfkcey 
on thp £4es^:of hills, -and thslcli^fl^ of the.&ibihbre, 'ofwallies^' 
and ^. snrers. it ts .miore than probable, tha$ ifundry. and di« 
Ver& agitatibns and fuWiden^lfit have betm sf&&ed IGnco th^ 
cresudoai^ jiay even id^ aur own time and kuliowiefilge ;- 'iwhich 
pQiild cxQt: but ihfiuencey in various de^pes^ idl the adjoining 
Sixata;, Aiid their FijSiiries or,I,.fides... .; :: . .^ /j ' .. r 



1 > FifiWeis; are ^notonl^c inclined but fi-ajflbrdd ;< Jif^hicSi ^fi-ai^ii 
tnuA have been the effedi jqf :violei>c& ;^^ 
^0EMaiftrhai9e:i9(iefi the itSeA o£ £breby fchongb^.fii^ man)!- isftjtnces^ 
thai: fotcd only bent^ and did Ubt. iirocce4 to* tbatl degces of 
ytdimce^ jok ^ break it ihor^ o^,^ bi^t only :tb/iM3eaffiibii.what;we 
xta^.the-'undieirlie of the Ledi. 'Now' if iwB: ^an ^ifcdvieb the 
-niQb^]£> cauib of thfi inclination' or undeHie^f >Fiifiires,\th% 
aameLoauie, .alk>^ingitlbiit^\gre9la: impetus, ^vdlKaccouiitf for 
IJsatfiradoie/whieh'ibe^aaU'ajdide qra iKam; x; Ai-w^n.ii o-i^i-i 
Tj:'l5.j-,-i. *ju i ..V ; /'.•ni:.-.;oxl(j y.l .-LL-..J. n\"k *.a L^iijv-' •!> 
Betwixt the underlie of Fifiures, and the dippin^cbf Jtlie 
adjoining Strata, there is oftentimes fb manifeft an agreement 
Tf-^A Y and 



juid oorrefpondcnce, that liyhftfipv^ '0€§ali«fte4 th^ httter could 
iiQt byt . prod^feCe the former. J-ct vs :&ft nptc tbfl dipping* of 
thfe Stasita j fof if *hfey hayie idy!l> be^nwr^ftaj, thm Piflurcfi, or 
the L(»Jca contained in thfioi^ . fs^ld jaot have prdwy-ed tHdii? 
ibtiohT .The original :p<>fitiaitx of Stjji^jk muft iJav^? he? n hoH? 
zontal or parallel tp the furfe«c of the eia?th ; hvx we often 6^^ 
thofe Stoata wery feofiWy -dedined frgjn thftt firft petfitioo J najf 
{bmetimes quite reverfed and «ha»ged i»to perpendjcwlar, Whdn 
wefee a'wiall lean, we immediately f^o^clinde that the ^njdatiQO 
has given way, acodrding *<» ^e angles whieh the wall laflkm 
Witk-' the horizon ; and when we ^d the like dedmtioa id 
fitrate^ ;! fliould tl^nk we xftay xonelwde, by parity pf reafetlt^ 
that there has been a like failure of what fupporjid them, ill 
proportion to that declination ; or that whatever made the 
StrktartqMl'ib mueli^wf/, :in«ft 4&> $&nk every thing included 
ia thofe Strata t^ fall prgportionabjy. Wherever the ^reateft 
fubfidenefl ij to th« north, fh^ top elf the Lode 0r Fi^utse will 
pcHAt Jo the narth, and in coniequenoe pnderlie tp the fouth | . 
?bd'vke'verf&i 5 iifr-flide or fe^ye pf the Lode manifefta the 
goeater)fuhfidenee:Qf.the Btrajiai hut the fame Lode is frequently 
fraianroiiand hflftvfcd in feveri plaeen ? all of whieh, bydu« 
obfervatioi^' wiU fljtcw us^ they wcfe oeeafibned by fo maoy 
feveral .'fiiccc^tye - fhock^ or fuhndeneie^ ; and that the Strata 
were jiot: unfbotcd, fhakeP). or brought to fall onee only, or 
twice, ihut (everal itimes. (For yncommon fubiidenoies of the 
earth, fifc Philos. Ttaafa^, J37» 349, and 405.) 

The aaUk t>f the underlie, interruption, or fraibire of our 

Lodes: orFiiiurcs,, faetng given, it remains to account in fome 

pieaiiircfbr the te^an^ t>f tHoJS^^iubiidenctes, which is the efEdenit 

AriApislian ;^< id vnxk,'* > from which the others originate; . 

;; .v'.ilr :.••■.• ., -■■ .: - • -. ■ . ■■ . . . 

W]^n ithe Almighty cArchiteiS:, in his infinite wisdom; forefaw 
the se^eifity aald oftmlne^ of mountains and vallies^ he fuiFered 
the rapre lax ^nd' weaker Strata to fink into this abyA, either 
totally ias in thie; depths of the ocean, or partially^ a$ in coombs, 
xiales, raoil Tallies.;, and the more compa<£k andftpi^ Strata were 
left torfiarpa the fnoUntains and! hilly parts of th& lahd^- it muft 
necefTarily follow that when thofe fubfidencies. happened, thie 
adjunct Strata mufl have been proportionably afFetSled, and like- 
/wife their Pxffiires ^ , heooe^fo manlfeft k Irelation' in the S^ta 
and theif Lodes in many; plaops, to thele firft and prineipal 
.dcpvcfSaatiii, ■ii';- ■'■'■'■': '^ - • ■- 

: •.■i-.M'j IT'. i<' '•■''.! ..■■: .'^ !:■' : ". ■-! ,• :;■: • iiij 



Z'i of STRATA,' A'N1> FISSURES, 

i The encroachments of the fea from time to time, by it* 
jBuduatine pervading ebb and flow, hath fearched out, and 
tarried on many of the laxer fubftances between the Strata ; 
nay it hath even, by its own force and violence, deftroyed large 
portions of folid rocks and cliffs, which is well known by every 

{)erfon acquainted with the fea ihore : thefe, together with the 
arger fubmarine gulphs or fwallets, cannot but influence the 
maritime Strata, and produce fecondary fubfidencies of the 
earth ; to which we may afcribc thofe contrary and irregular 
underlies of FifTures with us, who are fo narrowly fituated 
between the two channels, and whofe Lodes are remarkably 
diftorted thereby in the parifh of St. Agnes, and elfewhere on 
the fea coafls. 

' One more effedive caufe of the diflocation of Lodes, is that 
of the general deluge ; which deluge, in the parifh before men^ 
tioifed, is evidenced not only in the multiform' fradures and 
interruptions of the Lodes, but in the diflind and iblitary 
mountain, called St. Agnes Beacon, in the proper Britifh dialed^ 
Carne Bury-anacht, or Bury-anack, the Still .Spar-j(lone Grave ; 
where, fuitable to the name, on the natural remote eminencies 
thereof are raifed three Quartz-ilone Tumuli. The natural 
circum|bances of this mountain are worthy the confideration 
of a philofopher : for though it is a very high mountain, 
abutting on the Irifh fea or St. George*s channel, and rifing 
pyramidally from the fame at leaft five hundred suid forty feet 
above the fea, yet on the top thereof, under thofe Tumuli, is 
difcovered by the Tinners five feet deep good arable kiid or 
earth ; under that, for fix feet deep more, is a fine fort of 
white and yellow clay, of which tobacco pipes have been made ; 
and beneath this clay is a Stratum, or layer of fea fand, and 
fmooth beach pebbles. Two or three hundred fathoms from the 
lea, and about eighty fathoms above it, under this fand, is to 
■be feen for five feet deep nothing but fuch beach Stones, as are 
ufiially wafhed on the fea fhore, and in many of them grains of 
Tin : under thofe Stones, the foil or matter of the earth for 
:fix feet deep ; and under that appears again the firm rock, 
1 through which Tin Lodes have been wrought at fifty, fixty, or 
•feventy fathoms deep. 

" ' • • ■ 

It would be needlefs and impertinent to enter here upon a 
^difquifitida into the univerfality of the deluge, and the natural 
means the Almighty ufed to produce fo unparalleled an event : 
the greatefl naturalifls and philofophers have given different 

.'..'.. and 



AND THEIR DIRECTION, &c. 85 

and contradidory folutions of it. I beg leave, however, to 
obferve, that we are fupplied with innumerable evidences of 
this grand phenomenon ; and notwithftanding we have no 
exuvise of land or fea animals buried in our Strata, yet this 
mountain, of which we have juft fpoken and given the particular 
circumjf^ances of its fite and contents, is at once a produdion 
and an irrefragable proof of Noah's flood. 

It is agreed by moft naturalifts, that fome parts of the prefent 
dry land were, before the flood, part of the ocean's bed ; among 
which, I fuppofe, the top of this mountain was placed, till the 
Almighty caufe moved upon the furface of the waters, and 
direded the bottom of the fea to inflate and elevate the moun- 
tains of the deep, and thereby difFufe its waters, and level the 
furface of this earth. But when the vengeance of Omnipotence 
was finiflied, he commanded the fea and the waters to retire into 
their former refervoir ; whereby the land appeared again, though 
not ujiiformly the fame as it was before ; neither was it neceflary 
it fliould be fo, fo long as it was fufficient for all the purpofes 
of life. At the fame time, the Father of Mercies left thofe re- 
mains of his power and juilice, to convince us by nature, as 
well as revelation, that he is able to do all things. 

If we may have credit for this hypothefis, we are to believe 
alfo, that fome parts of the elevated deep returned to their firft 
ilations, and that others remained and became the prefent dry 
land, which was before the bottom of the fea ; whereby we 
prefume to account for the appearances under the furface of St. 
Agnes beacon, and thofe diflortions of the Strata, &c. in our 
parts, fome inclining one way, fome another, and fome quite 
reverfed. Neithpr will thi3. elevation of the deep, and con-» 
comitant fubfidence of the land, appear unnatural to our idea of 
the matter, when we confider that the loftieft m,ountain lipoii 
the face of the earth, is not quite four miles iji perpendicular 
height, which in fad ^mounts not tp^ojie fix thoufiindth part of 
its circumference j and bears hot fo great a proportion to the 
bulk of the earth itfelf, as the little rifings on the coat of an 
orange bear to the bignefs of that fruit. 

There can be no doubt, that many alterations have happened 
to various parts of the earth, before, at, and after the flood, 
from inundations, earthquakes, and the diflblvent powers of 
fubterranean fire, and water ; which variety of caufes and 
circumftances muft infallibly have produced many irregularities 

Z la 



«6 OF STRATA AND FISSURES. 

in the difpoiition and fltuation of circumjacent Strata and 
Lodes. 

Having, as fuccin<aly and clearly as I am able, delivered my 
own and other people's opinion upon thefe matters, I fhall, in 
the next place, proceed to examine the contents of thofe Fiffures 
and their properties ; wherein a local and peculiar natural 
hiftory will be fo evident, that I fhall hold myfelf excufable to 
fyftematick naturalifts, if I appear to them irregular and imme- 
thodical in the manner which I {hall take to purfue my fubjed. 
As I have alfo fhewn the caufe, nature, and variations of the 
Fiffure, I fhall in future make little ufe of that term ; but in 
compliance with the cuflom of my country, fhall indifcrimi- 
nately call a FifTure, or its contents, the Lode : for inflance, 
when I come particularly to define and defcribe the interruption 
and diforders of Lodes, I fhall fay that this or that Lode is 
heaved to the right, or to the left, up or down, by acrofs Lode, 
a Contra, a GofTan, a Slide, a Flookan, or the like, purfuant 
to the idiom of our Miners ; without taking notice of the Strata, 
upctfi which fuch alterations of FifTures and their veiny fubflances 
depend. 

We have ventured to advance the foregoing hypothefis, as the 
moft likely to account for thofe appearances which occur in the 
bowels of*^ the «arth ; and we are not fingular in it, but are 
^pported by the concurrent opinion of fome very approved 
writers wpon part of the fame fubjed. And though we are 
fenfible that fome objections may be flarted againfl it ; yet we 
can fcarcely think, that thofe who may be moft forward to deny 
it, are fupplied with one that will m(M% rationally pc»nt out 
the caufes of tJiefe a^earances we fpeak of. As, however, 
we do not inflft upon the infallibility of our fentiments, we 
fliall fubmit them to the naturalifl and philofbpher with the 
^reateft defeijenoe ; and ^11 be extremely glad to find, in our 
own day, 1^ ^non of our theory redified by fome abler pen. 



C HA P. 



CHAP. II. 



Of die different kinds of Lodes in rcfpcA of tfce Earth HA 

Stones they -contain. 



THE contents of our Fiffures are very complicated, and 
obtain their feveral diflindt appellations frotti the nature 
and appearance of the moft predominant Earth, Clay, Stone, 
or Mineral, contained in them ; without any refped to the 
metallick impregnations of Tin, Copper, or Lead, unlefs the 
Ores of thofe Metals are very rich, and more abdndknt, than all 
the other contents of their Fiffures. The fame Lode, at higher 
or inferior levels, fliall be alternately named a Goffaii, Mundick, 
or Flookany Lode, purfuant to their predominancy tit twenty- 
forty, br fixty fithoms depth ; or any other internicdiatc leVd 
they may offer to the obfervation of the MJhefs, ^Upon thiit 
account, moft Lodes takt their namts from the fcijid of Stont 
or Mineral they nloft abound with, which often pajticSfjatcs vidtjr 
largely of the nalture of the Strata endbfing them. 

The generality of our Lodes are very differerit to the eye ancl 
in their impregnation, near the furfece, from what We findiheim 
when deeply funk upon ; and though it has been known, that 
the backs of fome few veins have proved very rich, yet they do 
not always hold Metal, and frequently they donbt'carry 1^ bi- 
Copptr Ore enough to pay the chaJrge bf dreffifig br iksLttiiti^ 
them: neverthdefs, ill the finking upbn fuch Vfclns, wc hVi)fefe 
they will depart from their primary cbknir and appearance^ 'and 
form large bodies of Tin or Copper OVe. 

The flight metallick impregnations of otir' Lt^des, wHtRi 
efpecially in Copper, are gfeneiralty pbfdhrdd to fifteen, ahd ^t^ 
thirty fathoms deep, muft certainly arjfe frbhi the fca'rcilcj^ ii^ 
faline mineralick principles, which thd'Wktiet' fo neai-.the ft^Vfafce 
cannot be largely faturatfed with ; and having left depth oF 
Strata to receive the metallick foluticins frbm, they of hecpffiit 
cannot be frirnifhed with ftrong menftriia, to aiSmpbn the Lodiss, 
or depofite themfelves. Although Mines are feldom difcovered 
rich upbn the baeks, we pfefurtie for the feafoxls before given ; 
yet experience will inform tis, that they af-e fometime$ M^ell 
llored With Coppet aiid Tift Otes of the ritheft qiidlity heat- tlife 



88 OF DIFFERENT LODES, AND THE 

day or furface ; but this more frequent in the latter, though of 
no long continuance. 

We fliall divide Lodes which carry Tin, Copper, and Lead, 
into twelve different kinds, in regard to their foreign Materials ; 
and the removes vifible in them, we (hall clafs into their proper 
fubdivifions. The Lodes are ranged in the following order : 



I. 


A Goffan Lode. 


VII. 


A Cryftal Lode. 


II. 


A Peach Lode. 


VIII. 


A Killas Lode. 


III. 


A Scovan Lode. 


IX. 


A Mundick Lode. 


IV. 


A Caple Lode. 


X. 


A Black-jack Lode. 


V. 


A Pryan Lode. 


XI. 


A Flookan Lode. 


VI. 


A Quartz Lode. 


XII. 


A Grouan Lode. 



I. of all thefe Lodes, the Goflan is moft common ; and is 
ever difpofed to yield Tin and Copper, if it runs eaft and weft ; 
but thofe of a contrary diredion, in refped of thofe Metals, are 
Acril and worthlefs. Goflan may not improperly be divided 
into five forts: viz. i. a Tender Red Goflan; 2. a Tender 
irown Goflan ; 3. a Dry Pale Yellow Gofl*an ; 4. a Poor Tin 
Goflan ; and .5. a Gal or Gaily Goflan : all of which arc och- 
reifti fubftances, of a rufty ferruginous complexion, being moftly 
Earth and Cryftal coloured by Iron., with frequently no incon- 
flderable portion of that Metal. 

1. The Tender Red Gofliin is very much inclined to produce 
Copper Ore, efpecially if the Goflan be fpungy, cellular, and 
of a very red colour, like to a well burnt brick. When it is 
thus, and fpotted, or tindured with green Copper Ore, like 
pieces of Verdigreafe, it does not often deceive the proprietors. 
So, likewife. Stones of blue or black Copper Ore, or of yellow 
Ore having a black or purple outfide, are very hopeful to follow 
when mixed in this GoflTan. Yet the Ore in this, nidus is bunchy 
and uncertain, till proved to fome tolerable depth. But if 
Stones of Lead Ore be found in this Goflan, it promifes well to 
produce a .good quantity of Lead. This kind of Goflan was 
upon the back of Pednandrea Lode, and fome parts of Huel 
Sparnon, and is now very plentifully to be rifen at Michell's 
Goflan Mine, in Redruth. 

2. A tender Brown GoflTan, much of the colour of Iron, 
very brittle, and full of holes. The fmaller particles of it are 
of a browniih yellow, very crumbling, and fall to duft by long 

expofure 



EARTH AND STONES THEY CONTAIN.^ 8g 

expofure to the air« It is this GofTan which backs, the Huel 
Virgins in Gwenap. 

3. A Pale Yellow Dry Goflan, of a hard ctyftallinc inter- 
mixture. This fort of Goflan fometimes yields Copper Ore, 
yet feldom turns to any great account. However, I believe it 
to be more promifing for Lead than Tin or Copper, as I have 
obferved it to produce that Metal in Nanfkuke Ddwns and 
el fe where. This muft be moft like the Goflan of Hernn Groundt 
Copper Mine in Hungry, the mother of which Ore is yellow, 
fays Dr. Brown, Philos. Tranf. 59. 

4. A Poor Tin Goflan, implies that which is fo m tefpet^ 
of its yielding Tin ; for otherwife, it may be kindly enough for 
Copper. This Goflan fometimes will yield a very tolerable 
profit, on account of its cheap and fpeedy working for Tin* 
If it is red and brittle, it is a good indication of Copper Or? in 
depth, as the Tin leflens and wears out j and if it is tindured 
with Verdigreafe, it is very hopefal indeed. Formerly, a notion 
prevailed, that every Goflan which did not produce Tin upon 
the backs, was not worth the .attention of the coacemed for 
Copper j but it was a vulgar error derived, from father to fon, 
in times when Copper was very little known. Huel Virgin, 
and other great Copper Mines, have proved, that Goflfans not 
produ<^ive of Tin, will yield abundance of Copper. , 

5. A Gal, (Kal) or Gaily Goffan, is of a hard cohipad 
nature ; its colour blacker than the other Goflan^ :and mot^ 
like rufty black Iron. This makes Tin 5 but it. yeiy feldooi' 
anfwers for Copper, unlefs it .changes to tender : and brittle* 
This GoflTan contains fo much Iron, that it fometimes ought tft 
be ranked as an Ore of that Metal : I have been iq^srmed by": 
my friend Mr. Bennallack, that he has aflfayed fome Stones of! 
this Gal, which have produced three-fifths of their weighty 
good Iron ; but this is feldom found in confiderable q^antltieiyi 
and its diflerent Lodes are impregnated therewith, .irom thtsl 
large to an exceeding fmall proportion* .. J 

Though all thefe Goflans have an intermixture of each /brt, 
yet that which is moft abundant, gives, the' Lode ita detiomitia- 
tion. A tindure like Verdigr^afe is not to be rejeded in any o£ 
them, for it is very promifing for Copper.. ; 

A a. II. 4 



$0 OF DIFFERENT LODES, AND THE 

IL A Peach or Peachy Lode, takes ks name from a kind of 
Stone which principally abounds in the Lode, and is generally of 
a fpungy texture, and of a greenifh or dark green olive colour. 
It is better for Tin than Copper ; but is not a defirable Lode 
for either, efpecially the latter, which is always of a poof qua- 
lity and value when found in a Peachy Lode. 

III. A Scovan Lode, is formed of a hard compaA cryftallinc 
Stone, either of a brown or black hue, according to the colour 
of the ,Tin with which it is mixed* The Ore is often rich, 
ponderous, and folid in this Stone; and when it ie worth one 
half for Metal, they call it Scove. The Lode is ufually very 
jfmall, from the breadth of four inches to fourteen ; the latter is 
thought to be a tolerable fize ; and, notwithftanding its folidity 
and demand for gunpowder to blaft it, will yield much profit to 
the adventurers under other favourable circumftances. Sometimes 
this Scovan Tin lies in a lefis folid Lode, as to the Lode itfelf, 
which is cavernous, and full of holes, thence called a Sucked 
Stone by the Tinners, a^ if all the heterogeneous matter had been 
fucked or rather wafhed out of the Stone, and nothing was left 
behind but pure folid Tin Ore. This fucked Scovan Lode is 
larger when it occurs^ even to fome feet in b^adth ; and fo is 
the folid Lode likewi^ at times. 

IV. A Caple Lode^ The Scovan Lode, when in decay for 
Tin, will commonly degenerate into a Caple ; which, in fad:, 
a moMy oi the nature of a Scovan Lode*s walls, or that endo- 
flng Stratum, which it is in conta<^ witlvj thence called the 
Gaples, or walls of the Lode. But there is really fiich a thing 
as. an ori^nal Caple Lode, properly fo called ; which abounds 
with a very &i^ hard Stone, fbmething like a Limeflone, except 
the colotir $ wherein the Tin h fometimes^ veined, and other 
times very fmall' and difleminate. A primary Caple Lode is 
promififtg for Tin, though but feldom fo for Copper ; unlefs 
tliere is^ a- branch c^ Copper Ore or Goffan, that runs downwards 
ili the Lode.: if this Caple chances to hit into a body of Copper 
Ore, it commonly makes a durable Mine thorcigh' the Ore is none 
of the richefl. 

V. A Pryan Lode, -i* fo named, not in refpeA of any pecu- 
liar qua^y c^' the Eardi- or Stone, any further than barely that 
it lies in the vein, in- an arenaceous pebh|y ftate, with fmall 
Stones of Ore intermixed, and not in large rocks or Stones ; in 
ii^ici]^ fenfe, a GolTan, Flookal), Mundick, or any other Lode, 

may 



93 OF DIFFERENT LODBS, AND THE 

4. A white candied, or pellucid Cryftal, commonly termed 
a White Sugar Candy (Spar) Cryftal. This, if it is mixed with 
Goflan and Stones of Copper Ore, is very likely to abound with 
great quantities of Ore, but the Cryftal muft be very tender, 
lax, and^ fandy. Alfo if it is clear, or tinged with green or 
purple, it is very promifing for Copper ; and difappoints the 
patience and purfuit of the adventurers, as feldom as any Lode. 

All thefe Cryftal intermixtures, are very often found in difFer- 
ent parts of the fame Lode ; and the nature and qualities of the 
Lode vary accordingly. The two latter are moftly in Copper 
Lodes, and feem to be more particularly the Cryftal Septa of 
GofTan Stones in a broken fhattered ftate, by the difcharge of its 
Mineral Earth or Ochre. 

VIII. A Killas Lode. All Lodes, except this, derive their 
names from the coat they wear upon their backs ; at leaft their 
firft names are given in confequence of their firft difcovery : but 
in this before us, the cafe is otherwife ; whence fome may ob- 
je<9: to the name of this Lode adopted by the writer ; but they 
may as well demur to the received name of a Grouan Lode, or 
any other which participates of the environing ftratum. Goflan 
and Scovan Lodes, which are rich upon the backs,' in depth 
come (though very rarely) into the nature and qualities of 
the enclofing ftratum of Killas. The red Killas bears Tin ; 
but it is dry, barren, and ferruginous: the brown is com- 
mon with Tin, and is hard and Capley : blue Killas, in depth, 
is fometimes Mended with Copper Ore by the cementing medium 
of white Cryftal. If the Killas is tender, fat, and fleaky, it is 
fpeedily wrought, and agrees well with its united Ore ; but if 
it becomes exceeding hard and ftubborn, the Ore is impoveriftied 
and chargeable to break. I fpeak of this Lode as a Rara Avis, 
and merely adventitious. 

IX. A Mundick Lode^, $ome Lodes are moftly compofed. of 
rank Mundick near the furface, and too often continue fo in 
depth ; but there are inftances, of their being richly blended 
with Tin and Coppfer in further finking. " The Pyrites (Mun- 
,** dick) proves a fure guide to Lead and Copper Ores, which 
" with us are not eafily feparable ; feeing they generally lie fo 
*^ mixed together, or fo iiear each other,, in one and the fame 
^^^ view, that it appfcars almoft impoftible for the one to be 
** without the jother:. and, indeed, it is no eafy matter to 
" find a vein in the earth, in what direction, and to what 

./. ** depth 



EARTH AND STONES THEY CONTAIN. 93 

" depth fo ever it runs, unaccompanied with Pyrites (Mun- 
« dick)." (Henckell). 

In cafe the Mundick affociates with a rotten, black, ferrugi- 
nous earthy which contains Stones of Copper Ore, it bids fair 
for an agreeable alteration. By finking in a bed of Muiidick, 
or driving through it on the courfe of a Lode, it may probably 
alter and come into Copper Ore. On the contrary, if a Mun- 
dick Lode continue hard and inflexible, it portends no good. 
Tin or Copper Lodes, that change their metallick impregna- 
tions for Mundick, and hardnefs, are better deferted han 
followed. 

X. A Black-jack or Mock-lead Lode. This is very fhallow 
and rich both in its nature and appearance. It is compofed of 
flakey, tabulated, polifhed, fliining, fatty, black earthy Stones ; 
and, like many other Minerals, is moft rich, in proportion as it 
is lefs hard. This is one of the Zinc Ores, and it has been 
ufed in fome quantites inftead of Calaminaris ; but it is fo 
corrupted by a certain admixture of Iron, that it holds an 
inconfiderable eftimation among the workers in Brafs. This 
Wild-lead is commonly found with Stones of Copper and Lead 
intermixed with it ; but it feldom or never has any Tin. If it 
afTumes a hard nature in depth, and breaks off in great jointed 
rocks, it is a bad fign for Copper Ore ; and that which is got in 
this fort of Lode, is never very rich in quality. We have been 
afTured by fome who are converfant with aflaying Copper Ore, 
that where the Ore has been much corrupted with this Black- 
jack, their affays had the appearance of and undoubtedly were 
a very coarfe Brafs. 

XI. The Flookan Lode takes its name from that tenacious 
glutinous Earth or Clay, that fometimes runs without fide fome 
veins, immediately between either wall of the Lode and , the 
Lode itfelf, and more frequently I believe adherent to the hanging 
or fuperior wall. At other times it is intimately mixed in and 
throughout the Lode itfelf ; and if the vein exceeds eighteen 
inches in breadth, it is very troublefome to keep from running 
againft the workmen, and takes much timber to fecure the 
backs, ends, or other parts of the Mine, which they chufe to 
leave un wrought. It is generally of a bluifh or whitifh colour, 
or elfe fhaded between both of a clouded cerulean caft. If 
Stones or Pebbles of Ore be found in a vein of Flookan, it is 

. B b very 



94 aF DIFFERENT LODES, AND THE 

v«rj Hkcfy to make eidbcr Tin: or Copper Ore in depth ; and 
the latter in moft abundance, if there is a Goflan branch or 
leader. 

This Flookan or clay-matter in its barren unmetallick flate, 
is feldom abient from a crofs courfe or crofs Goflan, either ad- 
joining to one wall of the courfe, or like a pith in the center 
thereof ; and is the preventive whereby the water from the eaft 
or weft of it cannot circulate from the true Lode through the 
crofs Gofian. Flookany Goflan Lodes running eaft and weft 
parallel to Scovan or Tin Lodes, if they meet in oppofltion to 
each other upon the hade or underlie, will fever at the angle of 
incidence, and will heave fuch Tin Lodes higher up ; by which 
means fometimes a deep work has become as it were renovated, 
fb as to make a new back and new work. But of this in its 
proper place. 

XIL The Grouan Lode abounds with a kind of rocky Stone 
of that name, either cafually very foft and tender, or very hard 
and invincible to pick and gad, unlefs flrft blafted by gunpow- 
der : where Lodes do abound with this Stone, it is always in a 
ftratum of its own kind, ufually called a Grouan or Moorftone- 
country. It is an a^regation of coarfe, angular, arenaceous 
Pebbks, or fragments of Quartz and Cockle, cemented together 
by a cryftalline juice, and variegated with imall (bales of black 
or jQlver ihining Talck. When Tin Ore happens in thefe Lodes, 
it is always good in quality ; but they feldom mifs of deceiving 
thofe who feek for ^Copper or Lead : and when a Goflan Lode 
happens in a Grouan ftratum or country, it is not fo inducing 
to adventure in, as when it happens in a Killas country ; but 
that it is totally unpromiflng for Copper Ore, the Mine of 
Trefavean will contradid. 

We again remark, that what we have (aid above on the dif- 
ferent forts of Lodes, is moftly on a fuppofltion of their being 
difcovered (hallow $ and alfo, that they frequently change and 
vary, both in depth and alfo on the courfe of the Lode ; fo 
that in order to make a &tisfa£h>ry trial of a vein, the Miners 
muft " fpend ground," in other words, they mufl fink down, 
and al(b drive on the courfe of the Lode, before they can form 
a right judgment, whether it may prove fuccefsful or not : and 
tiiough a prudent caution forbids ev<ery thinking perfon to engage 
improvidently and deeply itk a Mine which has difcouraging 
^rmptoms ; yet, on the other hatid, it is often feen, that on 

trying 



EARTH AND STONIS tm.V CONTAIN. 95 

trying of Lodes, they alter in tkeir nature and propertJes ¥eiy 
much : however, while a Mine carries a bad appearance, k merits 
but little regard and attention. All the dry hard Goflkns, th6 
Peach, the Prjran, the Caple, the Scovan, the Mundick, and 
the Grouan Lodes, arc liable to yield Tin ; and the tender 
GofTan, the tender Cryftal, Killas, Mundick, Mock-lead, and 
Flookan Lodes, are difpofed for Lead or Copper Ore ; efpecia'lly 
if they produce Stones of their own proper quality and nature, 
or are tindured with Vitriol. Experience fhews, that the 
hardnefs of a vein or Lode near the furface, always denotes no 
good difpofition for Copper or Lead 5 nor is it always a good 
fign, to meet with Copper Ore at a (hallow depth : but as to 
Tin the cafe is oppofite ; for it is often found rich in a hard 
Lode, and at a unall depth, the richeft Tin Lodes we have 
being in a very hard Stone ; yet a tender Lode often produces 
Tin as well as Copper ; and, upon the whole, I would prefer $ 
tender Lode for both. 

Stones of Ores or Metak, have their finufes or joints, ^e 
fan^e as eommon quarry Stones ; and thofe finufes often feciii- 
tate the breaking and working of the Ore, becaufe the labour- 
ers arc thereby at greater liberty to drive their gads or iroji 
wedges into fuch joints or divifions, in order to break the foKd 
rocks of Ore. When a Lode breaks away in large jointed rock^, 
be it of what kind foever, it implies no good for Copper ot 
Lead ; however, if it chances to alter and prove better for 
cither, it generally makes a kfting Mine : fometimes it fo falls 
out, that as a tender Lode comes into Ore in depth, it proves 
fo hard, that they are often obliged to bore holc;s in it, and 
blow it with gunpowder ; and yet die Mine (hall be very rich, 
lafting, and profatable. 

We muft not omit fome particular forts of Stones, which are 
often met with in Lodes, though the veins are not called by 
their names ; becaufe the "^ones do not continue, cxcc:|>t for^ 
fliort length, and fmiall depth. There arc alib fottic othet 
Stones which aic very trouWefome to the laboyitrs, oijd very 
chargeable to the adventurers. ^ 

Among thefc the Eham 8tone is very commbii; which Is a 
fendy gritty Stone, moftiy very hard, ^d of apa(e ydlow, or 
whidfli grey colour. Wften it is foimd in a tpde, it fore- 
bodes np good iuceefs in tliat part ■where it lies ; for, as far ais 
it condnues, it is faid to {hu r t the Lode ^th l ef^icflL \.o Ciu^^^ 

ox 



96 OF DIFFERENT LODES, AND THE 

or Lead, although fometimes it does not prove very hurtful to 
Tin. Another fort of Stone is often met with in Lodes, which 
th^y call a Liver Stone, or Livery Stone, from its ufual liver 
colour. This is generally very hard, and apt to impoverifh the 
Lode ; but when the Miners work a little further or deeper, 
they commonly come to an alteration of ground, and then the 
bad efFe<S^ of thefe Stones alters likewife. 

It frequently happens in very large and alfo rich Lodes, that 
when they dig a great depth in them, there appears a kind of 
Stone about the middle of the vein, of the fame nature of the 
ground or ftratum nigh the Lode, being not at all of a veiny 
quality, though it is in the body of the Lode. This is moftly 
of the Killas kind, it being the common ftratum at a great 
depth. It will firft be difcovered, perhaps, in the middle of a 
vein ; and will fpread as you fink upon it, like the back of a 
horfe pack faddle, till it occupies the whole breadth of the 
Fiffure, except one or two ftrings or leaders of Ore on both or 
cither fide of it. The Cornifh Miners call it a Horfe j and 
when they meet with it fay, " The Lode has taken horfe." 
The continuance of this unwelcome ftranger, may be for the 
finking or driving of feveral fathoms of ground ; and it may be 
thought expedient fometimes to fink and drive under it, through 
it, . or at one end of it, and leave the greateft part ftanding, 
which may fave expence, and be ufeful to keep open the work- 
ings, if its footing or fupport at the bottom is not unfldlfuUy 
wrought away by the incautious Miners. Thus, by finking and 
driving, according as place and circumftance will admit, they 
recover the Lode again : however, it is always fufpedled whe- 
ther the Lode will continue fo rich and plentiful as before ; and 
It has fo happened, that the Lode has never recovered its former 
good quality. 

At, or foon after the time, when the fplit, crack, or Fiffure, 
in fuch place happened, a part or fide of the Fiffure being more 
lax and incompad, feparated, fell off, and lodged upon the 
lower wall of the Fifliure : which feems to me, the only ac- 
countable cauie for the formation of thofe large Horfes we 
fometimes fee in Lodes ; and in fupport of my opinion, I re- 
mark, that. the, contents or fubftance of a Horfe, is lefs hard 
than the St^tum from vvhich it was feparated, it being of a 
Ihattery looic texture, like a flatty Killas. It generally occurs 
where the JFiffure is largeft ; and the continuity of the veiny 
part of the todp • each fide, further corroborates the idea. 

Therefore 



EARTH AND STONES THEY CONTAfN. 97 

Therefore it is no wonder, when injudicious Miners work away 
the footftool of a Horfe, that they fhould pay for their temerity, 
by the forfeit of their lives ; yet fuch has been the cafe, and 
the adventurers have been often put to unneceflary expence in 
flemples and lock-pieces to fecure the Mine from falling in. 

It i« obfervable in driving, or ftopeing upon the courfe of a 
Lode, that when it changes from its ufual underlie .to nearly 
perpendicular, and then the lower wall ftarts off from its 
common underlie, to that which is contrary, and the Lode or 
Fiflure widens pretty much ; in fuch cafe the Miners expeA to 
meet with what they call a Horfe : but unlefs they come down 
m finking upon the back or top of it, they feldom call it by 
that name 5 and when met with in ftopeing, or driving as 
aforefaid, they commonly fay, " It is a ftope of dead ground.'* 



CHAP. III. 

How Minies are diforded, interrupted, fradured, elevated, and 
deprcffed, by the Intervention of Crofs^GofTans, Flopkans, 
Slides, Contras, &c. 



LODES are not interrupted, fradyred, heaved, or other- 
wife difordei-ed, by the intervention of Flookans, Crofs- 
Goilan'Sj Slides, or the like : it has ever been the ^ft^e in 
this cafe, to fubftj^jtute the efFed for the caufe. I hiaye already 
(hewn, that the fradure and heave of ^Lode, is produced by. .a 
fubfidence of the fi:^ta, from their primary po£tio|i$.; fb tnat 
what we call a heave, is a falfe term, and altogether contr^iry 
to the idea I conceive of the matter ; for, inftead thereof, it is 
a finking of the ilrata, and ipfo ' fado occa^ons a depreflion^ 
fubfidence, or finking of a Lode, inftead of an,; elevation or 
heave. Neverthelefs, in compliance y^ith the ;plirafeology .of 
our Miners, I am obliged to ufe that di^l^ whic^ is comxnoiijty 
known and received among vs. : .It will be difficulty nay almpj: 
impoflible, to perfuade thirty thoufand illiterate perfons, that 
their notions are wrong, and.- their expreftip|is inaccurate. . I 
muft, therefore, proceed in the ufual ftylc of the Tinners, anid 
write as they converfe upon thofe fubjeds. 

'Co' .".:'• .. ,wc 



g% bt TH£ INTfiRkUPTIONS OF MINES 

We have already obferved, that our veins gefierally run caft 
and weft ; but this muft be undcrftood of the metallick veins | 
(ot there are fomc, which fUn quite acrofs thctnj" that isj north 
ind fouth, or obliquely fo, with fome fmall deviations fr(mi 
thofe cardinal points t thefe are called Cfofs-Lodes, Crofs- 
Courfes, Crofs-Flookans, Crofs-Goffans, and Contras or Caun- 
ters. They are generally quite barren for Tin or Copper ; but 
we have fome few inftances of Crofs-Goflans being wrought for 
Lead, though not to my great profit. Some antimonial veins 
rUn alfo north and fouth. 

The Crofs-Goflan runs ftraight on, without any interruption 
fwm other Lodes j for it feema to be iffeliftible in its ftretch 
through the earth, breaking through and interfering all metal- 
liek veins it meets with, feparating aild throwing afidc the 
correfpondent ends of thofe veins from each other, perhaps 
twelve inches or twenty fathoms. The underlie of thofe Crofs- 
GofTans are either eaft or weft, little or much, like other veins. 
Thefe Crofs-Lodes are hot without their ufe ; for in bringing 
home adits, they aftbrd an eafier pailage, than perhaps the (olid 
fttata wtluld have permitted, efpecially if a ftfatum df Ire-ftone 
Mcs in the way : mrthewndfe, by carrying one of the walls of 
the Crofs-Courfe in the level or adit, you are almoft certain of 
cutting all metallick veins in your way to the Mine. 

When the Miner* ate working u|)on & metallick Lode, and 
arc diiviftg from eaft to Weft, tr (torn WeA to eaftj they dften 
meet >p^thf a CStofs-Ooffan, which, as be^Mt dbferved, unhead^ 
^nd hfttaki off the totitinuity of the Lode thfey work upon, by 
fu^fti^lg acrttft through jjt and caufing a fehifift or tetit ; fo that 
If they vrork ever fafia* in the fame line or diredtion through the 
Ctt>fse<5otrfft:, they rtfcVer will meet with. the loft veiA, becaufe 
its tctftefptJiidittg pas-t ife removed from its tr*e fite and pofition 
fcjr tJie itftervehtion bf 'the- Grofs-Gourfe V^kh throws it off" 
;^rdt^ ftiyrth'^br Ibii^. The C«)fe-Gof&<i mterfea^ the Lode 
!bnidJftie$ttt'](id^t attiyes^ «id Ibmetiittes obliquely, and difor- 
ifcft it uidrt- 6r tefs fei ptbportioh te> the b^nfefe i>f the Crofts 
^flkn, ibd'^fo t)f ,die underlie both <>f that afid of the true 
tbtefe^ ''stnd.it iVt^tfen fe Vttf^ that- the moft eitpert 

^iniers^: Mt a/ldii t<>:fiAd attd difeover the fc\'^ed part of the 

I . .... -. 

If the metallick Lode is intercepted at right angles, it i( 
ttoved to the right hand a viiry little way, perhaps not more 

than 



BY CROSS- GOSSANS, tec, gg 

than one fathom, as in figure 2. plate i. Thus, if they ate 
working or driving from caft to weft, or contrary from weft to 
eaft, and perceive the Lode is gone and the Crofs-Courfe 
fully apparent, then they cut through the Crofs-Courfe, 
and fo turn houfe as they call it, or, in other words, they 
drive north or fouth, making a right angle almoft with their 
former drift or working on the metallick Lode ; and thus they 
work till they find the loft or adverfc part again, or till they 
think they are gone too far, and that the Lode is thrown thic 
other way ; then they face about and drive the other way, which 
feldom difappoints their expedation of cutting the true Lode 
again. By certain experience this is the only method of difco- 
vering the metallick Lode, provided it is only removed at the 
iame depth in which you loie it. This will beft appear by con* 
fidering figure i. plate i^ Let the Lode £ and W reprefent a 
Vein tnterfe<^ed and thrown out of its true plane of diredion by 
the Crofs-Gofian N S, fuppofing the Miners are working from 
E to W; then, when they come from £ to B, they will lofe 
their Lode, and meet with the Cro{s>Cour& ; in cutting of 
which quite through, and then driving to C, they will meet 
With their metallick Lode afrefli to the right hand. The con- 
tttfe of this ptopofition is eafily demonftrated ; for if we fiippofe 
they are driving from W to E, then, when they come from W 
to C, they will ioie the Lode^ and meet with the Crofs-Gofian ; 
ly^t in cutting through it, and fo driving to B,' they will find 
the metaUick Lode again, to the right hand as before. 

The pd4niis)g alfo of « rib or ftring of the true Lode, if 
taiitefully obfefved, will iaiotm them to which fide orliind die 
idther ptirt is ftMoved^ias will alio what they call a Scro\)^ of 
the true Lode in the diirii<-Gofikn t therefore none but wary 
^^^tio^ Miners fitiould be ihffered to work in an end or ftool of 
Ore, when it Is thought to be aear a Crofs-Ck>uriie, who by 
<)b^ing every ftring tir btanch of the metalliek Lode, at the 
plkOt of inddince, "may jud]^ which way it is thrown, and fe^k 
for the loft part of toe Lode accordingly. This interruption 
hf a Crofs-^ofiiLn it riglit angles, is moft tommon, and at* 
tended with leaft ^ifficdty ; but when the ilxtcrrtiption happens 
at ^ique angles, the Lode is net eafily recover^v The general 
rule, however, ftands thus; when the Crofs-Courfe runs obliquely 
N £ and SW (north eaft and fouth weft) it moves the metallict 
Lod6 to the right hand, ad in figure 3. plate 2. on the other 
^de of the QrOis-Goftki ; but if it mns very x^bliquely S £ and 

NW, 



lOO OF THE INTERRUPTIONS OF MINES 

N W, it fometimes removes to the left hand on the oppofite fide 
of the Crofs«GoiIan, as in figyre 4. plate i . 

An explanation of the firft figure in plate i, is fufficient to 
convey an id^^pfmc horizontal diforder or interruption of Tin 
and Copper todes, by the intervention of Crofs-Goffans. The 
diforder imputed to real crofs unmetallick Lodes, is folely hori- 
zontal, either redangular, dr oblique, and the true Lode is 
never elevated or deprefled thereby as in Courfe-Flookans or 
Slides and parallel Lodes of a contrary inclination. 

Crofs-Goffans not only move Lodes out of their places, and 
true point of diredion, but they diforder them fometimes fo as 
to break and divide them into leffer ribs or branches ; fo that 
Miners often follow the wrong branch to their great detriment 
and difappointment : thelc alfo, or rather the hardnefs of the 
adjoining ground, fometimes occafion a deflexion or turning in 
the Lode, which we call an Elbow, whereby it deviates more ot 
lefs from its true diredion. 

In the center, or on either of the walls of thefe Crofs-Go{&ns, 
there is always a clayey fubftance, called the Flookan of the 
Courfe, not unlike the pith of vegetables ; which, though it be 
no more than a finger's breadth, effedually dams up the water 
from circulating from one part of the metallick Lode, to the 
other that is fevered by the Crofs-Courfe ; infomuch, that the 
two parts of the fame vein may be worked to any different depth, 
without being at all annoyed by the water thus feparated by the 
fmalleft Flookan : or however quick the water may be on one 
fide, the other may be fafely worked without fear of interruption 
from the water of the other fide ; which is a great advantage in 
Mining, and therefore, under certain circumftances in Tome 
Mines,, they are very careful not to penetrate through this 
natural dam, left they fofe their Mine by an inundation of 
water. We may venture to add our opinion, that We owe many 
of our fountains and fprihgs on the furface of the earth, to thele 
crofe veins ; for the circulation of the- water brought by innu- 
merable fprings into the larger veins being ftopt by thefe crofs 
Lodes, it bubbles up when favoured with a fuit^ble fituation in 
the furface. 

Near to a Crofs-Courfe, the true Lode, or the diverged 

. branches thereof, are generally rich for Metal; becaufe the 

water, whether impregnated little or much with Mineral or 

metallick 



loz OF tHfi INTSHKUPTitONS OF MINES 

in ours) and alft> in the abyfs which was under the upper cnift 
ol the earth j and that t^a tide would rife aAd inereafe, all the 
time of the approach of the comet towards the earth. By the 
force of which tide, as alfo by the attraction of the comet, he 
judges, that the abyfs muft put on an eUptick figure, whofe: 
fiiirface being eonfiderably larger than the former fpherical one, 
the tjutward cruft of the earth, incumbent on the abyfs, muft 
accommodate itfelf to thatt figure, which it could not do while 
it held folid and conjoined together. He concludes, thferef<£|r€f, 
that it muft of neceflity be extended, and at laft be brokq, 
deft, and fiffured, by the violence of the faid tides and attrac- 
tion ; out of which clefts or fiffuresj the included waters ifliiing 
Were a gfeat means of the deluge ; this ftnfwering to what 
Mofes fpeaks, of " thfe foontains of the gfelt deep teing broke 
** up." To remove this vaft otb of waters agdn, he fuppofes 
a mighty wind to have aj'ofe (" God made a wind to pafs over 
" the tarth, and the waters aflwagcd. The fountains alfo of 
*?"the deep, and the windows of heavpn were flopped, and the 
^^ Waters rfettitiicd from off the earth continually") which dried 
mj fomc, and forced the reft into thte.:flbyfs again, thr^gh the 
dfefts dt fiffures by ^Ich it came up ; 6tf ly * large quantity 
remained in the alvetis ttf the^ giteat ^«^' j&c- - He h^ finee 
proved, that there was adually a comet near the earth at that 
tithfej ^i2. the fante great comet which dppcstfais^in itf l6i5 8. 
Mh Whiftbh, therefwe, no longer l6bked upon what he had 
atJvanded si$ art liypothfefis 5 but has frepuWiflied it in a pftrticxjla# 
trit9r, entitled ** The C^ufe of the Deliige dCittbriftrated." 

To ivhatevct adive ciufe we may attribute the completion of 
fo great sl phcttbmeAon, we are heverthclefs' Certain from th* 
word of God, and Aatutal obfervationsf, diftinft 'httti phHttfo^ 
pihical enquiries., that the waters of the great dt?e^ Weiit bwkett 
up, the hills in the txeah were elevated, the mo«ntaihsi ^^' the 
land were funk, and the earth was varioufly rent and torn afun- 
dcr. When thofe fchiiihs were made, it is pft>baMe, the earth 
Wkis. wtohg \*% Cotttortiofts t6 the right «nd to the left, and 
teeled t6^ and fto Kfce a drunken man, wherc?by the 'continuity 
of mns in theeai'th'werejdivid^ iUid (eparated to Ibi^e diftance 
i!ftmder,.-alnd evenftually caiifisd thdfe chafiiw awd fiffures called 
Crdrfs-Cdurfes ; whicfh partly. 'by the return v^M^e waters into 
the great iabyfe frdm wh«ice they came 'up^ were fillip with the 
loofe contiguous Earth SAd Stone Within the -vbfte* <tf the 
tttiniftiir df "Obd^s vengeance; khd partly;bf the petrifying 
iag^tftinatliiig fropeifties diat are inlierent 'iti wftters 'cmnriat^ng 
* through 



BY C ROSS- GOSSANS, &c. lOj 

through, the. bowels of the c^^th. indeed it is. probable, that 
the greateft jparfc of the contents of thoie contra nfiiires, which 
are only obviouai and proximate to our fhallow rtiearche^x 9^^ 
produced by the petrifai^ve cpiality of water ; for they con^ 
of a. large proporticm of debaiied Cryflal> a bn^Qch or pitik. .of 
clay, and a yellow or red Tothrcoui earth, wkich.give^ it -ji^h^ 
name of a Go^n. The firft is ; a pei:rifo<aio« ;j ; the i(Iec«i4. w 
theHnier pares of the ftrata Sqiscczitd out by the Qomptreilton an4 
reconfolidation of the earth, if i may be allowed thie expreuions 
and the laftj'iS'Chat'fpume or ochnc^ ;^lnch cimtinttaUy iQ^)^^ 
through the pores of mineralized ftrata, as we fee on the fides 
of every drift and adit under-^groundi.^ 7-.; *.: 



;i- 



Whdn two mettlifck Ixodes ncttT'veach othef,^ da f^ jmtt^ 
parallel in tbdi ebtlrfe ocline of dirsi^% bvtmak^ aa.o)»liq«e 
an^e, they? mdft iiieoeflarily -meBti tp^ether 4 . Atd ■. if thqy fnrp 
b^.fich aiid.' inclinable tcpoxxlilee .One, they «oiim»oaly yield 
«i bod^ of it ac the angle af-indde^oc^ or, &% the^jMin^s iay, 
where 4he Lodeisivlbow eachi. other :.-lMit'if the-iPBe;l4Qde i« pCKto, 
;a»d the other ribh^ then they ar^ lioth either gsmd^h^d fa'vB/^ 
poveriihed by their cQiyund^ion ; arid tt it' unecx^n 'Wjhich wM 
iuippiEtn. After foisie tune they wi^^/ftrika eS ^agtiii* studLl^ach 
ia)imiitte its' fonl»er direfHon, diftiiiA thobgh itear to. the fothfir,: 
l>ut there are ibme very few exoeptioas to this^iiboth-cooibbuii^ 
&aii€!ttme$ united. ; > / 

When the Miners are working along on the courfe of a Lisdis, 
ever fo good, and they find it feparate and diverge into 
branches or Arings, it is* a^«at fign of itspoviorty^ JA that 
place where it isi To dtibidsced ; hut^ fm the rcpnttivy, '^ ikmf 
Are driving on iManclaes.io£j0r£;, and they £nd ichecn jembodyttig 
<^ coming togetiier, .as they; work on di£ cpvtrfe of the Lf>At%. it 
is promifing* -■ •;•(..'.■■ .-.. c ';;-: ■ r : . 



There 'are ialfb (bbmxihesf item smodier-qvar^ii, jyhft^h in^ictd 
of being within, are widoLONit-ifide die vsalls o^thq Lodp, ioLtshe 
oontiguous iitataijor;ooiiDCry.. ■ TjhcHV jbitaQcbfir.vofiOeili cmiiirliiiib 
^ Lode <eiiihcr ctianiVedfiiyar sbliciuEdy^ to fcts line nf idire^iioo. 
Kow, if thefe ibrahches JDr^fliings afe'iAnfK»' Ofrinp^oagiMite^.'intih 
One, and ailfo if they .underlie;' iiAet ±hitn thp Lode^ . ithe^ thcc^r 
are (aid to overtake or come into the Lode, and to feed where 
tiiiey cotnie 'into it; but >if the branches (to .not tanderlk lifter 
than 4he Lode, tthen they a;s £dd tb;.igD xiff fsdmk, and tbbnby 
^ftrve afild iimpoteiifh it : > yet it is xiiilieii^ <tQi afiii£ieivei4L ji^ 

notion 



104 OF THE INTERRUPTIONS OF MINES 

notion of thefe kind of branches, without occular demonftra- 
ftration ; neither arc thefe nor any other indications of the 
jfiiiitfulnefs or fterility of a Mine, entirely to be depended on ; 
for many Mines which have no good fymptoms at firft, do 
nevcrthelefs prove rich j others i^ain, which feem exceeding 
hopeful, alter for the worfe ; fo that there is no certainty how 
a Mine will anfwer till it is tried: in depth : however, as it is 
hot prudent Ltanegle^ an adventure of a promiiing afped ; Co 
alfo ' it is very imprudent to expend* much money on a Lode, 
which v^aats^Hcouraging ^noarks of making a profitable Mind. . 



.•iJXi 



If a man is working downwards in: depth in a Mine,, then 
every branch he meets with is faid, by the Miners, to be coming 
Anto the Lode ; on the contrarv, if he works upwauds towards 
the furface, then every -branch he meets with is faid to be going 
off from the Lode : liowv" this is like taking the fame thing in 
itwo different lights ; for^t.thi» rate the fame individual branch 
,may be Kaid to' go into or iproceed from the Lode, according to 
-.the pofitionthe'Miner: works in. I think it will be moft intel- 
4i^ble to the reader, to fly, that thofe branches, which come 
in on the hanging wall of the Lode, are going .off from it ; and 
thofe which come in> thrtiugh the.underlying or lower waU>. are 
properly th^fe branches: coming into the Lode, eidarging or 
enriching it with fuch Ores as the branches contain; and it h 
very notorious, that Lodes are oftentimes enriched by branches 
coming into them, of the fiz^ of an inch in thicknefs, or 
under; :'•'••{ 

Lodes are frequently fo fqueezed and comprefled in hard 

compad flrata, that they are not an inch wide ; yet if they be 

alive, that is,- if they have a folid firing or leader of Ore, . they 

often prove well in further purfuit ; for by following . the rib or 

leader, they may chance to come into a more tender ground, or 

lefs compact flrata. So if branches or leaders of Ore widen in 

j driving on them, ot; if; tlity:widen: in .depth, either of thefe U 

encouraging j but if the branches lie fiat or horizontal, and not 

'fiiclining downwards, theyibear no good afped^. A Mine, how- 

• everf' is^not imincsdiately to be given over for afmaUi difcours^- 

'fneat,'bccaufe,i-on fpending ground, or working on the Lode, 

it may aker again, and reward the patience of the adventurers. 

I 

- Small Lodes of Tin but three inches wide, are worth the 
\Working, whenithey are rich, clean, folid, > and in good feafible 
•gpnouikd. AlfO' Copper Ore Lodes of fix inches breadth, when 

they 



BY CR0SS-<50SSANS, &c. 105 

they are fblid, and are clean from wade, in fair ground will 
pay .very well for the wprking. Some of our grea,teft Mines 
have had exceeding large veins ; and fometimes feveral very 
imall veins near together,, but rich in kind, clean^ and in good 
working ground or ftrata, confequently very profitable* 

Befides this natural inofculation of veins, and their ramifica- 
tions, we have thofe which frequently pafs through all others 
except Crofs-GoiTans, and are called by the name of Contras. 
Such Lodes direA eaft and weft, more nearly than any others ; 
and, therefore, in their courfe run through many other Lodes, 
interfering them at very .oblique angles. If a Contra-Qofian 
impregnated with Copper, meets with its like^ they generally 
make a <5ulph of Ore at the place of interfedion ; but if it 
take^ its courfe through a Scovan Lode, it moftly damages, 
iinpbyerifhes, and diforders the Scovan. 

. All veins crofting each other, may be termed. Contras in 
refpeA of each other, as their courfes are in pppofition y but 
£rom the beft information I can procure, all thofe Goftans which 
are dired eaft and weft, run through every other Lod^ like 
Crofs-Gof&ns, but do not diforder them in the fame manner : 
therefore, I chuie to fix the name of Contra, vulgarly called 
Caunter, to thefe dired eaft and weft Lodes, of whofe diredipii 
and fertility the great Huel Virgin is one. notable inftance. It 
is very obfervable, that almoft all Goftans take their courfe 
through Tin or Scovan Lodes, and from that circumftance have 
the names of Mafter Lodes : hence we have abundant reafon to 
conclude, that all the fiftlires of Scovan or Tin Lodes wero 
coeval with the creation ; and that th.e fiftures of Goftan Lodes, 
of every fort and kind, have been formed fince the creation ; 
and it is apparently fo from the circumftances before menti- 
oned, for, the Lode which ijeparates atid goes through another, 
muft have been formed fubfequent to that which -it divides and 
paftes between. 

In the next place, I ftiall take notice > of Lodes that meet in 
their underlie ; as two Lodes are fometimes know9, in running 
a parallel courie eaft and weft, to take a diredion downwards 
or underlie towards each other, the one north, the other fouth^ 
and fo make confiderable alterations for the better, or the worfe : 
for if two neighbouring Lodes do underlie againft each other, 
they muft then meet in depth ; and if; both are prone to Ore, 

E e there 



toe OF .TH£ INTERRUPTIONS OF MINES 

thsrc ar6 ^d^t hopes dP « qua&tity thereof when they meet (^ 
but ii* one be tich) and the other poor, it is uncerttdn how ihsj 
will prove at their junftioA : yet thi« cafe feems father more 
promifiiig) than when two Lodes tmtt ihallow, for this redboy 
becaufe the Ore generally happens at ibiae depth ; but if shey 
are differently impregnated, that is, if the one is a Tin Lode, 
and the Other a Copper Courfe, a diforder always envies, for 
the Goitkn in that cate occafitdtis an Elevation, Leap, or Heave 
of the Tin Lode ; but if two 6of]^as meet thus upon the 
Underlie, they will mutually incorporate and pafs through each 
other, or perhaps ftiike <i& from each other, and both take a 
contrary underlie for fome depth, and may be varioufly rich or 
poor for Copper, as their foidufes nay be varlOuily mineraliacd^ 

No# if X^^ Lodes :are very near together, and utukrlie both 
oneway, but the hinder Lode mote or iailerthan the other> 
which feems to go from it ; when the cafe is thus, the hinder 
Lode will t>^^er^ke the ptherin depth, and afibciate withvit. 
B«i% if two Lodes hear each other, Underlie aiike^ aitd if tlw 
hinder otie d^th not underlie fafterthati the ixher, they.ivitt 
i^ver i&eet, tt^kfs they Ibtm an an^le in their Courts eaft iti' 
weft< 6y the hinder Lode, I mean thatwhtch^ by its utidetlie/ 
^^ki«^s another ;u))d)(i4yi6g Lodtt ; as when two eaft and weft 
Lodes do imtlei-lie north f 4df coafe<|Ueni:e the ttMfttfouthem oF 
tlie two is the hinder one, becaufe it fbllowa the Aortherti on: 
the UAdfetii^. ' , : 

• • - ' • ' • ' ■•-..? 

The moft coti(iderable diforder which Lodet are liable tio inr 
Cornwall or elfe^vH^rev is what is termed a Starts a Leap, or a 
Heave by a ^ide or Courfe-Flookan. It fo happens^ that >ia 
filling upon a Tih ot Q)pper Lode, they axe fuddeniy at a iole 
for the contihiiation of the Lode ddwnwiaitis. ia one day's 
time, in the working a rieh Lode «f Tin^ diey ar^ thm difap^ 
p^t&iy ^d have no fui'ther fign of a Lode to work upon ; but 
at the extremity of their working down the Lode in dep^, they 
may perceive a vein of Flookan or clayey-matter, underlying in 
Oppbktion to ^e Lode they weve' finking upoiiv ; This Flookan 
lnftyl)e half ian itich, (dt^aibot) in thicknefs; it may be even 
mO^ or lefs : but aii it is, Whenever the Miners aiin foiled of the 
Lode they were workisag) orluivteioft it in bht» manner, they 
ediiblwde and iky they«aj^e ^^ cut out by aSlkle?' Nt>w I $fp^ 
h^d the h^afii Is, dtttetifi^ |>adbttS) i^ propttition to the filte of 
thl^l^took^ x^r SUdiv ^lilciif^may ttatry ioeofdiAg taldhe angle i^ 

fubfidence ; 



^ m^'t.^^ 



; B Y : C R O 8 S . <3 er ft AN a, Icc 1507 

jtkHidence ; thit is, if the fubfidence is groat ^ iis«ll» £o maf 
the Flookan be -more wide dr starrow^ and the ElevatioD or 
Deprefllon of the fradured Lode be more or lefs up or down ; 
therefore ibn;fe Lodes may be heaved up fome fathoms, and 
others only fo many feet. Be it little or much, theile it 9A 
infallible rule whereby they may recover the Lode again, as 
the leader will readily apprehend by the following fe<liion itt 
the plate. 



Tin. Lodes are not only heaved by Flookans, called Slides: ;> 
but they are fo in the very £uHe manner by oppodte underlymg 
GofTan Lodes, which are fometimes impregnated and ibmetikne» 
not : but thofe heaves are generally more diflant, and higher 
up, in proportion to the iise of tht GofTan, according to the 
poiition laid down before. This fradure of the Lode by a 
Qoiian. 8lide, is what they call, in other parts of EnglaAdy 
"A trap up, or a trap dowit by a ridge;'* which, in Somer- 
fet&ire^ is de£ucue4, <* A parting of Clay, Stone, or Rubble ;"^ 
as if the veins wcj« disjointed and broken by fom$ violent {hock, 
jqastot let in. Rubble, &c, between them. 

y As:We cannot make the reader readily apprehend this hsuQxae 
of .Lodes, without; a reprefentation of it; wc have given a 
trani^verfe fe^tti of Goon IAe and the Pink Mines in St. Agnes^ 
taken from an adnial furvey. Here it. appears, that the Tin 
Lode undeiliies north, and the Goi^ Slide louth* At th^ 
junidion of the two Lodes at G, the Tin Lode is cut out by thie 
Slide, and heaved up to H, twenty^two fathoms ini perpendi'*- 
cular height, nineteen . fathoms horizontally north, ind thirtr 
diagonally,' by the underlie of the Gc^lan ; fi> that if a fhan 
liad jbben funk between C and D, no Tin Lode could have been 
cut or difirovered.: but, by the ihaft B, the fame Lode is cot 
again in the Pink Mine at I, t £nall depth imdef the adit levels 
and not very &r below the fouth wall ot the Goffiuii The adit 
in this place,, feems to give the Mufteos fotne diredioa^ how and 
where to. put down their ibnk U : but when the &me Lode wais 
iiraduved, und heaved again £pom K Do £, their next care we^ 
to drive a drift. L from* K to M, where tliey cut the Lode again* 
-and ToCe upon the back of it itp to the noith wall of the fecond 
aiul fbialkr GofTsB 2 £ ; aad likewife funk upon thcjr Tin Lode 
4own to N, where it was again fra^red by a third and fmaika* 
XSoffim^O, atui heaved abooit nine feet; cut once more, at P, 
and is now working by virtue of a water ei^inc m the ihaft Qj(^ 
:.. ' which 



168 OF tH£ INTERRUPTIONS OF MINES 

'^Ich draws the water but of the bottoms of the Mine to the 
adit, from whfence it is difcharged into the fea half a mile ofE 

The common method for recovery of a Lode, when thus 
diforded by a Slide or Goffan, is exemplified in the drift L 
driven from K to M ; fo that almoil always, when it is heaved, 
they drive immediately from the angle of incidence, from the 
bottom wall of the Slide, be it either north or fouth, until they 
find the fruftum of their former Lode again : that is, (as in the 
cafe before us) if the metallick Lode underlies north, the Slide 
muft underlie fouth, and of confequence the drift for recovery 
of the loft part muft be north ; and fo vice verfa. 

In fome cafes they find the Lode again by finking a ftiaft from 
grafs, which anfwers a double intention ; for a fhaft muft be 
had, whenever the Lode is cut by any other method, in order 
to work the fame efFeAually : in the Pink, however, if a fhaft 
hid been funk between C and D, or E and F, -they never could 
have cut the Tin Lode again, but in fad would have mified 
every remove of it. Again, if they had driven immediately 
from the place of interfedion G, they muft have driven fixty 
fathoms north, before they could cut the Lode again ; which in 
sU likelihcjod would have been fo tedious and expenfive, that 
they would have deferted their purfuit befort they had driven 
half the ground, and entirely miffed the intermediate heave K H. 
Nevertheless, a difcerning Miner, in either cafe, might find the 
intermediate heave ; for if a fhaft had been funk between C and 
D, the firft great Goffan I muft have been funk through perhaps 
at T, and the fame continued down through the next Gbftan at 
V. Thus, by having funk through two Goffans, the experi- 
enced Miner concludes the firft heave to be fituated between 
them, and rifes in the back to cut it, if air and other circum> 
ftances are favourable ; or, which is better, will fink a fhaft B. 
The fame propofition holds good in driving; for if a drift is 
driven from G to V, both the Goffans muft be cut ; whence it 
is eafy to conclude, that there muft be a heave between them. 
It is very clear, that hone but the moft obfervant experienced 
Miners are proper for this work : incautious injudicious peffons 
may eafily fink or drive through a Slide, and be totally ignorant 
of the matter ; for they are fometimes not an inch wide, and 
are fcarcely difcernible ; fo that it is a matter of the utmoft 
nicety, and moft accurate enquiiy, to recover a Lode when it is 
cut out by a Slide, &c. 
. ' From 



BY CROSS-GOSSANS, &c. 109 

From what has been a4vanced, thefe corollaries may Ibe 
drawn : Firft, that all thofe heaves are fra^ured -parts of one 
and thie fame Lode, which were formerly united ;• cfpecially as 
they confift of the, fame kind of Tin, make the fame angle with 
the horizon, and are all of one breadth. Secondly,^ that this 
fradured Lode was formed in the fiffure before it became in- 
clined or fradured in this manner ; for G was joined to H, K 
to E, and N to P. Thirdly, that there muft have been three 
fucceffive different fubfidencies, to occasion thofe three fradures. 
Fourthly, that the greateft fubfidence is from C to G ; and the 
Goffan of confequence muft be largeft, on account of the greater 
rent or feparation there. Fifthly, that the other fubfidencies from 
E to K, and from P to Nj with their Goffans, are, csteris 
paribus, proportionally lefs. ; Sixthly, that thofe Goffans are 
the effed, and not the caufe of thofe fubfidencies, which are fo 
reverfely called Heaves ; being fo many rents or fiffures filled 
up in length of time with Clay, Rubble, Ochre, &c. from 
the contiguous ftrata. 

Moreover, it is particularly remarkable, that the furface and 
ftrata carry many corroborating proofs of fundry fubfidencies at 
this place ; for, at the vdry fpot, there is a fudden fteep defcent, 
which forms a narrow deep coomb, or valley. Half a mile 
further north, I have remarked the fea cliffs, where inftead of 
the ftrata dipping towards the fea, they are inclined to the fouth, 
towards the land, and make an angle of nearly forty-five degrees 
with the horizon. Further off, at a ^greater diflance in the fea, 
are two huge rocks, which look like fmall iflands, and are 
always above water equally high with the main land : whence I. 
have reafon to conclude, that thefe rocks were once a part of 
the continent ; that the coomb was anciently not fo deep as 
now it is ; and that the contiguous ftrata have been unfooted 
and funk downwards, not only once, or twice, but many 
times. 

There is another fradure and femove of Lodes, dependent 
on the fame caufe with the foregoing, which is more truly 
and commonly called the being " cut out by a Slide." This 
Slide does not underlie in oppofition to the metallick Lode, 
as that at Goon-L4z ; but, on the contrary, it comes in 
behind the Lode, which it interrupts by underlying fafter. 
This Slide is compofed of a fine unduous gray or white cl^ ; 
is feldom fix inches big ; and the remove is rarely fix feet 

F f diftance. 



no OF THE INTERRUPTIONS OF MINES. 

diilance. Let A A reprefent the trtie or mctallick Lode, and 
BBB the Slide, and the firadure and remove will be feen 
at one glance ; whence the reader may judge for himfelf^ 
how expeditiouily and certainly the metallick Lode may be 
recovered. 




BOOK 




•~r^ 



r ' 



«U1U 



.:^^ : - ..«^^^».*,»- an earthquake, which 



cleaved the earth, -and difclofed a vaft profufion of Svlv^. 




'..--9t.T.- 







/^:.ul:. '-i- 



_ J 



BOOK III. 



CHAP. I. 

Of the various Methods of difcovering Mines. 



LUCRETIUS, who afcribes the firft difcovcry of 
Metals to the burning down of woods, iays, that the 
heat of the flames melted the Metals, which were di^erfed 
here and there in the veins of the earth, and made them flow 
into one mafs : 



Whatever *twas that gave thefe flames their birth. 
Which burnt the tow*ring trees, and fcorch'd the earth ; 
Hot flreams of Silver, Gold, and Lead, and Brafs, 
As nature gave a hollow, proper place, 
Defcended down, and form'd a glittering mafs. 
This when unhappy Mortals chanc'd to ^y, 
And the gay colour pleas'd their childifh eye 
They dug the certain caufe of mifery. 



IS. 

] 



} 



Cadmus, the Phenician, is, by fojne, faid to have been the 
firflwho difcovered Gold; others fay, that Thoas firfl found 
it, in the mountain Pangaeus in Thrace : the Chronicon Alex- 
andrinum, afcribes it to Mercury, the fon of Jupiter 5 or to 
Pifus, king of Italy, who quittine his own country went into 
Egypt ; where, after the death of Mifraim, the fon of Cham, 
he was ele£ted to fucceed him in the royal dignity, and, for the 
invention of Gold, was called the Golden God. ^fchylua 
attributes the invention of this, and all other Metals, to Pro- 
metheus : and there are others who write, that either ^acUs, 
whom Hyginus calls Cseacus the fon of Jupiter, or Sol the ion 
of Oceanus, firfl difcovered Gold in Panchaia. Ariflotle fayB, 
that fome fhepherds in Spain having fet fire to certain woods, 
and heated the fubftance. of the earth, the Silver that was neai 
the furface of it, melted, and flowed together in a heap.; and 
that a little while ^ter there happened an earthquake, which 
cleaved the earth, 'and difclofed a vaft profufion of Svlv^« 



112 OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

This is confirmed by Strabo, lib. iii. and Athenaeus, lib. vi. 
who fay, that the Mines in Andalufia were difcovered by this 
accident. Cinyra the fon of Agryopa, firft found out the Brafs 
(Copper) Mines ii| .Cyprus ; a^ th^ difcovery of Iron Mines 
Hefiod afcribes to thofe in" Crete who were called Dadyli Idsei : 
and Midacritus was the firft man that brought Lead (Tin) out 
of the ifland Cafliteris. (Lucretius, Pliny, Polydore Virgil). 

We fhall clofe this ancient acdouilt of the firft difcovery of 
Metals, with the following lines from^Dr. Garth's. Difpenfary. 



.ji- . 



Now thofe profunder regions they explore, 
Where Metals ripen in yaft cakes of Ore. 
. Here, fuHen to the "fight, at large is fpread, 
;; : 'The dull unweildy niafs of luiqfipifli Lead ; • 

j, . , Tiiej-gi^ glimmering in their cfawiiing beds, are feen 
■ ■'• ' The more afpiring feeds of fprightly Tin ; 
The Copper fparkling next in ruddy ftreaks. 
And in the gloom^ betrays its glowing cheeks. 

'Mines have been often difcovered by accident, as in the fea 
cliffs, ; among broken craggy rocks, or by the wafhing of the 
tides or floods ; likewife by irruptions and torrents of water 
ifliiing-out of hills and mou;itains \ and fonietimes by the wear- 
ing of hioi roads. Aribther Way of finding Veins, which we 
have heard fi*om thofe wKofe veracity wfe are unwilling to 
queftion, iis by igneous appearances j or fiery corufcations. The 
Tinners generally, compare, thpfe effluvia to blazing ftars, or 
other whimficallikeneffes, as their fears or hopes fuggeft ; and 
fearch, with uncommon eigernefs,' the ground which thefe 
jack o* linthbiTis have appeared over and pointed out. We 
have heard but little of. thefe phenomena for many years i 
whether it be," that the prefent age is lefs credulous than the 
foregding ; 6t that the gix)urtd being, more perforated by innu7 
merable new pits funk every year, fome of which by the Stan- 
nary laws are prohibited from being filled up, has given thefe 
vapours a more gradual vent; ; it is not neceflary to enquire, as 
the fad itfelf is not generally believed. The art of Minings 
however, does not wait for thefe favourable accidents, but 
<lire<ftly goes upon the fearch and difcovery of fuch Mineral 
Veins, Ores, Stones, &c. - as may. be worth the working Tor 
Metal. The principal invefligatioh and difcovery of Mines, 
depends upon a particular fegacity, or acquired habit of judging 
from particular 'figns," that metallick' matters are contained in 

' ' • ' ' certain 



OF DISCOVERING MINES. 1.13^ 

certain parts of the earth, not far below its furface. But, as 
ignorance and credulity are the portions of the illiterate, we 
have people conftantly in fearch for Tin, where our dreaming 
geniufes dired them to follow after the images of wild fancy i^ 
confequently, we have a Huel-dream in every Mining parilh, 
which raifes and difappoints by turns the fanguine hopes of the 
credulous adventurers. 

Mines are alfo difcovered by the harfli difagreeable tafte of 
the waters which iffue from them, efpecially thofe of Copper :. 
but this feems to be, only when the Ore is above the level at 
which the water breaks out ; for, otherwife, it is unlikely that 
the water fhould participate of much impreflion or quality from 
the Ore that is underneath it, or untouched by it. A better 
expedient, to find whether the water is impregnated with Copper,t 
is to immerge a piece of bright Iron in it, for two or three days ; 
in which time,- the Iron will look of a Copper colour, provided, 
the water is of a cupreous quality, or at leaft contains a certain 
ihare of vitriolick acid ; further, if fome Aqua Fortis be affufed 
to a little of this w^ter, in a clear phial, it will prefently exhibit 
a bluiih green, colour, either iainter or fuller according as it is 
impregnated wjt}i - the acid of yitriol,. . A candle or piece of 
taUoW;^put into the fame water for a few days, may be ftiken 
out tinged of a green colour. . , 

Hoofpn fays^ that, ** the firil inventor of the Virgula Divina- 
** toriafj was hanged in Germany as a cheat and impoftor ;" on 
the other hand,. Dr. Diederick Weffel Linden fays, in anfwer 
to him, that "Dr. Stahl, .when he w;as prefident ofa cheniical 
** jfociety in his'country;^. publifhed a- reward ot twentyrfiy^ 
** ducats for any, -body tjhat could prove who was the inventor 
*^ p£ th,e Virgula pivinatoria." It is imppjUible to afcertain tlie 
date jOfij^perfonaiity of this difcovcry,- which appe^s.to me...df 
yeryijittle confequence to pojilerity : but perhaps we may not.be 
far off from the truth, if we. incline to the -opinion pif Georgius 
Agticola, in his epifceUent latiii treatife.De ReJM^tallica, th?it 
^' the application pf the inchanted or diyiniqg rod^to/metallick 
** matters, took "its rife from magicians,., and thie ^pqre foun.- 
** tains of indiantment." JN^pw the :Anciejits „not only en- 
deavp>*red ,to procure the.necfflaries oif life by. a'divining jm* 
inchanted rpd, but alfo tO'.pliange the forms. o^ liings bytfc 
feme, inftrument : for the magicians pf Egypt, as., we . learji, from 
the Hebrew wri^ngs, changed their ipds into ferpents^ .an4> 
in Homer, Minerva turned , Ulyffes whenf old into the liken^is 

G g cJl 



114- OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

of a y^oung man, and again to his former appearance : Circe 
alfo changed the companions of Ulyffes ihto beails, and again 
reftordd them to the human Ihape ; arid Mercury, with his rod 
called Caduceus, gave fltep to the wakeful, and awakened 
thofe that were afleep. And hence^ in all probability, arofe 
the application of the forked • rod to the difcdVery of hidden 
treafure. 

Nevert^elefs we find tio mention made of this Virgula before 
the eleventh century, fince which it has been itt frequent ufe. 
it was much talked of in Ftance towards the end of the feven- 
teenth century ; and the cOT*f)ufcUlar phllofophy was called in to 
account for it. The corpuscles, it was laid, that rife from the 
Minerals, entering the rod, determine it to bdw down^ in order 
to render it parallel to the vertical lines which the effluvia de- 
scribe in their rife. In effeft the Mineral particks feem to be 
emitted from the earth : now the Vii^la being of a light 
porbus wood, gives att eafy paiBige to thofe particles, which are 
very fit\e and fubtle ; the effluvia then driven forwards by thole 
that follow them, and preficd at the fanie time by the atmo- 
fphere incumbent on them, ate forced to tntt4"&e little interSHee^ 
between the fibres of the wood, and by ihkt effort they oblige 
it tcf incline, or dip dxjwn perpendicularly, to becforae parallel 
with the little columns which thofe vapbtirs ibttA in tihcif rife* 

The prifuarv and mdft fimpk alfefl^ions off ihatter, accotding 
to' the great Mr. Boyle, art (i) Local Motion, («) Sise, (3) 
$hape, and (4) Reft. But becaufe Aert art foine othet^, thAt 
haturall)r flbw from thfefe, and art, though not altogether ttni-^ 
tferial, ytt very gettetal and pregnant, we Ihftjll febjoln Aole 
which ire' the moft fertile pritttipfes of flie^iMities (^ bodies, 
and ttther ]phen6ineha t>f nature.; Thtjfe '4efitf ftagjtttenW of 
fliattfer, \vhich we tall corpufcles W pkrtitids, Ite^ ecAsSA locai 
rtfpe-fts tb mher bt)diet, and tb ihofc fi^tlirtWtt^' WhJtjh wfe 
Klehominatii Trdttl tlie h6ri2rdta; foi:hktea*ili'' tt rfyrfe mihatfe 
'frifements maj Wd* ^^antittllar (^) pwiftti^e ^ jf>ofit ^ 
irtS, Inclihiiifc Irdriidntal, iStfc. ahd ^s ift€f^"rt?^Jeft us that 
IS^dd thfein, ttlert 11137 tclG%:tbthtem ^i^^r^^' W oi^er or 
&hf6clltiQh, whertbjr ^ve fejr, >6!hte is befofrtVihfeehirii! atiotlier'; 
'^d ihahy of thi^fe Ifragltiehts 'btii^ aflbtiated Mtd 'oke mafs cfr 
b'ddy, have a ce^rtain ttiamcr ^"driftS^g 1x%^tfi(ir,= 't^liitth trt ^ 
•(^) ttexturt or modificatidiiV . A-ftht^ alt Mliess' ahd thdfe fltiid 
^fters ribat irt tnacfe u'p iX p^ct p^ltts, ^viM'^t^ (B) 'po^ ih 
. tiwm : and vety ttahfh6mts htfiHSi^ particles; -^trMch, by tiittir 
"' fmallnef^, 



OF DlSCdVERi:NO MINES. 115 

fmiilliieifi, or their loofe adherenoe to the bigger or more flable 
p^ru of bodies they belong to, are more tmly agitated, and 
feparated from die reft bj heat and other agents ; therefore there 
will be great ftore of bodies, that will emit tho{b fubtle emana> 
tions, which are commonly called (9) effluvia. 

Each of theie nine producers of phenomena, admit of a vari* 
ety fcarcely credible. For not i3o defcend fo low as infenfible 
corpufcles, (or thofe which are imperceptible to natural or 
aftiiiciai opticks, many thoniiands m them being require to 
conftitute the fize of a muftard iced) what an innumerable 
company of ^different bignefies may nre conceive between the 
bulk of a mite, (a crowd of whidi is neceffary to weigh one 
grain) and a mountain, or the body of the fun } Figure, though 
one ^ the moft iimple modes of matter, is capable of great va- 
rieties) partly in regard <of the furface or fur&ces of the figured 
c<>rpu{cies, (which may coniiil a£ fquares, triangles, pentagons, 
Ice.) and partly In regard of the ihape of the body itfdf, which 
m£iy be either flat like i cheefe, fpherical like a bullet, eliptical 
like an egg, cubical like axlie, cylindrical like a pomp, hexagonal 
Ipdiiiced like a pyramid, or conical like a fugar loaf., And yet (di 
thefe (igurei are few compami to thofe irregular flupes, which l»^ 
to be met wit^ among rubbi^ i&c. So likewife motion, which 
feems (o fimpk a pnodple, efpedally in fimple bodies, may 
^ven in them be very much divemfied ; and as to the dptexzait- 
nation of tt^dCton^ 1^ body may move dire£)ly upwards, <r 
downwards, declining, or horizontally, eaft, weft, north, or 
=£3iudi, &c. according tt> the fituadon of the impellent b«dy. 
Thefe w^l likewife ariie mew divcr&ications, fnom die greatier 
or leffisr number of tbe duovdng ocMpnfcles ; frotn their foUo^lf^ti^ 
Okie another tdofe, or more act a diflaalHce, &c. from the diiok- 
iiefs) thinned, pones, and die coiiaditians of the medium throagh 
wMdH vtiey m&vt % and from tha 6qual or unequal cderi^ of 
th^ motion, and force of >thcir impulfe t and thp^ ef^ads of oil 
theA; are vamble by the di&fent atnstaon. and ^rttdure of die 
Ibkifenes, or •diher oodies, on ^idi thefe corpofbiss afiL . 

ti<M thei?€ «M^ iirft*, many bodies, that in/divjerfe caifbt aft 
ttot, Tiniefs -^y b<e a&cd ton ; and £xne cf them ad, -ekh^r 
Jr^lely or thm^ ai th^ aM aded mi by comitiiiii «n4 vnlwe^d 
i^giMit^v Sectmdiy, them are xertalu Yubde bo&s thalt are teady 
to tnl^miate themfelves into die ^lons of tay body diipooefed to 
adihit their a^Mtt) or byibme odiet way tSdBt it. Tiundly, 
there are bodies, which, by a mechanical change of texJCnre^ 



ii6 OP THE VARIOUS METHODS 

may acquire or' iofe a fitnefsto be wrought upon by fucb un- 
noticed agents,; and alfo to diverfify their operations on it, upon 
the force of its varying texture. All thefe propofitions are 
proved from the moft common,' though unheeded affairs and 
occurrencies of human life ; as eafily, as the polarity and mag- 
netifm of an old Iron bar taken from a church window, where 
it has flood upright for many centuries, is proved to derive its 
virtue from the magnetick effluvia of the earth. 

As many deny, or at leafl doubt, the attributed properties of 
the divining rod, I fhall not take upon me, fingly to oppofe the 
general opinion, although I am well convinced of its abfolute 
and improveable virtues. It does not become me to decide 
upon fo controvertible a point ; particularly, as from my natural 
conflitution of mind and body, I am almofl incapable of co- 
operating with its influence ; and, therefore, cannot, of my 
own knowledge and experience, produce fatisfaftory proofs of 
its value and excellence. I fhall, however, give thofe accurate 
obfervations on the virtues of the Virgula Divinatoria, which I 
have been favoured with ; by my 'worthy friend Mr. Wijliam 
Cookworthy,. of. Plymouth, a man, -not lefs- efleemed for Jiis 
refined fenfe and unimpeacbable veracity, than for his chemical 
abilities^. ■ It is to him the publick ' is indebted for the late 
improvements in the porcelain manufadxny now eflablifhed at 

-Biriftol, 'which; under his dtredioh, is likely to be rendered not 
lefs. elegant and durable than the befl Afiatick China. 
' -• ' ■ ■...'.''■ . ' ■ " ' . . . ■ ■ . ■ 

His firft knowledge of the rod, he fays, was from . a. c^ptai^i 

■Ribeira, who dcferted the Spanifh fervice in queen Ann's jpeigtt, 
and became the capt. commandant in the garrifon of Plymou!th ; 
in which town he fatisfied feveral intelligent perfons of the 
virtues' of the rod by many experiments on^ pieces of Metal hid 
in the earth,- and by the adhial difcovery of a. Copper Mine near 
Oakhamptonfi which was wrought! for fome ytara. ,- The captain 
made no diffitulty to let. people feeihim ufe thcrroid), but. he was 
abfolutely tenacious of the &cret how.to diflingiiifh the different 
Metals by it, without which, the knowledge of its attradion is 

- erf little ufe^ ibut'by aclofe' attention to his practice, the writer 
faiteodifcovered . this, and made many other difcoveries of its 

-'properties, which he is. willing fhould.be publifhed, being fully 
perfimded of the great utility of this inflniment in Mineral 
iindertakings ; and the rteader may be affured, that he is fully 
cdnidnibed.df the truth .of iwrhat he communicates from abundant 
land very clesu: eiperience. • 

Captain 



ii8 OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

tree fuckers, rods from peach-trees^ currants, or the dak, though 
green, will anfwer tolerably well. 

It is very difficult to defcribe the manner of holding and ufing 
the rod : it ought to be held in the hands, in the poiition fig. 4, 
plate 2, the fmaller ends lying flat or parallel to the horizon, 
and the upper part in an elevation not perpendicular to it, but 
70 degrees, as fig. 4, plate 2. 

Alonzo Barba direds the rod to be fixed acrofs the head of a 
walking ftick in form of a T, and the end which is nearefl the 
root will dip or incline to the Mineral Ore. 

The rod being properly held by thofe with whom it will anfwer, 
when the toe of the right foot is within the femi-diameter of 
the piece of Metal or other fubjed of the rod, it will be repelled 
towards the face, and continue to be fo, while the foot is kept 
from touching or being diredly over the fubjed ; in which cafe, 
it will be fenfibly and (h-ongly attraded, and be drawn qvdxt 
down. The rod fhould be nrmly and fleadily grafped ; for if, 
when it hath begun to be attraded there be the leafl imaginable 
jirk, or oppofition to its attradion, it will not move any more, 
till the hands are opened and a frefh grafp taken. The ilronger 
the grafp the livelier the rod moves, provided the grafp be 
fteady, and of an equal firength. Tnis obfervation is v^tj 
neceftk-y, as the operation of the rod in many hands is defeated 
purely by a jerk or counter adion ; and it is from thence eon* 
eluded, there is no real efficacy in the rod, or that the perf<»i 
who holds it wants the virtue ; whereas by a proper attentioo to 
this circumflance in ufing it,, five perfons in fix have the virtue 
as it is called ; that is, the nut or fruit beajcing xdd will anfwer 
in their haiids. When the rod is drawn down, the hands muft 
Be opened, the rod raifed by the middle fingers,: a frefh ^fp 
taken, and the rod held again in the diredion 4e£cribed. ; » 

A little pradice by a perfon in earnefl about it,> lyill foon give 
him the neceflary adroitnefs in the ufe of this inftrument : but 
itmuUbe particularly obferved, that as our animal fpiritsaie 
neceflary to this procefs, fb a maa ought to. hold the rod, with 
the ^kme indifference ^d inattentian to, or reafi::ining. about it 
or its efFeds, as he holds a £fhing rod. or! a walking iflick ; fdr 
if the mind be occupied by doubts, reafoning, bmny other 
operation that engages the anipal fpirtts, it .will 4ivtn their 
pollers from being exerted in this procefs, in- which ^ thfitr 

inflrumentality 



OF DISCOVERING MINES. 119 

inftnimentality is abfolutely neceffary 5 from hence it is, that 
the rod conftantly anfwers in the hands of peafants, women, 
and children, who hold it fimply without puzzling their minds 
with doubts or reafonings. Whatever may be thought of thie 
obfervation, it is a very juft one, and of great conlequence in 
the pradice of the rod. 

If a rod, or the leaft piece of one, of the nut bearing or fruit 
kind, be put under the arm, it will totally deftroy the operation 
of the Virgula Divinatoria in regard to all the fubjeds of it, except 
water, in thofe hands in which the rod naturally operates. If 
the leaft animal thread, as filk, or worfted, or hair, be tied 
round or fixt on the top of the rod, it will in like manner hin- 
der its operation ; but the fame rod placed under the arm, or 
the fame animal fubftances tied round or fixt on the top of the 
rod, will make it work in thofe hands, in which, without thefe 
additions, it is not attra<Eled. 

The willow, and other rods, that will not anfwer in the 
hands, in. which the fruit or nut bearing rods are attradcd, will 
anfwer in >thofe hands in which the others will not ; fo that all 
perfons uiiag fuitable rods in a proper mtoner, have the virtue 
as it is called of the rod. A piece of the lame willow placed 
under the arm, or the iilk, worfted, or hair, bound round, or 
Hxt to the top of it, will make it anfwer with thofe to whom 
the nut or firuit bearing rods are naturally fuitable, and in whofe 
hands without thofe additions it would not anfwer. 

AUrods, in all hands, anfwer to fprings q£ waters 

A pi^cc of Gold held io the hand, and touching the rod, 
iwill not only hinder its being dttra^d by this Metal ; but, oa 
the contrary, the' rod will be repelled towards the face. It is 
the f^me in regard to Copper ft$ well as Gold, if the latter is 
hdd in the hand. 

If Iron is fo held, the rod will be repelled by that meam. 
If any of the white Metals, viz. Silver, Lead, or Tin, be held 
in the hand, the rod will oot:be:^ttrft^fid,-.Jbut r^pdled by all 
thofe Metals. . It' is the Jadieirkh Uxn^imf^ IBone^ and Coal. 
.And, vice veria, if a per feii with'^whom the rod doth not natu- 
rally operate, hcidis a ipiem Ifif QiM io birliafid, the rod will 
then be attraded by Gold and Copper. The fame holds good 
rfnth all fubjeds of the rod. 



tio OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

On thefe properties of the rod, depends the pradice of 
diftinguifliing one Metal or fubjeft from another. There is, 
however, another way of diftinguifhing, drawn from the fame 
principles, but much more certain and ready than the former } 
and that is by preparing rods, that will only operate on Gold 
and Copper, Iron, the white Metals, Coals, Bones, and 
Limeftone. 

Thus, if a rod is wanted for diftinguifliing Copper or Gold, 
procure filings of Iron, Lead, and Tin, fome leaf Silver, Chalk 
in powder. Coal in powder, and rafped bones : let a hole be 
bored with a fmall gimlet in the top of the rod ; then mix the 
leaft imaginable quantity of the above ingredients, and put it 
in the gimlet hole with a peg of the fame wood with the rod, 
when it will only be attracted by what is left out, viz. Gold 
and Copper. 

In preparing a rod for diftinguifliing the white Metals, leave 
lout the Lead, Tin^' and leaf Silver, and add Copper filings 
to the other ingrediients ; and fo of every fubjed by which you 
would have the roid attracted, the refpedive nlings, or powder, 
muft be left out of the mixture^ which is to be put into the 
liole, at the top of the rod. As for Coal and Bones, they may 
be omitted! in the dift^guifliing rods that are ufed in Cornwall, 
for obvious reafons^ : but it is ntceflary to put in the Chalk or 
Lime ;'fbr though thlejp is no Limeftone in the Mining part of 
the county, yet there are abundance of flrata that draw the 
rod as Limeftone ; for the diftin£tion of a dead or a live 
courfe, hold« as well in regard to Limeftone,- as to the Metals. 
This, however paradoxical it may appear, is a truth eafily to be 
proved^ and it is btie axiom in the fcience of the rod, that it 
makes 'no: diftindlon between: the living and dead parts of a 
icoiH-fe. Like the' L©dcftone,';it only fliews the' courfe, leaving 
'the fuccefs *6f the- undertakings -to the. fortune, - fkill, and 
management of the Miner ; as the Lodeftone doth that of the 
voyage, to the fortune, ability, and prudence of the mariner 
■and- merchant.: • -•ii--o>f -•■! ... - : / : ,N! '. (.• -• ; 
; .: . .: •.■':' ; \.' ■■ •■ ■' •■■ • ■ • -i-^ .-.'..•' 

^•; It is>'advifable^r(->^Ting be^Aners to inake ilo experiments 
but iabout adual Lodds^ wn6fj6ithefback« cfth^m are known by 
the Mineri ; or elfe high the'fea;^ where a Lode .being difcovered, 
they may itrace it to>die cMs^ - and will be fiii^ to .raid it. 

. .•.-'?•- . The 



OF DISCOVERING MINKS. xtt 

The rod being guarded againft all fubjciSls except that whif:li 
you want to difcover, as Tin and Copper for example ; walk 
ftcadily and flowly on with it ; and a perfon that hath been 
accuftomed to carry it, will meet with a lingle repulfion and 
attradion, every three, four, or five yards, which muft not be 
heeded, it being only from the water that is between every bed 
of Killas, Grouan, or other flrata. When the holder approaches 
a Lode fo near as its femidiameter, the rod feels loofe in the 
hands, and is very fenfibly repelled toward the face ; if it is 
thrown back fo far as to touch the hat, it muft be brought 
forward to its ufual elevation, when it will continue to be re- 
pelled till the foremoft foot is over the edge of the Lode : when 
this is the cafe, if the rod is held well, there will firft be a 
fmall repulfion towards the face ; but this is momentary ; and 
the rod will be immediately drawn irrefiftibly down, and will 
continue to be fo in the whole paflage over the Lode ; but as 
foon as the foremoft foot is beyond its limits, the attradlion 
from the hindmoft foot, which is flill on the Lode, or elfe the 
repulfion on the other fide, or both, throw the rod back toward. 
the face. The diftance from the point where the attradibn 
begun, and where it ended, is the breadth of the Lode ; or 
rather, of a horizontal fedion of the bryle or back juft under 
the earth. We muft then turn, and trace it on obliquely, or 
in the way of zig zag, as far as may be thought neceflary. 

In the courfe of this tracing a Lode, all the circumftances of 
it, fo far as they relate to its back, will be difcovered ; as its 
breadth at different places, its being fqueezed together by hard 
ftrata, its being cut off" and thrown afide from its regular Coutfe 
by a Crofs-Goflan, &c. 

In order to determine this, it will be neceflary, that fome 
one prefent fhould either cut up a turf, or place a ftone at th& 
places where the rod began, and on the other fide where it 
ceafed to be attracted. 

The draughts, in plate 2, of Veijis parted and: proved accord- 
ing to the above diredions, may make this fufHciently clear. 
The dots reprefent the turf, or ftone ; and the zig zag, the line 
in which the operator moves in purfuing the Veii;i. Fig. 5, is a 
Lode going on eaft and Weft regularly, with the repulfion 
exprefiTed by the lines north and' fouth on each fide. Fig. 6, fs a 
Lode fqueezed by a hard fti;ata in fome places almoft to a ftringir 
f^ig; 7> is a Lode cut off by a Crpfs-Goflan, wherein the 

I i \fiw^\k<A 



i2i OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

method for difcovering of the feparated part is obvious to any 
intelligent Miner, upon the fame line at grafs with the rod, as 
tiinderground with the Pick and Gad. 

In tracing a Lode for a confiderable length, there is no necef- 
fity for the zig zag traverfing, but it may be done according to 
the delineation fig. 8, wherein the operator endeavours to keep 
the middle of the Lode, and turns when the rod, by its repul- 
fion, intimates that he is got beyond it. 

If the rod is well held, its motion is furprifingly quick and 
Kvely : nothing is neceflary, but to keep the mind indifferent, 
to grafp the rod pretty ftrongly, and fteadily ; opening the 
hands, and raifing the rod with the middle fingers, every time 
it is drawn down. If the rod is railed and replaced without 
opening the hands, it will not Work. 

The difcovery of the Metal a Lode is naturally difpofed to 
contain, is very eafy : try it with a diflinguifhing rod ; if it 
attra^s it, it contains the Metal that is left out of the mixture 
at the top of that rod ; if it draws more than one rod, the Lode 
is compounded of thofe Metals. 

Copper Lodes generally draw the rod diftinguifhing Iron, 
becaufe of the ferruginous Goflan contained in them ; but Tin 
Lodes frequently draw none but their proper rod, unlefs Gal, 
which is a kind of Iron Ore, is intermixed. 

-It has been faid above, that the rod mak^s no difliniftion 
between the living or dead parts of a Lode : though this is inva- 
riably true, yet this inftrument is of great ufe, as it helps us to 
tftice any known Lode from the fpot where it is wrought^ 
thrb^h "ibttef people*s lands who might be willing to try it. 

If the Lode is alive to its top, or as it is uftially phrafed by 
the Tinners, To Grafs ; more work may be done in the way of 
difcovery with tlie rod in a quarter of an hour, than by the ufual 
fftethods in months, as ft perfon has nothing to do, but to open 
tlwe Lode immediately at grafs, anddifcover its fize and underlie,, 
which m^y be-done at a trifling expence. 

' The diifeovery of CroTs^-Goflans by the rod, is a property 
wkkh toay be ufefiilly empl<7<ed in Minings particularly in 

■ driving 



OF DISCOVERING MINE& 123 

driving adits, as the driving an adit through a Crofs^Goi^ is 
much eafier than through the country. 

In feeking for water by the rod, no notice is to be taken of 
thofe fingle attradions of the rod which are occafioned by the 
commiffures or crevices (called Cafes of Water by the Tinners) 
between the courfes or diftin6t runs of Killas ; but a vein muft 
be found, which anfwers to the rod as a Metal, and if this is 
funk unto a proper depth, a good quantity of water will be 
difcovered. 

It may not be amifs to clofe this little effay on the Virgula 
Divinatoria, with fome few ftriking inftances of courfes, that 
have been cut by means of it in Cornwall. 

A quantity of grain Tin having been found in the pond at 
Heligan, the feat of the reverend Mr. Henry Hawkins Tremayne ; 
and it being a queftion, whether this Tin might not come from 
fome neighbouring Lode, it was difcovered by the rod and funk 
upon ; but it proved a barren Vein for Metal in any quantity. 
A fliaft was funk at St. Germains, near the houfe of Francis 
Fox, to difcover water ; it drew the rod as Iron, and contained 
Mundick : another fhaft was funk between Penzance and 
Newlyn, according to the direAion of the rod ; the faft lay deep 
beneath the furface, but a Lode containing much Mundick was 
difcovered. In a clofe juft by St. Auftle, to fatisfy the curiofity 
of fome gentlemen, Mr. Cookworthy difcovered by the rod the 
back of a Lode that had been wrought, but not turning to 
advantage the undertaking had been dropped, and the ground 
levelled. This Lode was traced juft as the Miners informed the 
gentlemen it ran^ and the Lode appearing by the rod at a cer- 
tain place to be fqucezed to nothing, the Miners declared this 
alfo to be true ; for at this very fpot where the Lode was thus 
fqueezed, they loft it. Being required to difcover a Lode that 
had been tried in the cliff under St. Auftle Dowh, he found it 
in the country by the rod, and traced it to the cliff. It was a 
large Gdflan-Lodc ; and as the attradion was found to ftop, 
and after pafting on a foot or two to -begin agdn, he declared 
this was a cleft Lode, and 'had what the Miners call a Horie 
in it, which the Mii^rs pre^t who 'had wrought in it declared 
to be true. 

Hence it is very obvious, how iiieftil the rod may be fer 
diicoveiy of Lodes, in the hsMds of -tth adept in that fcieQ.ce.'s 



J24 OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

but it is remarkable, that although it inclines to all Metals in 
the hands of unfkilful perfons, and to fome more quick and 
lively than to others, yet it has been found to dip equally to a 
poor Lode, and to a rich one. I know that a grain of Metal 
attrads the Virgula, as ftrongly as a pound ; nor is this any dif- 
advantage in its ufe in Mining ; for if it difcovered only rich 
Mines, or the richer parts of a Mine, the great prizes in the 
Mining lottery would be foon drawn, and future adventurers 
would be difcouraged from trying their fortune. But, indeed, 
we are fo plentifully ftored with Tin and Copper Lodes, that 
fome accident every week difcovers to us a frefh Vein ; rich 
Mines having been feveral times "difcovered by children playing, 
and digging pits in imitation of fliafts, whereby profits have 
arifen to their parents and others ; and thefe puerile difcoveries 
have in fundry places borne the name of Huel-Boys to this day. 

Another way of difcovering Lodes is by finking little pits 
through the loofe ground, down to the faft or folid country, 
from fix to twelve feet deep, and driving from one to another 
acrofs the direction of the Vein ; fo that they muft necelTarily 
meet with every Vein lying within the extent of thefe pits ; for 
moft of them come up as high as the fuperficies of the firni 
rock, and fometimes a fmall matter above it. This way of 
feeking, the Tinners call Cofteening, from Cothas Stean ; tliat 
is, fallen or dropt Tin. 

Another and very ancient method of difcovering Tin Lodes, 
is by what we call Shodeing \ that is, tracing them home by 
loofe Stones, fragments, or Shodes (from the Teutonick Shutten 
to pour forth) which have been feparated, and carried oiF, per- 
haps, to a confiderable diftance from the Vein, and are found by 
chance in running waters, on., the fuperficies of the ground, or 
a little under. 

When the Tinners meet with a loofe fingle ftone of Tin Ore, 
either in a valley, or in plowing, or hedging, though at a 
hundred fathoms diftance from the Vein it ckme from ; thof^ 
who are accuftomed to this work, will not fail to find it out. 
They confider, that a metallick Stone muft originally have ap- 
pertained to fome Vein, from which it was fevered and caft at a 
diftance by fome violent means. The deluge, they fuppofe, 
moved moft of the loofe earthy coat of the globe ; and, in many 
places, waflied it off from the upper, towards the lower grounds, 
with fuch a force, that moft of the backs of Lodes or Veins which 

protruded 



OF DISCOVERING MINES. 125 

protruded themfelves above the foft, were hurried downward* 
with the common mafs : whence the ikill in this part of their 
bufinefs, Kes much in direding their meafures according to the 
fituation of the furface. 

Upon the top ©f moft Tin Lodes, in the fhclf or flratum 
under the loofe mould and rubbiih of the earth, is that minera- 
lized fubftance, which is called the Broil or Bryle of the Lode. 
Though it is a part of the Lode, yet it is different in fituation 
and appearance from all other parts of it ; forafmuch as it is 
not confined between two walls, the ftratum fo near the furface 
being of a more lax tender texture, than in the folid rock a fathpm 
or two under it. The Bryle, therefore, is very loofe, and in 
fome places fcarcely metallick, for want of depth, and of thofe 
lateral chinks and cracks, which feed and nourifh the Lode, at 
deeper levels, with Mineral principles educed from the flrata of 
the earth. 

Such is the Bryle of a Lode ; confequently, when the waters 
of the deluge retired into their refervoir, great part of the Bryles 
of Lodes were carried off by the force of the waters to various 
diftances, according to the gravity of Shode Stones, and the de- 
clination of the plane upon which they were difperfed. Tinners 
who defcribe this diftribution of Shode, to make it more eafily 
underftood, compare it to a bucket of water difcharged upon 
the declivity of a hill ; near the bucket, it will take up but a 
fmall fpace ; 1>ut as it defcends, will fpread wider, in the man- 
ner of a truncated cone. 

Hence it is manifeft to reafon and experience,^ that the more 
diftant Shodes are from the Bryle of the Lode, the more diverged 
they are, and fewer in number ; and, by parity of reafoning, 
they are more in quantity near to the Bryle, and are coUedively 
in lefs fpace. Neverthelefs, in fbme certain fituations, they 
are in greater quantities in valleys, than on the tops or fides of 
hills ; but fuch are fmaller, and more eafily carried down by 
water, and formed into flrata, which furnifh our ftream works. 
In level ground, they are found fcarcely removed from the 
Bryle; but on a declivity, they are always found difperfed on 
the fides of the hill, at a greater or lefs diftance, in proportion 
to the length or declivity thereof, and their own fpecifick 
weight : confequently, the heavieft Stones are neareft to the 
Lode, and the lighter are protruded to a greater diftance (even 
to five miles diilance> as it is {aid in Philos. Tranfadions no. 6q\ 

K k ^«^\Osv 



126 OF THE VAUIOUS METHODS 

which are alfo nearer to the Toil, by means of their levity and 
fize ; while the more grofs and weighty lie deeper interred as 
they are nearer the Lode. It is almoft needlefs to obferve, that 
as the texture, gravity, and black or brown colours of Tin 
Shodes, are different from all others j fo they are thereby known 
and diftinguiflied, as well as by the fmoothnefs of them a great 
diftance from the Lode, and the acutenefs of their angles when 
near to it ; which entirely depends upon the trituration they 
have undergone, rolling over rough furfaces, by the force of 
water, and the attrition of other bodies pafllng over them. 

Henckell and Rofler fay, ** That Mundick 'Shode is very 
** common; and that Wolfram, Granate, and Iron Corns, nay 
" Quickfilver, are found in Shode and Stream." " All of which,'* 
Henckell further fays, " were wafhed and tore away from their 

Veins, by the violence of the Noachian deluge." 



<< 



Copper and Lead Shodes are very feldom met with ; yet fuch 
there are. Their Bryles being chiefly compofed of tender Hn- 
metallick GofTan, is not fo well difpofed for bearing that fiDrce 
«nd attrition, as the more ftoney matter of Tin Lodes are ; and 
the former generally is not mineralized into Copper Ore at the 
Bryle. 

It is a miftiake in thofe who deny the exiftencc. of any other 
Shode but Tin ; fo far from it, every hard ibatum of the 
earth which is uppermoft, will fhew us numbers of their Shodes 
difperfed fcom them at a diftance, and reclined upon ftrata of 
quite different natures, as hills and vallies are fituated to help 
forward or retain thofe rocky fragments. I think our diftind loofe 
Moorftone, or Granite rocks, upon the fides, and at the bottoms 
of our mountains, are the Shodes of their ftrata underneath ; 
and many large Shodes of Ireftone are to be feen, though in le^ 
plenty, difperfed upon Killas ftrata at a diftance from their 
parent rock : all of which are inconteftible witneftes of thofe 
violent conquaftations and convulftons of our country, at the 
time of the flood. 

It is mtich to be lamented, that the fcience of Shoding is 
greatly loft in the prefent age. Among all our Miners, we 
have not flfty, who feientiflcally or experimentally underftand 
any thing of the matter ; and thofe that are intelligent therein, 
are become old and feeble 3 wheFeby it is much to be feared^ 
V that 



OF DISCOVERING MINBU xitr 

that this ufeful, and I think improveabk fcience, is m danger 
of being praftically loft. 

Alnioft every Lode has a peculiar coloured earth or grewt- 
(grit) about it ; which is alfo fometimes found with, the Shode^ 
and that in greater quantity, the nearer the Shode lies to the- 
Lode ; beyond which that peculiar grewt is feldom found with 
the Shode. A valley may happen to lie at the feet of thrce^ 
feveral hills, and then they may find feveral deads grewt or 
earth moved by the waters of the deluge, but not contiguous to 
the Lode, with as many different Shodes in the middle of each. 
This is alfo termed the Run of the country ; and here the 
knowledge of the caft of the country, or each hill in refped: of 
its grewt, will be very neceffary, for the furer tracing them one 
after the other as they lie in order. 

Likewife, when the Miners find a good Stone of Ore or Shode 
in the fide or bottom of a hill, they firft of all obferve the 
fituation of the neighbouring ground, and confider whence the 
deluge could moft probably roll that Stone down from the hill ; . 
and at the fame time they form a fuppofition, on what point of 
the compafs the Lode takes its courfe : for if the Shode be 
Tin, or Copper Ore, or promifing for either, they conclude 
that the Lode runs nearly eaft and weft ; but if it is a Shode of 
Lead Ore, they have equal reaibn to conclude that the vein goes 
north and fouth. After finding the firft Stone or Shode, they 
fink little pits as low as the faft nibble, which is the rubble or 
clay never moved fince the fiood, to find more fuch Stones; 
and if they meet with them, they go further up the 'hill in the 
fame line, or a little obliquely perhaps, and fink more pits ftill^ 
while they find Shode Stones in them ; but they feldom fink 
thofe pits deeper than the nibWe upon the fhelf, except they 
are near the Lode. If the Shode is found in the vegetable foil, 
the Lode is not at hand j but if it lies deep, mafly, and angu- 
lar, it is a certain fign that the Lode is not for off ; more 
efpeciaily if the Shodes are of a pyramidal or conical form, and 
the bafe or heavieft part of them lies, pointing one way, it is 
both a fign that the Lode is not far ooF, and that it is to be 
found oppofite to the bafe or heaxrieft part of the Stones. 

The account which the leaamcd Alvaro Alonzo Barba gives 
of difcovering Silver Mines, .by what I take iio be Shoding ; i$ 
very much like mine^ and is. a» fblkiws, p» 79. " The Veins of 
** Metal are fometimes foimd by great Stones above ground } 



128 OF THE VARIOUS METftODS 



** and if the Veins be covered, they hunt them out after thi& 
** manner, viz. taking in their hands a fort of mattock (a pick) 
*♦ which hath a fteel point at one end to dig with, and a blunt 
** head at the other to break ftones with, they go to the 
'.' hollows of the mountains, where the downfall of rain de- 
'* fcends, or to fome other part of the ikirts of the mountains, 
** and there obferve what Stones they meet withal, and break 
" in pieces thofe that feem to have any Metal in them ; whereof 
** they find many times both middling fort of Stones, and fmall 
" ones alfo of Metal. Then they confider the fituation of that 
** place, and whence thefe Stones can tumble, which of 
" nece/Ilty muft be from higher ground, and follow the trait 
" of thefe Stones up the hill, as long as they can find any of 
« them," &c. 

But to return — As they advance thus nearer the Lode with 
their pits, they find their Shode more plentiful and deeper in 
the ground ; but if they chance to go further from the Lode» 
or pafs the yonder fide of it, there is a greater fcarcity of the 
Shode, or perhaps none at all : in which cafe, they return to 
their laft pit which produced Shode moft plentifully, and work 
the intermediate ground, with more care and circumfpedion, 
by drifts from one pit to the next, until they cut the Lode. 
Sometimes they find two difFerent Shodes in the fame pit at 
different depths ; then they are fure, that there is another Lode 
further on ; and in training up to the fecond, they may meet 
with the Shode of a third. However, when they are juft come 
to the Vein they fet out for, they find an uncommon quantity 
of Shode Stones anfwering to the defcription before given, and 
then they fay, that they have the Bryle of the Lode ; upon 
which they dig down into the folid hard rock, which was nev^r 
moved or loofened, until they open the Lode, and find its 
l^readth by the walls in which it is enclofed. 

Some Lodes, however, are fo difpofed, that they yield no 
Shode at all, nor are they to be difcovered in a good depth ; 
which may happen to be the cafe for feveral reafons. The 
fituation of fome places might have preferved their Veins from 
having their furfaces torn up and difperfed by the flood ; or elfe, 
being fo much torn and difturbed, their loofe Bryle might have 
been totally carried off to a vafl diflance, towards which its 
poverty for Metal and confequential levity might contribute ; 
in the place of which, a fediment or earthy part might have 
fettled, and buried the Lodes fo deep, that they are not 

difcoverable 



OF DISCOVER I.N.G MI N E S. 129 

difcoverable by fhoding. Again, the backs of j fome Veins are 
deprefled, and fo deep under the firm fblid rock, which lies over 
them, that they do not make a rife or back immediately up to 
the loofe ftone or earth ; that is to fay,, fome Lodes make no 
back at ail, and therefore produce no Shode, fo that it is impof- 
fible to difcover them, except by fome favourable accident, of 
which I have known feveral inftances. 

Thefe different difpofitions of the ftrata I have taken. notict 
of, fometimes deceive the Miners in fhoding for Veins ; for 
when they fuppofe that there is but one bed or layer of flcmes 
or earth over the firm ground, and there happens to be a 
double flratum of rock and rubble between, which, is far from 
being uncommon, perhaps they dig, no .deeper than the firft 
fhelf ; in other words, they dig no deeper than till they think 
they are come down ;almoft to the fafl or firm ground, where 
they cxpeA to- find either the Shode or the Bryle of the Lode.;' 
but as they are .covered by the other fhelf or flratum, which- 
the Miners are not apprized of, they have their labour for their- 
pains, in feeking in fuch uncertain ground, which perhaps > 
contains a double or treble fhelf. 

The Miners are of opinion, that the waters by their great; 
emotion, did not only remove, and confufe the furface of the 
earth, but alfo broke the loofer parts of Veins from off their 
fuperficies or backs ; and thereby difordered and removed the 
face of the earth as deep as the faft and firm rock or flratum, as 
I have faid before : and indeed our apprehenfion of the matter 
very much favours this fuppofition : whence, undoubtedly, 
thofe Shodes or fragments of Veins are the vefliges or remains of 
the deluge. Hence it is, that part of the Shode has been rolled 
down the declivities of hills from the Mines ; moreover, that 
Shode which is found a great way diflant from the Mines, is 
much more worn and fmoother than that which is nearer to it, 
as it happens to flones on the fea fhore, or on the fides of rapid 
rivers, which are fretted and worn fmooth by the agitation of 
the waters, and the fridion of other bodies^ If any perfon will 
but confider the fea cliffs, he may obferve, in feveral places, 
that the upper coat or covering of the earth, has been greatly 
moved and agitated ; and that the loofe flones did preponderate 
and fubfide on the firm rocks, purfuant to their fpecifick 
gravities ; next thofe, the rubble refided, and over all the pure 
Rght earth refl^d. Yet this order is not abfolutely perfcd and 
without exception ; for loofe ftones are often found in the light 

L 1 «a5?^^ 



f50 OF THE VARIOUS METHODS 

earth) and on its fuperfities ; which by the impetuoHty of the 
\(naters, and fituatiDn of particular places^ were molefted in 
fubfiding. For we are not to fuppofe our giobe to reretnble a 
troiigh, or the like excavated f^re, wherein the variously 
mixed earths are to be regularly diipofed, as in the operation of 
huddling or wafhing of Ores ; but to be of a fpherical arched 
figure, where the waters, as on a hanging bottom, powerfully 
rend, and pull it afunder : and this force of the waters we may 
fuppofe to be greateft at the beginning and end of the deluge. 

So likewife, in fome places^ the loofe ^i-th Hid flone, which 
cover the firm rocks, lie in flxata ; for immediacely on the rock, 
there may be, for inftance, a layer of fand or clay^ and over 
that a bed df large ftoaes, and fo alternately Dratum fuper 
ftratum, fbr fome depth. Now thefe variations might very well 
happen on the decreafe of the deluge : for when the fiood was 
high and tnore at reft, the (limy light earth was diep^fited 
downwaids ; but when the waters came lower, &Ad bent tl^ir 
oQxstk to the beach^ then it came to pafs that there was a iftrong 
current from off the land to the fea, which ^rolled down t^ 
loofe ftones upon the mud or Pediment that feU 4nd fettled 
beforehand ; fo this current might have been interrupted again 
by the fititation of the place and interpofition of high ground, 
till the water had let fall another fediment, and afterwards 
found or perhaps broke another paiTage for idelf thfoogh the 
land. This might have happened feveral times in the deluge, 
till at laft the remaining water partly evaporated and partly 
fiink into the groimd, leaving the deepeft earth or fediment 
where it continued Icwigeft ; as it happens frequently in floods or 
overflowings of water, where we may obferve the fituation of 
high and low grounds do not a little contribute to the fame kind 
of effefts that are here fpoken of. 

Another way of di^coverdng Lodes, is by working drifts acrofs 
6ie country as wte call it, that is ti-om north and fouth, and 
vice verfa. I tried the >e^qperiment in an adventure under my 
luaaacgeiiient^ where ! dtwe all open at grais 4bmx. two feet in 
the fl^lf, very much like a kvel to convey waxer vtpon a mill 
wheel ; by (o doing I wa^-f^re of cutting all Lodes in my way, 
and did accordingly dilbov«r £ve courfes, -one of which kis 
produced abo^p^e one hunabred a»d ei^vcy tons of Copp^ OtHy 
bmt the otiiers were nearer wrought wpon^ This tn&thod «f 
diibovering Lodes, k eqfotily ch^ 4ind cettain-i 1^ a hionllrei 

- fethiottw 



OF BISCOVERING MINES. 131 

fathcMtis in a fhaliow^ iiirface may be driven at £fty {Killings 
expence. 

In feafible (tender ftanding) ground, a very effedual, proving, 
and cotiiequential way is, by driving an adit from the lowefl 
ground, either north or fouth ; whereby there is a certainty to 
cut all Lodes at twenty, thirty, or forty fathoms deep, if the 
level admits thereof. Such depths are proving the Lodes difco- 
vercd by them, and the adit will ferve to drain all parts of the 
ftrata above it ; and likcwife be a difehar^ for all water drawn 
from the Mine into it ; fo that it is enedual for difcovery, 
proving for trial, and coniequential to the future working of a* 
Mine. But in^ Granite, Elvan, and Ireflone ftrata, this cannot 
be complied with, neither is it advifeable but under certain 
circumllancds, whc« the ground is to be wrought for eighteen 
fliillkigs ^ fathom, unlefs a Crofs-Goflan lies ready at hand, 
when the method ih ufe is to drive partly on one fide of the 
GdSkUy breaking down the adjun^ Wall of it, whereby di^ 
drive the adit cheaply, expeditioully, and effe49:uaUy for difcovery. 
In driving adits or levels acrofs, north or fouth, to unwater Mines 
akeddy found, there «e many frefli Veins difcovered, wMch 
frequently prove better than thofe they were driving to. Wit- 
ncfi the Pool adit. in lilugan, where the late John Pendarvis 
BaflTet, Elq^ cleared above one hundred and* thirty tHoufand 
poinds. 



C H A P. n. 

of steaming, and Snafcdting of Stream Tin in the Biowing- 

Houfe, &c. 



W T ^ -^^Q^"^ '^^P ^CBtting in this pHace, that the dduge 
W is -Ml event wliicn has produced the oioift remarkable 
akeratibm m die eatirh, jsmdito which many effedbs obfervaMe 
at t^ day are to 'be -aJKciibied. The hiilory xi£ the deluge gives 
great 44gnt towards tlie kiM>wledge of tnature, and the preiient 
ftalte of the earth feems to verify .tfliat event: iy the violence of 
the deluge the Mnerad kingdom 9vas disown intoodnifuflon, parts 
4!>efbre conjoined were iepantted. Ores and Veins were diflodged, 
tuid iicw 'beds and ipdfitions^giKcenttheim. The feveral ftrata in which 
^in^als are at *prefeAt fonnd, afFoifd xcm^ncing 9hlftances, as well 
-of the truth 4$ ^s (event, as <cif the xjon^on ^(Vioui^bt. b^ ^^ 



13^2 OF S T R E A M I N G, A N D 

efpecially in parts where Clay, Sand, Rubble, Stone, and the 
like, lie in beds and layers on each other. But I fuppofe there 
are no particular inflances under the fun, that can afford us fo 
clear an idea of the flood and its effeds, as the Stream works 
in St. Auftle, Roach, St. Dennis, St. Stephen's, Luxillian, and 
Lanlivery. 

» ■ 

It happens that what I have already faid in my account of 
fhode and fhoding, together with my feftion on the article Tjn 
in chapter the 3d, book the ift, leaves little more for me to 
f^y on the fubjed of Stream Tin. Imuft, therefore, wave the 
defcription of it here,, andxcfer.the reader back to thofe places. 
Of courfe nothing elfe remains than to defcribe-the manner of 
Streamings upon which I fhall be concife becaufe it is a part of 
my fubje<ft that is very fimple and lefs important than deep 
Mining to the. community in general ; but as.it occurs, in the 
cotirfe of my writing, more . naturally in conjunction with or * 
immediately after the method of flioding, I beg leave to intro-s 
duce it in this place. 

• When a Streaming Tinner obferves a place favourable in fitu- 
ation, he -takes a. leafe, commonly called a Set, of the land 
owner or lord of the fee, for fuch a fpof of -ground, and agrees 
to pay him a certain part clear of all expence in Blafck Tin; 
that is, Tin- made clean from all wafte, and ready for fmelting. 
The consideration is generally one fixth,. feventh, eighth, or 
ninth, as can be fettled between them ; or, inilead thereof, he 
contrads to* employ fo many men and boys annually in his 
Stream work, and to pay the land owner, for liberty, from 
twenty to thirty (hillings a year for each man, and fo in pro- 
portion for every boy ; that is, for twelve fhillings monthly 
wages, he articles to pay the lord half as much as for a man. 

He then finks a hatch (fliaft) three, five, or feven fathoms 
deep, to the rocky flielf or clay ; oh both of which in the fame 
valley, the Tin is frequently ftratified, without, any difference 
in its being more abundant in one. than the other. It is found 
in different places, in different depths ; and fome^imes ftratified 
between what is called a firft, fecond, or third flielf, which is 
reconcileable upon the principles laid down in my chapter upon 
ihoding, &c. The ftratum of Stream Tin may be from one to 
t^Xi feet thicknefs or mote ; in breadth, from on^ fathom to 
^Imoft the width of the valley ; and in fize, from a wallnut to 
tht fineft fand, the latter making the principal part of the 

Stream, 



SMELTING OF STREAM TIN. 133 

Stream, which is intermixed with ftones, gravel, and clay, as 
it was torn froni the adjacent hills. 

When he finks down to the Tin ftratum, he takes a fhovel 
full of it, and wafhes off all the wafte ; and from the Tin which 
is left behind upon the (hovel, he judges whether that ground 
is worth the working or not. If it is proving work, he then 
goes down to the loweft or deepeft part of the valley, and digs 
an open trench, like the tail or low flovan of an adit, which he 
calls a Level, taking the utmoft care to lofe no levels in bringing- 
it home to the. Stream. This level ferves to drain and carry off 
all water and wafte from the workings, in proportion as he hath 
a weak or powerful current of water to run through it. Some 
places are very poor and not worth the expence' for working ; 
others again are very rich and thence called Beuheyle or Living 
Stream, as is moft commonly the cafe if it is of a Grouan 
nature, which being more lax and fandy, is more eafily fepa- 
rated from its native place or Lode, and therefore more abun- 
dant and rich in quality according to the known excellence of 
Grouan Tin. 

In the Jatter cafe, the Streamer carries off what he calls the 
Overburden, viz. the loofe earth, rubble, or ftone, which 
covers the Stream, fo far and fo large, as he can manage with 
conveniency to his employment. If in the progrefs of his 
working he is hindered, he teems (or lades) it out, with a 
fcoop, or difcharges it by a hand pump : but if thofe fimple 
methods are infufHcient, he ereds a rag and chain pump fo 
called ; or if a rivulet of water is to be rented cheaply at grafs, 
he ereds a water wheel with ballance bobs, and thereby keeps 
his workings clear from fuperfluous water, by difcharging it 
into his level : mean while his men are digging up the Stream 
Tin, and wafhing it at the fame time, by cafting every fhovel 
full of it, as it rifes, into a Tye, which is an inclined plane of 
boards for the water to run off, about four feet wide, four high, 
and nine feet long, in which, with {hovels, they turn it over 
and over again under a cafcade of water that wafhes through 
it, and feparates the wafte from the Tin, till it becomes one 
half Tin. 

Though there is little dexterity in this manoeuvre, yet care is 
requifite to throw off the Stent or rubble from the tye to itfelf, 
whilft another picks out the Stones of Tin from the Garde or 
fmaller pryany part of it. During this c^eration, the beft of 

M m the 



134 OP STREAMING, AND 

the Tin, by its fuperior gravity, coUeds in the head of the tye 
diredly under the cafcade ; and by degrees becomes more full 
of wafte, as it defcends from that place to the end or tail of the 
tye, where it is not worth the faving. If there is a copious 
iiream o( water near at hand, they caft this refufe into it, by 
which it is carried fo far as to make its exit into the fea, for 
which pradice they certainly deferve our fevereft cenfure ; at 
leaft, if the choaking of harbours and rivers, and the deftrudion 
of thoufands of acres of improvable meadow land, are not more 
than an equivalent for the cafual and temporary profits arifing 
from Stream Tin, 

I need not mention, that in the ufual method of Streaming 
for Tin, the foil is either thrown into the bed of the rivers, or 
buried under the gravel and ftones that form the interior ftrata ; 
by which fuch land is rendered irreclaimable. That the Bounder, 
or working Tinner, fhould thus wantonly deftroy what he had 
no intereft in preferving, feems by no means extraordinary ; but 
Can we fay the fame for the lord of the foil ? 

Surely, it did not require any great degree of penetration, to 
have comprehended Streaming and Draining under pne idea, 
and thus have made the improvement of the furface go hand in 
hand with the extra<9:ion of the Tin. The additional trouble 
of removing back the foil in heaps, and levelling the Stream 
ground to receive it, is fo little that I know, by fcvcral io* 
fiances, the Tinner v/ill have but little reludance in acceeding 
to ; which the reader will readily apprehend when I aflure him, 
the overburden upon the Stream is digged and rolled oiF at fome 
diftance, for only eightpence a cubick fathom ; but, at all events 
it is the intereft of the proprietor to have it done, either by the 
Streamer or fome other perfon. This method has been purfued 
in fome parts of the county of Cornwall, and has been attended 
v^ith the fuccefs fo laudable an undertaking merits ^ a& thereby 
thofe fpring^ which lie too deep for the ordinary modes of 
draining, have been moft effectually ciured. I hope I ihall not 
be accufed of exaggeration when I aflert, that the rental of this 
county, by following this obvious method of procedure, might 
have been increafed in a proportion almoft equal to the prefent 
value of the Stream Tin ; and this too without leffening its 
produce, or injuring in the jGnalleft degree the ducal revenue. 

That tlus pira£lice was not adop<tled by our anceftcvs,. was 
owing to the;, lioaall comparattre vulue of land in thofe d^s, 

confidering 



SMELTING OP STigLBiAM T^H. t^^ 

confidering either the ftate of popukdoti or tk^ MticeftAin 4nd 
precarious tenures under their feudal lords. Buft: when Britoiift 
have long fince wrefted, from their petty naonarchs, the pfQ- 
perty of the foil, together with the invtluabkl privilegjQ bjf 
tranfmitting their improvements from father to fo&y that a^ 
cuftom fo injurious to the community^ as well as to the inid'm'* 
dual, fhould ftill continue ; 






pudet haec opprobria nobis 
Et dici potuifle, ct non potuiiTe refelli*" 

After the Tin is thus partly dreffed in the raifing of it, they 
carry it to grafs ; and when a competent quantity is colle<aed, 
they proceed to drefs it for blowing. There are feveral Ways 
of drefling this kind of Tin ; hut the general method isj ta 
make what they call a Gounce, which is nothing more thati 2 
fmall tie before defcribed, and what we call in the Mining parts 
a Streke, in which the fioialler tin is washed over again as was 
done before in the tye, but with a lefs current of water, and a 
larger degree of care and caution, left the Tin be carried o£F with 
it. The richer part of the Tin, as before mentioned, liet neareft 
the head of the gounce, which is carefully taken up, divided, ot 
kept feparate, according to its goodnefs, and put into large vat3 
or kicves ; while the wafte that lies in the hinder part of the 
gounce, is dreffed over again, till all the Tin is taken out, and 
the remaining wafte becomes abfolute refufe. The Tin is 
then fifted through wood or wire fieves, whereby the greater 
particles are divided from the fmaller ; by this method, likcwifc.^ 
the wafte from its levity lies uppcrmoft in the fieve, which is 
carefully fkimmed off, and laid aiide to work over again. The 
fmalleft Tin which paffes through the wire fieve, is put into 
another finely weaved horfe-hair fieve, called a Dilluer, hje 
which and the fkill of the workman, it 1$ made merchaatabkr^ 
Some of the nodules or lumps of Tin are bk>wed or finclted as 
they come oilt of the tie; but thofe iv^hich are. rExixed with 
wafte, are put with the refufe of the garde and poor Tin, witch 
were in the tails of the tye and gcmnce^ and being ieat to tW, 
ftamping mill, are triturated and pulveri&d, £0 that til wa&o 
may be cleared firom the Tin by fujudry atblotiotts,i.iither ^me \iM 
are performed in the dreftlng of Miner Tin. 1 



::j. 



Befides thefe Stream works, we have another fott of them 
occafioned by the refufe and leaflrings iroih the ftampiilg malk^ 
Ice. which are carried by the rivers dowb to theldira |^xliidk>:^ 



136 OF STREAMING, AND 

and after fome years lying and coUeding there, yield fome 
money to the laborious dreflers, whom they diftinguifh by the 
name Lappiors, I fuppofe from the Cornifh word Lappior, 
which fignifying a Dancer, is applied to them, from' the boys 
and girls employed in this work, and moving up and down in 
the buddies^ to feparate the Tin from the refufe, with naked 
feet like to the ancient Dancers. I have been told, that about 
leventy years back, the low lands and fands under Perran Ar- 
wothall, which are covered almoft every tide with the fea, 
have, on its going off, employed fome hundreds of poor men, 
women, and children, incapable of earning their bread by any 
Other means. To return : 

Stream Tin being prepared and made ready for blowing with 
a charcoal fire, is carried to the blaft furnace, which is called 
a Blowing-Houfe ; where, formerly, the Tinner might have his 
Tin blown, paying the owner of the houfe twenty {hillings for 
every tide or twelve hours, for which the blower was obliged to 
deliver to the Tinner, at the enfuing coinage, one hundred grofs 
weight of white Tin for every three feet, or one hundred and 
eighty pounds of Stream Tin fo blown ; which is equal to 
fourteen pounds of Metal for twenty of Mineral, clear of all 
expence. Now, that the blowing-houfes are farmed, the Tin 
is ufually blown and fold by fample, as the Mine- Tin is at the 
reverberatory furnaces. 

The furnace itfelf for blowing the Tin, is called the Caftle, on 
account of its ftrength, being of maffive flones cramped together 
with Iron to endure the united force of fire and air. This fire 
is made with charcoal excited by two large bellows, which are 
worked by a water wheel, the fame as at the Iron forges. They 
are about eight feet long, and two and a half wide at the 
broadeft part. The fire place, or caftle, is about fix feet per- 
pendicular, two feet wide in the top part each way, and about 
Fourteen inches in the bottom, all made of moorftone and clay, 
well cemented and cramped together. The pipe or nofe of 
each bellows is fixed ten inches high from the bottom of the 
caftle, in a large piece of wrought Iron, called the Hearth-Eye. 
The. Tin and charcoal are laid in the caftle, ftratum fuper ftra- 
tum, in fuch quantities as are thought proper ; fo that from eight 
to twelve hundred weight of Tin, by the confumption of eighteen 
to twenty-four fixty gallon packs of charcoal, may be fmelted 
iiLjia. tide or twelve hours time. Thofe bellows are not only 
u&ful for igniting the charcoal, but they throw in a fteady and 

powerful 



^^f6i 



4 



V 



irss^jw-*'- 




SMELTING OF STREAM TIN. 137 

powerful air into the caftle ; which, at the fame time that it 
fmelts the Tin, forces it out alfo through a hole at the bottom of 
the caftle, about four inches high, and one inch and a half wide, 
into a moorftone trough fix feet and a half high, and one foot 
wide, called the Float ; whence it is laded into leffer troughs or 
moulds, each of which contains about three hundred of Metal, 
called Slabs, Blocks, or Pieces of Tin, in which fize and form 
it is fold in every market in Europe ; and on account of its 
ftiperior quality is known by the name of Grain Tin, which 
brought a price formerly of feven fhillings, that is further 
advanced, tne laft two or three years, to ten or twelve (hillings 
^ hundred more than Mine Tin is fold for, becaufe it is fmelted 
^om a pure Mineral by a charcoal fire ; whereas Mine Tin is 
ufually corrupted with fome portion of Mundick, and other 
Mineials, and is always fmelted with a bituminous fire, which 
communicates a harfli fulphureous injurious quality to the 
Metal. 



CHAP. in. 

Of Bounds and the Manner of taking a Set or Grant for 
Mining ; of Sinking of Shafts, Driving of Adits, Digging 
and Raifing of Ores, and Working the Mines, iScc. 



PRE V I O U S to the working of a Tin Mine, a Grant 
or liberty muft firft be procured from the lord of the foil, 
if it is in Several and not bounded ; but if the ground is in 
Waftrel and bounded, no liberty from the lord is neceflary, but 
from the Bounder only. Thefe Bounds are limited portions or 
pieces of land, enjoyed by the owners of them in refped: of Tin 
only ; and by virtue of an ancient prefcription or liberty for 
encouragement to the Tinners. They are limited by holes cut 
in the turf, and the foil turned back upon the turf which is cut, 
in form of a mole hill, and diredly^ facing another of the like 
kind ; thefe are called Corners of the Bounds, containing fome- 
times an acre, fometimes more, and often lefs. By drawing 
ftraight lines from the Corners, the extent of thefe Bounds is 
determined ; in like manner as in geometry, by drawing ftraight 
lines from three or four points, the extent of a triangular or 
quadrangular fuperficies is known. 



N n 



By 



138 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

By obferving the legal forms, if the land is neither bounded 
nor inclofed, but a Waftrel or common, then may any one mark 
out Bounds there, and fearch for Tin ; but, in compliance with 
the Stannary laws, whoever intends to cut a Tin Bounds muft 
firft give three months notice of his intention in the Stannary 
court, and to the lord, for him to (hew caufe why it fhall not 
be done. By this procedure, the lord is advertifed of a certain 
iofs to himfelf, whence he prcfents an inftrument, praying for 
liberty and enrolment of fuch Bounds within that Stannary, to 
his oWn behoof and benefit ; whereby it is pretty clear, that 
new Bounds ,are at this day very feldom cut, to which the late 
gentlemen Stannators no doubt had an eye ; becaufe it is no 
uncommon thing for Bounders who have no title to any part of 
an eftate above-ground, to grant fets for Tin without the leaft 
exception in favour of the Lord whofe eftate on the green fide 
is oftentimes dam^d by the deftru6:ion of the foil and the 
levelling of his fences, and fo forth. The damage, however^ 
is fometimes little to the lord of the foil, who has a fifteenth 
part of all that rifes, which is fome compenfation for his Iofs. 

It may be very difficult to afcertain the precife date when 
Bounds n>fl commenced ; but by confulting fbme manu£:riptl 
which were lent me by Francis Gregory £^; of Trewarthenick, 
whofe father had hecn an able and upright vice*- warden of our 
Stannaries, I obferve that the Tinners wrought for their Tin by 
cuftom, until the 33d of Edward the firft, which was fixty- 
four years alter the Jews were banif]ied, * wh^n they procured 
their charter, which was obtained at the ibUicitatton of tbe 
lords of T^^hewy, Bofwithcgy, Ticfvcrbyn, Prideaux, Trcnant^ 
Adflell, Tiecaedry, Trcgaiiriot, and Milliack, who obliged their 
iands to pay aiflent, and do ietvioeio the iiaw txiurCs ^eredbed by 
the charter. I eU^rrhere find by fonie maoidcript papers of 
jrAm Cooke;, Efo;- one of thic StannatX)rs 6ot Bltdntaxmcy itth 
m Charles itlfce milli, *.* Thkt by ticcafibn of cordiia dtfputes^ 
^ and the Tytmera faairiiig: ^cafie pvofiiOts by tftcir Typm wrought 
^* .from dine itA time by.fi«iflx»My tuitill dse ^^d year of kdng 
*^ dEd^avd the firfb, Ai. 121 a 305 ; k wAM than thought good £ot 
^>.ithe Tynner.s ttd procnrd kff chartRr ^oih the prince, firecly it> 
^* grants unto them iibertye to digg and Search far Tymn in any 
f^ ^aoe w3«ece Tymn xtngiDte be (aaad^ 'and a •court to deOcr->- 
-'^ mine rdl matters aod oanfbs bcttvieqnTytinors^*': Acooidki^ 
I find this liberty expreflly gmnied in the {tid'thxttrnt yrhaack. 
lays, " We have granted alfo to the Tynners, that they may 
[* digge Tynn and turf for tht ' melting of the Tynn, every 

** where 



AND WORKINtS ©CF MJtJBa 139 

" wherti in our lands, moorev ^ndivaftes ; and of' all other 
*< perfons whatfoever, in the CDunty aforefiiid/* Mr. Beare .al(»^ 
in his Bayliff of Blackmore a manufcript of ancient note, in his 
difcourfe upon what the Tynrtere did before the charter tv^as 
granted, fays, "That they always tifed to worke, andfeardk 
"for. Tynn in waftcrall grounds, and alio in the printi^^s 
" Scverall, where any Tynne mighte be gotten ; having likewife 
libertye todigge, mine, &arch, make Shifts, pitch Boundaii 
and for Tynne to worke in places of their moft advabtagoft 
excepting only fan^tuary grounde, church yards, mills, baek 
" houfes, and gardens ; paying Only to the prince or lord of 
" the foyle, the fifteenth part to and for the toll of their 
Tynn.'* 






({ 



The fum of all the intelligence I can procure, inclines me to 
judge, that all Tin was at firft the pofieiSionary right of him 
who had the government of the county^ and ffoin whom the 
liberty was granted, (or from the king) immediately to the 
fearcher. (Plow. Com. Pearce's Stannary Laws ; Sir John 
Dbddridgti) . 

Without determining when a. cuftom of diat kind cominencecl^ 
it is very natural to fuppofe, that thofe grants were limited and 
circumfcribed within certain Bounds^ beyond which, as at this 
day, the fearchefs darod not to pafs. The acquifltion of this 
valuable property, could not admit o( its being in common.; 
but under certain limits, and prcfcriptive fbrm^, it mu0: have 
been kept fbpamte and divided between the fundry proprietors ; 
in order that each perfon mig^t know and prderve his owA 
property. Whatever modes of partition the moderns mighit 
have thought of, there yet feems none more fimple and deciuve 
than thofe ho^ ddcribed,: which have exiilcd iirobi their £rft 
adoption .to the prefent hoUr* NotwitHftanding this, by the 
negligence, of Tome owners j^f Soundsi th&kmnrery of . others,, and 
the ^orious imcertainty and jehkant !Qf : the kyr, to Stannary 
aiFaira are £> fertile of wrangles f and :di%«ites ^s jtkbite which 
relate to Tin Bounds. ,. . . ' 

The firft inftitudon of tho& cuftooiary tenuict, iior the^^eai- 
couragemcnt of fearchin^foi^ Tiny was kudaHe and wift '^ but 
the late increafe of Tin aad difoofrety of Lodes, together with 
the prefent imptfoyements inriMmii^* tery much diminifkiftk 
necemty of this kilid of eucoumgcmdit., On the contrary, frdm 



140 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

vety good reafons I can afiert, it would be well for this country 
in general, if Tin Bounds were totally obliterated. 

To preferve the right of a Bounds, it ought to be renewed 
once every year, which is performed in different Bounds on 
difierent faints days, as St. John, St. Peter, St. Paul, &c. by 
the fervant called the ToUur, the Renewer, or the Bounder, 
who cuts out a turf from each hole or corner, which he places 
upon the top of the little bank formed by the turfs already laid 
there, and declares the renewal to be on the behalf of fuch 
perfon or perfons, the Bounds owners ; from whence, he gene- 
rally goes to fome houfe of entertainment, and takes a dinner, 
and other refrefhment, in order to celebrate and commemorate 
that annual renewing day. 

In Several, no man can fearch for Tin without . leave 
firft obtained from the lord of the foil, who, when a Mine is 
found, may work it himfelf, or affociate partners, or £et it out 
at a farm certain, or leave it unwrought at his pleafure. In 
Waftrel, it is lawful for the bounder, or any other perfon having 
liberty from him, to dig and fearch for Tin, provided that he 
acknowledges the lord's right, by fharing out unto him a fif- 
teenth part of the- whole. Then it is lawful for the Bounder to 
take out one- twelfth, or in fome places by peculiar cuilom one- 
teiith of the remainder. Tinners may drive an Adit through 
others Bounds without their liberty, only as a pailage for their 
water j but if they break Tin or difcover a Lode in their drift 
or finking of Shafts, they have no benefit of the faid Tin or 
JLode, but fhall leave it wholly to the owners of the Bounds 
within which it is. 

. The ufual grant for Tin where it is not bounded, is the fame 
as for Copper ; and the acknowledgment, Difh, or Dues paid 
to the lord, is conmionlyone-fixth,feventh, eighth, ninth, even 
to. one- twelfth, or lefs under fome peculiar circumflanccs ; only 
that the dues< for Copper are payable in money, and for Tin in 
the Stone or Mineral Ore, and fometimes in white Tin or Metal. 
This grant by leafe, is called a Set for Tin or Copper, and runs 
for one and twenty years certain. But a Set of a Bounds for 
:Tin, though verbal, is perpetual, and never ends while it is 
.wrought according to the laws and cufloms .of the Stannaries ; 
jdbit is, if the Tinner has been in quiet pofTefllon for. the fpace 
iof ;One year and a day, he inay:ftill keep his holding at five 
fiuhhngs cxpence annually, laid out upon the premifes. This 

is 



AND WORKING OF MINES. 141 

is a very injudicious indulgence, and it is an injurious licence 
for the benefit of the Bounds owners.^ I can anfwer for the 
truth of this, and fo can almoft every other Bounds owner in the 
county ; it being no rare thing for a Tinner to keep pofTefHon of 
a Bounds Set, like the dog in the manger. 

I do not fuppofe the prefent methods for working of Tin 
Mines, by deep Shafts, and by Driving and Stopeing under the 
firm ground, has been pra^lifed more than three hundred years 
paft. Prior to thofe means for raifing of Tin, they wrought a 
Vein from the bryle to the depth of eight or ten fathoms, all 
open to grafs, very much like the foffe of an intrenchment. 
This was performed by meer dint of labour, when men worked 
for one-third of the wages they now have. By that method 
they had no ufe for foreign timber, neither were they acquainted 
with the ufe of hemp and gunpowder. 

This foffe they call a Coffin, which they laid open feveral 
fathoms in length eaft and weft, and raifed the Tin-ftuff on 
Shammels, plots, or ftages, fix feet high from each other, till 
it came to grafs. Thofe Shammels, in my apprehenfion, might 
have been of three kinds, yet all anfwering the fame end, 
Firft, they funk a pit one fathom in depth and two or three 
fathoms in length, to the eaft and to the weft, of the middle 
part of the Lode difcovered ; then they fquared out another 
fuch piece of the Lode for one or two fathoms in length as 
before, at the fame time others were ftill finking the firft or 
deepeft ground funk, in like manner ; they next went on and 
opened another piece of ground each way from the top as before, 
while others again were ftill finking in the laft and in the deepeft 
part likewife : in this , manner they proceeded ftep after ftep ; 
from which notion arifes the modern method of Stopeing the 
bottoms under-ground. Thus they continued finking from Caft- 
to Caft, that is, as high as a man can conveniently throw up 
the Tin-ftuff with a fhovel, till they found the Lode became 
either too deep for hand work, too fmall in fize, very poor in 
quality, or too far inclined from its underlie for their perpendi- 
cular workings. Secondly, if the Lode was bunchy, or richer 
in one part than another, they only laid open arid funk upon it, 
perhaps in fmall pitches not more iii length than one of the 
Stopes or Shammels before defcribed. The fhortnefs of fuch a 
piece of Lode would not admit of their finking Stope after Stope ; 
it was then natural and eafy for them, to fquare out a Shammel 
on one fide or wall of their Lode, and fo to make a landing place 

O o ^"CSt 



142 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

for their Tin-ftufF caft after caft. Thirdly, if the Lode was 
wide, and the walls of it, and the adjoining country, very hard 
folid ground, it was in fuch cafe more eafy for them to make 
Shammels or ftages, with fuch timber, &c. as was cheapeft and 
neareft at hand. 

This, with Streaming, I take to be the plain iimple ftate of 
Mining in general, three centuries ago ; and from hence is de- 
rived the cuftom of Shammeling both above and under-ground 
at this time ; for in the clearing of Attle, (Deads) or filling the 
Kibble with Ore, the Miners prefer a Shammel, which is a ftage 
of boards, for the more light and eafy ufe of their ihovels. 

But as this manner of working was irreconcileable with the 
difcovery and raifing any Tin-ftufi" below a certain very fhallow 
depth, it became neceflary to contrive fome other way to follow 
downwards the inviting rich ftones of Tin fome Lodes produced. 
The method of Shammeling, even in thofe moderate times, has 
been expenfive, where a very fmall Lode of Tin occurred in a hard 
country. To remove a denfe hard ftratum of rocky overburden, 
muft be very fatiguing and perplexing ; therefore they found it 
moft advifeable to fink Shafts down upon the Lode, to cut it at 
fome depth, and then to Drive and Stope eail and weft upon the 
courfe of the Lode : in time, no doubt, fuch improvements 
prefented, as rendered that the pheapeft and moil eftablifhed 
cuflom of Mining. 

The fpeculative reader may be apt to imagine, that we can 
trace, and diflinguifh, the different advancements which have 
been made in Mining, by the depth and proportion of old 
Shafts, &c. But it is not fo ; for Shafts, and other workings . 
of the Mines, depend upon the fame, and yet different contin- 
gencies, in one and the fame Mine. It is very likely, that a 
hundred years fince, a Shaft would not be funk in a certain 
place but fifteen fathoms deep, from the quantity of water ; 
where it now may be done beyond fifty fathoms, without a 
drop. The reafon of this is not becaufe the fkill of the prefent 
occupiers is greater than that of the former ; but becaufe the 
adjoining (Irata or country is Bled, as we call it, by Adits, and 
fundry other drifts and levels, driven through them pofterior 
to that time. 

Having (hewn how Sets for Tin and Copper axe granted, and 
how Tin was anciently fought for,, at a time, indeed, when 

} Copper 



AND WORKING OF MINES. 143 

Copper was as well known to be in Terra incognita^ as in 
Cornwall, we ought to proceed to the difcovery of the Lode : 
but as this has been defcribed elfcwhere, we (hail now fet forth 
the firft arrangements for working a Mine ; in order to which, 
the principal thing to be thought of is a Shaft to cut the Lode, 
at twenty or thirty fathoms deep, if it is poflible to be done. 
Here it is necefTary to form fome judgment of the inclination 
or under lye of the Lode, before we attempt to fink a Shaft; 
for inftance, if the Lode underlies to the north about three feet 
in a fathom, and a Shaft is defigned to come down upon the 
Lode in twenty fathoms finking, the Miner muft go off north 
from the back of the Lode full ten fathoms, and there pitch his 
Shaft 'y by which means he is certain to cut the Lode in the 
Shaft about twenty fathoms deep j becaufe for every fathom the 
Lode defcends in a perpendicular line, it is alfo gone three feet 
to the north of the perpendicular. 

But to render this the more confpicuous, let the line E W 
reprefent the back or furface of a Lode pointing eaft and weft, 
and whofe underlie is north : by finking a Shaft upon this back, 
it will foon be deferted by the Lode, which is gone further 
north three feet for every fathom that is funk upon that line ; 
fo that when the Lode is twenty fathoms deep, it muft be gone 
north to the imaginary line N, where another Shaft muft be 
funk to cut the Lode at that depth. 



B 



N 



W m O e 



A proper working Shaft, upon which a Whym may be treated 
if necefTary, fhould be fix feet long and four feet wide, or more 
where large water barrels, may be wanted ; and the harder the 
ground is, the longer and wider the Shaft ought to be, that the 
men may have the more liberty to wcvk and break it, the area 
of a large fhaft being more eafy to rip up where the ground i« 
hardeft, than of a fmall one where it is more confined together^ 
and breaks in ihreds of ft<Hie, &c. 

In 



144 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

In many parts of the Mining diftrid, the north or the fouth 
channel appears to full view ; and it is a maxim among the 
Miners, when they ere<9: their windlafs upon a Shaft, to place it 
true to the horizon ; in order to which they make an obferva- 
tion in a line to the fartheft diftance they can fee, which is 
always the fame height as the eye of the obferver, either upon 
the higheft hill, or with the edge of the water. 

A Shaft that is defigned for a water engine, may ferve, if it 
is of the fize of the largeft working Shaft ; but a fire engine 
Shaft ought to be, at leaft, nine feet fquare, or ten feet by 
eight, or in fad to contain three Shafts in one, which muft be 
partitioned into three compartments, all the way down from, 
grafs to the deepeft bottom of the Mine. One half is divided 
for the pumps and engine work ; three feet in length of the 
other is proportioned for a foot way, to go down and redify the 
pumps when amifs ; and the remainder is divided alfo by a par- 
tition of boards, for a whym Shaft to draw the Deads and Ore 
from the Sump of the Mine. If the ground is hard and very 
wet, or the water very quick upon the men in finking, there 
ought to be eight men employed to fink a working Shaft ; that 
is, two men in a corps of every fix hours ; and in a fire engine 
Shaft, there fhould be fixteen employed in the fame manner: 
but if the ground is tender, and there is no hindrance by water, 
fix men in the firft, divided into three corps every eight hours, 
are reckoned fufficient ; yet I have known four and twenty men 
put to fink an engine Shaft upon a great emergency. 

The working Shaft being funk downright until it cuts the 
Lode, they open the Vein, or fink the body of the (haft through 
it ; and if they think the Vein is worth following, they fink 
the fame Shaft deeper in the body of the Lode, upon its incli- 
nation or underlie ; whence the Shaft becomes, and bears the 
name of, an Underlier : at the fame time they turn houfe, as 
they call it, from the bottom of their perpendicular, or from 
the top or beginning of the underlie. So that when the Lode 
is well impregnated, they turn houfe by driving or working 
horizontally on the courfe of the Vein, either to the eaft or to 
the weft, or both, as they find it moft likely to anfwer their 
expedations, in order to make a fuller trial and difcovery. 
■JVhere the Lode . anfwers well in thus driving >upon it, they 
continue to do fo, till they are,, prevented by want of air ; or 
till the end of their workings is too far from the Shaft, and the 
fixpence of rolling back die ftulF to the Shaft is great and 

incommodious ; 



AND WORKING OF MINES. 145 

incommodious ; then it is proper to put down another Shaft as 
before defcribed, or more to the north, becaufe it will be more 
convenient, the longer it continues downright. Mean while, 
they are mindful to fink their firft Shaft in order that they may- 
work away the Lode from thence in Stopes, and have a little 
Sump or pit in that place as a bafon for receiving the water of 
the Lode, whence they difcharge it to grafs by the eafieft method 
they can devife : for moft Lodes have ftreams of water running 
through them; and when they are found dry, it feems to be 
owing to the waters having been forced to change their courfe, 
either becaufe the Lode has flopped up the old paflages, or 
becaufe fome new or more eafy ones are made, whereby the 
Lode and ftrata adjacent to it are bleeded as we term it. How- 
ever, they are often hindered from going down deep enough to 
find any great quantity of Ore, by the burden of water that 
moft Veins abound with ; therefore, if the Mine is not encou- 
raging, they give over any further purfuit ; but if it feems likely 
to prove well, and the Lode lies in an afcending ground, they 
quit the Vein for the prefent, and go down to the moft conve- 
nient place in the valley, and from thence they bring a Trench, 
Drain, or Conduit, which they call an Adit, Tye, or Level 5 
and fo they work and drive this paflage through the hill in a 
right line to the Lode, with very little lofs of the level they 
began from. 

Where the Adit is intended only for the fake of unwatering 
one particular Vein, it is frequently advifeable to bring it home 
on the courfe of it, if the fituation of the ground will adniit, 
becaufe this is a continual trial of it at that depth : yet, if 
there are many Lodes not far afunder, an Adit brought home 
athwart them may fometimes be preferable, if it can be conve- 
niently complied with ; for the fituation of the ground muft be 
well confidered, to judge how to drive home the moft (hort, 
deep, fpeedy, and cheap Adit, with the moft probable fuccefs. 

If the hill takes its courfe eaft and weft a confiderable length, 
and the difcovery of the Vein is very far from a valley at eitheif 
end of the hill, there may be no choice in the matter ; for the 
fliorteft and cheapeft Adit will of courfe be driven from the 
north or fouth, unlefs moorftone or ireftohe ftrata intervene. 
It then behoves the adventurers to feek for a Crofs-Goftan, 
where it lies convenient in diftance from the difcovery, to bring 
home the Adit in ; and provided the GoiTan docs not exceed 
three feet in width, it is reckoned very favourable, becaufe the 

P p Adit 



146 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

Adit may be wrought tlu-ough the body of it) without the ufe 
of timber and boards to fupport and keep it up. On the con- 
trary, moft Crofs-Goflans are too wide to break down the whole 
breadth for an Adit ; and therefwe they drive on the eaftern or 
weftern fide of it, which ever is moft to their liking, and at the 
fame time break down a fmall thicknefs of its contiguous wall, 
fo that they are fure to cut all Veins, and branches of metallick 
Veins, in their pafTage to the Mine ; by which means, as in 
driving levels acrofs the country oat of thofe crofs-courfes, 
many more valuable Lodes have been difcovered, than thofe 
they were driving to unwater. Neverthelefs that fide of the 
Adit which is in the body of the Goflan, muft be braced up, 
and bound with boards, as muft likewife its back or top, other- 
wife the hinder part of the level may fall in and occafion a 
choak in it. Yet there are fome few Goftans that will ftand 
without any fupport. 

Thefe Adits are commonly fix feet high and about two feet 
and a half wide, fo that there may be room enough both in 
height and breadth to work in them ; and alfo room to roll 
back the broken deads in a wheel-barrow : but if the ground or 
rock be very hard, the Adit ought to be more fpacious or large 
each way, to give the greater liberty or room to work and t^eak 
the ftone. An Adit requires four men to work it conftantly by 
day and night, and a boy or two to roll back the broken work, 
if they break it very faft. 

The ncceffity for Shafts in driving an Adit, occurs very 
frequently to fupply the workmen with air, and for the conve- 
nience of winding up the deads. Where the country is very 
hard, the Shafts fhould be forty fathoms diftant from each 
other 'y and where the ground is feafible or moderately tender, 
they may be twenty fathoms diftant ; but in this, as in all other 
parts of Mining, the adventurers muft be ruled by the varieties 
of place and other circumftances. An Adit Shaft fhould be fix 
feet long and three feet broad, which generally employs &x men 
to work it day and night. 

When the Miners want air by being a great way under-ground, 
and caimot convenkntly put down a new Shaft ; then, if the 
Adit be high enough, they ky boaids on the bottbm of the Adit, 
from their laft Shaft along to the Adit end, and fo ftop them 
down clokly with cky or earth, by which contrivance, called a 

Sailer, 



.; rMlI :.»;: 



Plate 2? 




^AVvVW^I 

"" 7 



t.i A A A A A A 'A A. A 







AND WORKING OF MINES. $4^ 

Sailer, the boards being hollow underneath, air is conveyed te 
the workmen. 

To make thefe matters clear with regard to driving afikd Sailer- 
ing an Adit, let us fuppofe A to be the loft flovan or tail of the 
Adit, the level from which the Adit w^s firft driven, all open 
to grafs, till it took into the fide of the hill B* A little further? 
on they put down an Adit Shaft for air, or conveyance of the 
deads from the Adit. The next Shaft C, was funk for the iame 
purpofes ; and fo was D, which is reprefented as the prejfent 
working Shaft, for the other Shaft E is not funk down upon the 
Adit end F. For want of the Shaft E being holed upon the 
end F, the air is very clofe and fuffocating ; nay, the Adit end 
muft be deferted for want of air. To remedy this, they go 
behind the fhaft D, and put in a Sailer, or clofe ftage of boards 
G, about one foot high from the bottom of the Adit, which ia 
continued within five or fix feet to the end at H, where it is 
open and difcharges the air back through the Adit and up the 
Shaft I I, becaufe that is totally ftopped by an exceeding clofe 
door at K. There is another way of forcing down air by an air 
pipe, as at the Shaft C ; the top of which L, can be turned 
towards the wind when it blows from any quarter, and receives 
the air which is forced down through the funnel M into the 
Adit at N, whence it circulates back again through the former 
workings. 

This air pipe is feldom ufed in Adits, becaufe the Sailer 
is more cheap and eafy, the difference of expencc in the air 
pipe being confiderable where an Adit Shaft is thirty or forty 
fathoms deep ; befides, the Sailer under the workmen's feet is 
lefs incommodious, than the funnel over their heads : neverthe- 
lefs, this air pipe is of indifpenfable ufe in the finking a Shaft 
that is void of circulation of good air, and it is feldom that ai 
Shaft of forty fathoms depth can be funk whhout an air pipe all 
the way down from grafs, provided the Shaft has no conununi* 
cation, by drift or Gunnies, with fome other parts of the workings. 
It muft be noted, that great care is requifite to ftop clofo every 
crevice of the air pipe, or the Saller> Vnth clay or pitch and 
oakum, fo that not. a breath of air ftiall efpape. The Sailer, 
indeed, may be covered clofe with turf and earth laid all round 
and upon it ; whereby no air can hape rent but at its proper 
place H. By duly attending to this circfimfbnce,. an Adit may 
be driven beyond one hundred and fifty fathoms, before a Shaft 
need be fuiuc down upon it. This is an af&ir of no mean 

confequence^ 



148 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

confequence, where a Shaft muft be funk very deep in exceeding 
hard ground. 

Sir Robert Moray, in the Philofophical Tranfadions No. 5, 
has communicated a method pradifed at Liege for driving of 
Adits without air Shafts, by ereding a chimney thirty feet high, 
at the tail or loft flovan of the Adit, from whence an air pipe is 
continued through the Adit ; whereby all foul air at that place 
is invited or drawn, by the fire, from the working part or end 
of the Adit unto the chimney, where it enters under the grate 
filled with live coal and fufpended in the middle of the chimney. 
This may ferve, where the air is rendered noxious by fulphureous 
or vitriolick efiluvia, to carry it off by the funnel into the 
chimney ; but in our Adits we have no vapourous fumes to 
difcharge. With us it is an abfolute want of air, or circulation 
thereof ; fo that our relief is only acquired by pouring in a frefli 
current of air, and continuing the circulation as freely and 
uniformly as poflible. 

The numerous little eminencies that compofe the face of our 
country, where the Mines are fituate, afford us great advantages 
for Adits to unwater the Veins contained in them. Though we 
feldom fee an Adit half a mile in length, there are two or three 
of three times that length, and thofe are the longeft I know of. 
At Friberg in Saxony, they have very extraordinary works of 
this kind, particularly that called the Prince's Level, one of the 
greateft works in thofe parts, confidering the time, labour, and 
expence neceffary to work a paffage under-ground, for about 
five Englifli miles in length. 

The labour and expence of driving this level, muft have been 
jgreat and tedious, where it happened in fuch exceeding hard 
ground as we fometimes meet with here : for although I have 
known an Adit end driven feveral fathoms at four (hillings a 
fathom in Pot Grouan, that is, foft grouan ; yet I have paid 
twelve guineas for the fame Adit, that we have driven many fcore 
fathoms for lefs than one ; fo various and uncertain are the 
fts'ata of the earth in thefe parts. The greateft expence for the 
ground difcovered, that I ever heard of in driving an Adit, was 
in the old Pool, two miles off, where Mr. Baffet paid five and 
thirty pounds ^ fathom for the driving of feveral fathoms, 
through an Ircftone ftratum ; which great price anfwered fo 
badly for the cpntradors, that they were very much injured by 
the undertaking. The moft defirable ground to drive an Adit 

in. 



AND WORKING OF MINES. 149 

in, where it cannot be brought home upon the Lode itfelf, or 
a crofs-courfe, is a tender feafibie Killas of eighteen {hillings 
^ fathom. This ground needs no timber to fupport it, and 
can be fpeedily fpent or worked at the rate of eight or ten 
fathoms monthly. 

If an Adit is fet by the fathom, and the ground proves hard, 
the workmen are often regardlefs of driving in a direct ftraight 
line, and are apt to drive irregularly for the advantage of work- 
ing in the faireft ground ; but this makes a reckoning of more 
fathoms to the adventurers difadvantage, than they ought in 
juftice to be accountable for ; therefore it is the moil prudent 
method, when an Adit is fet by the fathom, to agree, that the 
meafurement fhall be on the grafs or furface, becaufe then if the 
workmen drive out of the way it will be their own lofs. 

In bringing home thefe levelsy the natives of Cornwall never 
confider the expence fb much as the time it may be performed 
in : indeed, it is an axiom in Mining, that the quicker an Adit 
is driven, the lefs muft be the expence. Some levels have taken 
thirty years to complete them ; and I have been concerned in 
one that took feventeen years to bring it home to the Mine. 
Yet notwithftanding all difadvantages, fundry levels have been 
carried acrofs as meer feeking adventures, for the fake of difco- 
very, without being bound for any particular Mine ; and fome 
of them, by patience and pej-feverance, have amply rewarded 
the enterprize. 

I muft allow that fuch adventures are very laudable ; for 
if a level forms an horizontal acute angle with the perpen- 
dicular fedion of the fummit of a hill, at the charge of three 
thoufand pounds in Mteen years driving, though without the 
fuccefs deured, it is likely to prove an ufefiil undertaking for 
pofterity, who may reap the advantage of it, when they want 
levels to unwater veins that may bp difcovered in other parts of 
the hill. The expence of an adit is flow and fmall ; therefore 
it is eafily borne. Two or three hundred pounds a year in 
driving an Adit, is fcarcely felt by eight or ten perfons, than 
whom feldom fewer are concerned ; and this too upon the 
chance of finding a vein, or veins, that may throw up sm 
amazing profit prefently after difcovery, by an* advantage in the 
very means of difcovery itfelf. 

<i.q An 



tS<y OI^ ROUNDS; OP TAKING SETS, 

An Adit being dirivttt home to the Mine, the water feldom 
i^ils of draining and ^EiUing into it ; To that the Lode is un- 
watered as deep as the level of the Adit, to which depth, or yet 
a greater, the men are at liberty to fink and drive on the Lode 
if they think proper. 

With all the fkill and adroitnefs of our Miners, they cannot 
go any confiderable depth below the Adit, before they muft 
have recourfe to fome contrivance, for clearing the water from 
their workings. The hand pump) and the force pump, will 
do well for fmall depths, and are neceffary in the firft finkings 
into the Lode, before the Slopes tiin proceed. Next to thefe, 
the water is drawn to Adit by fmall water barrels ; but if the 
water exceeds a certain number of barrels, in a core of fix or 
eight hours, they give over drawing by hand, and ered a 
Whym, which is a kind of horfe engine to draw water or work, 
sihd fometimes both, efpecially in the infancy of a Mine. A 
tommon Whym which ferves both purposes, confifts of a per- 
pendicular axis, whereon a large Ik^Iow cylinder of timber 
turns, called the Cage, round which the rope winds horizon- 
tally, being direfted down the Mine^ by two puilies fixed in 
what are termed Piippet Heads ovet the mouth of the Shaft r 
this axis has a tran^rfe beam, called the Arm infixed j at the 
end of whi<A ate placed two horfdi that go round upon a plat- 
foi'm named the Whym-ron|nd, and draw more or lefs according 
to the ntimber of their cittumvolutions in any given time, the 
largenefs of the barrels, and the depth the Whym is to draw. 
For drawing of water, this engine can only work in a perpendi- 
cular Shaft ; but for winding <^ woik or deads, it can be ufed 
to <llaw upon the uftd6?rlie tJ? the Lode. 

Another water engine « tlie Rag aWid Chain, >pHiich confifts of 
kA iton chain with knobs of cloth ^illbned and fented with 
l^adier, fdidom more tluaii nine ficet afiindi^t : the chain is 
twmed rcwmd by a wheel of two <* threJe ftttt diameter, furn^hed 
¥i4th -iron fpilc^, <o inclofe and k*jep fteady jhe <chain, fo that 
it may rife wrough a tHMden pumptif thrte, feruji, or five inches 
hbik, And firtim twdve- =to twenty-two^eet longv'«>d by..ihe^m 
^kbtt kather knobs bring up With it a ftream of (miter aniwer- 
fiblefto Ac diamt*er of* ^he pwmp, arid in quJmtk^^ according to 
^^ efa-cuttivohitions erf" thip wfeeel ik iattfy pvth tiiAe. Siprerai -of 
thefe pumps may be placed parallel up<m Ss^^S^M S^iiUtej- Sal1(^, 
or Stages of the Mine, and are ufually worked by hand like 
4Sfbie in our navy. The meniW^Jlt at it naked excepting their 

loofe 



AND WORKING OP MtNBSL i^t 

loofe trowfers, and Aiffer muck in their Eedlth andilrcngth- 
from the violence of the labour, which is fo great that I have? 
been witnefs to the lofs of many lives by it. 

A rag and chain pump of four inches diameter, requires five 
or fix frefh men, every fix hours, to draw twenty feet deep ; 
and to keep it conftantly going, twenty or twenty-four men 
muft be employed monthly, at forty or fifty (hillings each manii 
The monthly charge of one of thefe engines cannot be lefs than 
fifty or fixty pounds ; and they are now pretty generally kid 
afide on account of the great expcnce, and the deftrudEon of 
the men. Neverthelefs the motion of the rag and chiin, whcii 
it is conftant, is fo quick, that it will difcharge a quantity of 
water, even exceeding that of awheel and bob engine, whofe 
pump is lo inches bore ; and it may be ufefully applied to draw 
water from fundry parts, fuch as dippas or little pits of a Mine, 
which have no comfAXinication with other aquedudrs to the grand 
machinery for delivering ci the water to Adit. 

Where the rag and chain pumps are unequal to the work, 
and too chargeable for the Mmc to repay, they may Imve ire- 
courfe to the whym' again ; and inftead of drawing^ with fixt)t 
gaillon barrels as at iirft, they may put in larger ones to the 
amount of 1 20 gallions in each barrel drawn by the additional 
help of two horles imore. This draught 'muft be within twenty 
fathoms, and -not lefs than two barrels a minute, to be worth 
the charge. > ..,,.' >rr7 
■■'■'■ _ ..•'•-.•. ■ • ■..-, * 

The water wheel with bobs^ is yet a more e^edual^enginei; 
whofe power is aniw^rablelto tfiie dianieter of the w^eel and. the 
fwoep of the cranks fixed in the^extrehiities of the a^. • 0<VBr 
them two lame bobs ate- hung::mpon bra& ceniter gudgeons fo{i^ 
ported by a ftr^ng-irame o£ ti^nber, and: rife an$: fall accotd^ 
ing to the diame^ of diefwce^^of the? danks, atjafuhx ciide 
they deferibe. To each ci^ank iis fixed .a ftrad^it half ip^t>i£ 
balk timber, that communioanes with. Jeach bob: Jihoiiffn alf'th^ 
other hand or nofe of the bob: over the Shaft, a large iron dhaui 
is pendent, £)iliened to a perpendicular vod of timber tHat.wcirks^ 
4 pifton in ah ijpon or bia& hollow cylinder, called the Working 
Piece : the quantity of water exhaufted, wiUb be in iMrdpoirtioft 
to the bore of the working piece, alndittiiie nuflod^eroc dmcft 
which the embolus works up and down in a given J(p^oei<'n/Fli;b 
water engine wheel at Cooks Kitchen Mine, is forty-eight feet 
-^diameter, and works her tiers of pumps of nine it\.ck<t% V^cjt^^ 



152 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

which being divided into four lifts, draws eighty fathoms under 
the Adit. If the flream of water were fufficient to fill the 
buckets of the wheel, fhe would draw forty fathoms deeper with 
the fame bore ; and I have been well informed, that the power 
of a forty-eight feet wheel, is equal to the diameter of a forty- 
feven inch nre engine houfe cylinder ; whence this kind of 
engine is the moft eligible, where grafs water is plenty, and to 
be had for a fmall rent. 

The number of ftamping mills adjacent to the Mines, and 
the value of water for the various ablutions of Tin and Copper 
Ores, render every fmall rivulet of fome confiderable confequence 
to thofe through whofe lands the water happens to flow. Many 
of our country gentlemen have made great rents of their water 
courfes, when they have been diverted from their grift mill 
tenants ; and fome of them, without any recompence made to 
the leflfees, have received fifty pounds a month, feveral years, 
for a fmall mill ftream of water to drive one of thofe engine 
wheels upon Mines in their own lands. 

r 
/ 

Happy would it be for the Mining intereft, if our fuperficial 
ftreams of water were not fo finall and fcanty ; but the ntuation 
of our Mines, which is generally in hilly grounds, and the fliort 
current of our fpriQgs from their fource to the fea, prevent luch 
an accumulation of water, as might be applied to the purpofe 
of draining the Mines ; and of courfe the value of water is the 
more enhanced. There are very few ftreams, which are fufii- 
cient to anfwer the purpofe in fummer, as well as in winter, fo 
that many engines cannot be worked from' Miay to Odober ; 
which is a great lofs at that feaibn of the year, when men can 
work longer at grafs, and with more vigour, than they can in 
ihort days and cold weather. Yet the innumerable Adits driven 
into the earth, afford tolerable fupplies of water to thofe ftreams, 
and are of fome importance to the uhwatering of the Mines. By 
the fuperior addrc& of our Miners, the rivulets are often ex- 
tended many miles to drive an engine ; and are then returned as 
ht back aj?ain as poftible, to ferve other Mines and ftamping 
axiills ; bendes, the moifture of our air and fituation,. which 
is diredly expofed ta the great weftcrn ocean, as well as to 
the Britifti and Briftol Channels, caufes abundance of rain, and 
<x>ntributes not a little to fwcU our iinall rivers after. the au« 
tumnal equinox. 

But 



AND WORKING OF MIKES. 153 

But where the fituation of a Mine will not admit of a water 
engine, or where the flream is infufEcient, the laft refource is 
that moft ufeful, powerful, and noble machine, the fire engine, 
of which we have feveral that are perhaps the largeft in the 
kingdom. It is the moft admirable curious and compounded 
machine amongft all that owe their invention to the difcoveries 
of modern philofophy, and affords the greateft advantages to 
mankind. The marquis of Worcefter, in his century of in- 
ventions publifhed in the year 1663, is probably the firft that 
propofed raifing any great quantities of water by the force of 
fire converting water into fleam ; but captain Savery was the 
firfl who ereAed an engine for this purpofe in the form we have 
fince had them, and which has been lately improved by Mr. 
Blakey, though not to a degree of power fufEcient to unwater 
a deep Mine. 

Mr. Newcomen, and Mr. J. Cawley, contrived another way 
to raife water by fire, where the fleam to raife the water from 
the greatefl depths of Mines is not required to be greater than 
the prefTure of the atmofphere ; and this is the flrudure of 
the prefent fire engine, which is now of about fcventy years 
(landing. 

Let las fuppbfe a pump, or tier of pumps as we fay, to be 
twenty-five fathoms deep, whofe cylindric diameter of its full 
column of water is feven inches and a quarter, and of the 
weight of 3,000 lb . Now if the rod of this pump were hung 
by a chain to the nofe of the lever or bob, h h, as at H ; and 
at the other end, another power were applied, as at L, with a 
fuperior force ; the pump mi^ht be worked, and the water 
raifed by that power. It appears, this power cannot be fup- 
plied by the flrength of man, or beafl ; for it will require one 
hundred men to pull down the bob, each pulling with the force 
of 30 lb, and one hundred men to relieve them \yhen weary. 
But as the pump in a Mine mufl not fland flill, there fhould, 
for fuch hard labour, be a frefh corps of one hundred men every 
four hours at leaft, which would amount to fix hundred men 
every twenty-four hours. If we allow horfes, and one horfe 
equal to five men, there mufl be twenty horfes working at a 
time, and twenty more to relieve them every four hours, where 
the draft mufl be fo conflant and ezceflive ; which will amount 
to one hundred and twenty horfes every twenty- four hoiirs ; 
and fo great a number, though lefs expenfive than men, will be 
found too great for mofl Mines, if it were poflible to apply 

R r lUEkiOA. 



f54 OW fiDHTNDSs DP TAKING SETjS, 

them Co that uCs. I prodacs this example, to {hew the prodi- 
gious .force dbat is required to draw water in the fmaU epitome 
x>f a Mine ^ for the diameter oi the pump given, and the depth 
jof twenty-five fathoms, hear the leaft analogy to the depth of 
4mr Cornish Mines, whofe fixe engine houfe cylinders are gene- 
rally from fifty-four to fevenity inches diameter. Now ^allowing 
S tb to each fquare inch, clear of fridion, in the power of a 
&:e engine houfe cylinder of feventy inches diameter ; the 
number of pounds avoirdupoife within its extent of power to 
lift up or pull down, are equal to 30,7841b. The human 
power equal to this will require the firength of 1,026 men 
«very four hours, or 6,156 men the day and night ; or 1,230 
horfes. A fixty inch cylinder, alfo, which will lift 22,616 B , 
is equdi to 4,518 men, or 900 horfes, every twenty-four hours. 
Some other power therefore muft be applied ; which may be 
eiFedled as follows. B is a large boiler, whofe water, by the 
^•re under it, is converted into an elaftick fleam. (See plate III) 
The great cylinder C C is fixed upon it, and communicates 
with it by the pipe D d ; on the lower orifice of which, within 
the boiler, moves a broad plate, by means of the ileam cock, 
-or regulator E 10, Hopping or evening ^e pafiage to prevent or 
permit the fteam to pafs into the cylinder, as occafion requires. 
The diameter of the pipe D is about four inches. 

The fleam in the boiler ought always to be a little flronger 

than the air, that, when let into the cylinder, it may be a little 

more than a ballance to the external air, which keeps down the 

pifion at the bottom d n. The pifton being by this means at 

liberty, the pump rod will, by its great weight, defcend at the 

/>ppofite end to make a flroke, which is more than double the 

^weight of the piflon, &c. at the other end. The end of the 

lever at the pump, thecefore, will always preponderate and 

iiefoend, when the piflon is at liberty. The handle of the fleam 

.cock £ 10, being turoed towards n, opens a pipe D to let in 

,the Heam ; and bdi^< turned towards O, it fhuts it out, that 

•|io more can eater. The piAon is now raffed towards the top 

jo£ the cylinder at Cy and the cylinder is full of fleam. The 

iever O i mufl then be lifted up, to turn, by its teeth, the in- 

Je£tii7g code at N, which permits the water, brought from the 

xiflern ^ by the pipe g M N, to enter the bottom of the cylinder 

jot n, wueve it flies up in die form of a fountain, and uriking 

^paioft the bottom of the pifton, the ilrops, being driven all over 

<Jtne cyli^adcc, wiM, by their coldnefs, coodenfie the fleam into 

^|4;ef again, Mk4 precipitate it to the bottom of the cylinder. 

Mr. 



AND WORKING OF MINES. 155 

Mr. Beighton made an experiment to determine the rarity of 
ftcam, and found the content of a certain cylinder ^ fteanx wa» 
J 13 gallons; and fince there were j6 ftrokes in a minute* 
therefore 113x16 = 1808 gallons of fteam if minute. He 
alfo obferved, that the boiler proportioned to that cylinder, 
required to be fupplied with water ^t the rate of five pint* 
#* minute: and fince 282 cubick inches make a gallon, 351 
make a pint, and 5x35^ = I7^i in five pints : alfo the cubick 
inches of fteam are 1808X282 = 509856 ; if then we iay, as 
176^ : 509855 :: i : 2893 ; or one cubick inch of water is ex- 
panded into 2893 inches of fteara ; confequently the fteam in 
the cylinder is reduced to tjVt part, when turned to water by 
the jet of cold water ; and therefore a fujfficient vacuum is made 
in the cylinder, for the pifton to defcend, unballanced, by the 
preffure of the atmofphere. The pifton being forced down, 
raifes the other end of the kver or bob, and confequently the 
box of the pump under-ground, which brings up and difcharges 
the water at adit, the fame as at p. Now this whole operation 
of opening and {hutting the fteam regulator and inje^on cockp 
will take up but little more than three leconds ; and will^ 
therefore, eafily produce 1 6 ftrokes in a minute. 

That the ciftern g may always be fupplied with water, there 
is an arch fixed near the arch or nofe of the bob H, from whence 
another pump rod k, with its box and valve, draws water from 
the level of the adit in the lame engine (haft, and forces it up 
the pipe m m m into the ciftern g, which, therefore, can never 
want water. 

That the leathers of the pifton C may be always, fiipple and 
fwelled out, fo as to be conftantly air tight, a fmall ftream of 
water is fupplied from the injeding pipe M by the arm Z. On 
the top of the cylinder is a larger part or cup L, to hold the 
water that lies on the piftxm, left it {hould overflow when the 
pifton is got to its greateft height, as at W ; at which time, if 
the cup be too full, the water will run down the pipe V to thr 
wafte well at Y. 

The water in the boiler, which waftes away in fteam, is fup* 
Iplied by a pipe I i about three feet long, going into the boiler 
a foot below the furface of the water. On the top of this pipe 
is a funnel I, fupplied by the pipe W with water from the cup 
of the cylinder, which has the iadvantage of being always warm, 
and therefore not apt to check the boiling of the water. That 



156 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

the boiler may not have the furface of the water too low, which' 
would endanger burfting ; or too high, which would not leave 
room enough for fleam ; there are two gage pipes at G, one 
going a little below the furface of the water when at a proper 
height, and the other (landing a little above it. When every 
thing is right, the ftop cock of the fhort pipe being open, gives 
only fleam, and that of the long one water ; but, if otherwife, 
both cocks will give fleam when the furface of the water is too 
low, and both give water when it is too high ; and hence the 
cock which feeds the boiler at I, may be opened to fuch 
a degree, as always to keep the furface of water to its due 
height. 

The cold water, conflantly injeded into the cylinder to con- 
denfe the fleam, is carried off by the edudion pipe dTY, 
leading from the bottom of the cylinder to the wafle well Y, 
where going a little under water, it has its end turned up, with 
a valve Y, to keep the air from prefling out into the pipe, but 
permitting the injeded water coming the other way to be dif- 
charged, whereby the cylinder is kept empty. 

Lefl the fleam fhould grow too flrong for the boiler, and 
burfl it, there is a valve fixed at h, with a perpendicular wire 
(landing up from the middle of it, to put weights of Lead upon, 
in order to examine the flrength of the fleam pufhing againfl it 
from within. Thus the fleam is known to be as flrong as the 
air, if it will raife up fo much weight on the valve, as is at the 
rate of fifteen pounds to an inch fquare, becaufe that is the 
weight of air, nearly, on every fquare inch. When the fleam 
becomes ftronger than is required, it will lift up the valve, and 
go out ; this valve is called the Puppet-Clack. The fleam has 
always a variable flrength, yet never one-tenth flronger or weaker 
than common air ; for it has been found, that the engine will 
wdrk well when there is the weight of one pound on each fquare 
inch of the valve : this fhews, that the fleam is then one-fifteenth 
part flroi^er than the common air. Now as the height of the 
feeding pipe, from the funnel F to the furface of the water G s, 
is not above three feet, and three feet and a half of water is 
one-tenth-of the preflure of the air ; if the fleam were one-tenth 
part flronger than air, it would pufh the water out at E ; and 
unce it does not, it cannot be ftronger than air, even in this 
cafe, where, the regulator being fhut, it is mofl of all confined. 
.When the regulator is opened, the fteam gives the piflon a pufh, 
which raifes it up a little way ; then filling a greater fpace, it 

comes 



AND WORKING OF MINES. 157 

comes to be of the fame flrength with, and fo a balknce to, the 
atmofphere : thus the pifton, being at liberty, rifes to the top 
W. The fteam, now expanded into the whole, capacity of the 
cylinder, is weaker than, the air ; and would not fupport the 
pifton, were it not for the greater weight at the other end of the 
lever, which keeps it up. The fteam, each ftroke, drives the 
injedied water of the preceding ftroke out of the edudion pipe 
d T Y ; and would itfelf follow, and blow out at the valve Y, 
which is not loaded, if it were ftronger than, the air, which it 
never does. If it were exadly equal to the ftrength of the air, 
it would juft drive all the water out at Y ; but could not follow 
itfelf, the preffure being equal on each fide the valve by fuppo- 
fition. If it be weaker than the air, it will not force all the 
water out of the pipe at d T Y ; but the furface will ftand, 
fuppofe at T, where the column of water T Y, added to the 
ftrength of the fteam, is equal to the preffure of the air. When 
the fteam is one-tenth weaker than the air, the height T Y =» 
three feet and. a 'half. Now, fince the whole perpendicular 
diftance from d'to Y is but four feet, and the fteam always 
fufficient to expel the water ; it is plain, it can never be more 
than one-tenth part weaker than the air, when weakeft. 

There is air in all the water injeded ; and though that air 
cannot be taken out or condenfed with the fteam, yet will it 
precipitate through the fteam to the bottom of the cylinder, as 
being much heavier : for fteam i^ to water, as i to 2893, in its 
denfity ; but the denfity of air is to that of water, as i to 864 
nearly ; therefore the rarity of fteam is to that of air, as 2893 
to 864 : the air will, therefore, fall through the fteam to the 
bottom, and from thence be driven put through a fmall pipe 
opening into the cup. at 4, on which is a valve. Now when the 
fteam firft rufhes into the cylinder, and is a little ftronger than 
the outward air, it will force the precipitated air to open the 
valve at 4, and make its efcape ; but the fteam cannot follow, 
becaufe it is weaker than the outward air, . as the pifton gives it 
room, by afcending, to expand. This valve, from the noife it 
makes, is called the Snifting-Clack. ; 

Among the great improvements of this engine, we may reckon 
that contrivance! by which the engine itfelf is made to open an4 
fliut the regulator and injeAion cock, and that more nicely than 
any perfon attending could . poftibly do it. For this purpoie, 
there is fixed to an arch 12, at a proper diftance from the arch 
P, a chain, from which hangs a perpendicular piece or working 

S f "Viftassy 



158 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

beam QjQ^ which comes down quite to the floor, and goes 
through it in a hole, which it exadly fits. This piece has a 
long flit in it, and fcveral pin holes and pins, for the movemenft 
of fmall levers deflined to the ^me office of opening and 
fliutting the cocks, after the following manner ; between two 
perpendicular pieces of wood, on each fide, there is a fquare 
iron axis A B (plate IH, fig. 2) which has upon it fereral iron 
pieces of the lever kind. The firft is the piece C E D, called 
the Y, from its reprefcnting that letter, inverted by its two 
flianks E and D j^ on the upper part is a weight F to be raifed 
higher or lower, and fixed, as occafion requires. This Y is 
fixed very fafl: upon the fiiid iron axis A B. 

From the axis hangs a fort of an iron ftirrup I K L G, by 
its two hooks I G, having on the lower peut two holes K L, 
through which pafTes a long iron pin L K, and keyed in the 
{ante. When this pin is put in, it is alfo paflied through the 
two holes, in the ends E N, of the horizontal fork or fpanner 
E Q^N, joined at its endQ^to the handle of the regulator V 10* 
From Q^to O are feveral holes, by which the faid handle maj^ 
be fixed to that part of the end which is moft convenient. 
Upon this axis A B, is fixed, at right angles to the Y, an 
handle or lever G 4, which gocsf on. the outfide of the piece 
0^2, 0^2, and lies between the pins^ Another handle is alfo 
faflcned upon the fame axis, viz. H 5, and placed at half a 
right angle to the former O 4 ; this paffes through the flit of 
the piece Q^2, Q^2, lying on one of the pins. Hence wsc fce^ 
that when the working beam goes up, its pin in the flit lifts up 
the fpanner H 5, which turns about the axis fo fall as to throw 
the Y, with its weight F, from C to 6, in which diredion it 
would (x>ntinue to move, after it had pafTed the perpendicular, 
ivere it not prevented by a ftrap of leather fixed to it at ce, and 
made fafl at the ends ra and n in fuch a manner as to allow the 
Y to vibrate backwards and forwards about a quarter of a circle, 
at equal diftances, on this fide and that of the perpendicular. 

In the reprefentation we have given, the regulator appears 
open, its plate T Y being fhewn on one fide the pipe S, which 
jfldns the cylinder and boUer. The pifton is> now up, and alfo 
the working beam near its ^reateft height ; the pin in the flit 
has fo far raifei the fpanner H- 5, that the weight F on the head 
of the Y k brought fo far from ti^ as (to be paft the perpendicu- 
Ikr,. and ready to &11 over towards m, and, when it does fb, it 
jidll by its fhank £, with a finart blow, ttrikt ths iron pin K L, 
.rrr;. and 



i6o OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

power of a 60 inch, houfe cylinder, to work a pit-barrel or 
working piece of 1 2 inches diameter ; I look in the firft column 
for the diameter of the houfe cylinder, till I find the No. 60 : 
I then go on in that line to my right, till I come under r 2 of 
the uppermoft line, which is the diameter of the pit-barrel or 
working piece, and there find 79, the number of fathoms an 
engine of that power will draw ; that is, a houfe cylinder of 60 
inches diameter, will draw with a 12 inch, box, 79 fathoms. 

The Mine being fupplied with a power for the difcharge of 
the water, and the adventurers refolving to prove it at a good 
depth, they fink down the engine Shaft continually, or keep it 
lower than their workings upon the courfe of the Lode, with 
which it has always a deep communication, that the water may 
readily flow to the engine pumps, and be drawn to Adit. The 
bottom of the engine Shaft, while it is deeper than the workings 
upon the Lode, is properly the Sumph or Sink of the Mine ; 
and this fhould ever be the cafe, for the Mine to be in regular 
courfe of working : but when an engine is worked to the full 
extent of its power, it is common to fink a Sumph in the Lode 
itfelf, and draw the water from thence by a force pumpK''(br any 
more convenient hand machinery) into the engine Shaft ; this, 
however, is feldoin done unlefs a Mine is foon to be fet idle. If 
the Lode underlies north, the engine Shaft ought to be at a 
good diftance north from the back of the Lode ; becaufe, while 
the engine is drawing the water out of the Shaft, the Lode is 
ftill coming nearer to it by every fathom of Lode or ground that 
is broke away, until at laft the Lode underlies into the Shaft 
itfelf ; and in procefs of further finking the Mine, the Lode 
which was before to the fouth of the Shaft, is gone through to 
the north of it ; fo that the deeper either of them is funk, they 
are more and more diftant from each other, and. become at lafl 
very expenfive and incommodious fi-om the unavoidable necef- 
fity they are under, of continually driving a Crofs-cut, or 
Drift, from one to the other, that tne water may flow into the 
Sumph for its difcharge to Adit. . This is an evil that cannot 
be prevented ; for, in all deep Mines, their engine Shafts, at 
laft, muft be very diftant from their Lodes, unlefs the underlie 
is trifling, and the Lode very little removed from a perpendicu- 
lar. Tni* Crofs-cut or Drift of Communication is fbmetimes 
very tedious and expenfive, where the ground is hard, the water 
quick, and the engine almoft at the extent of its power. 

From 



P/jOrA. 




^ f^ 6^ thcey^^yM 'fTt^o^ ^^^^^ir::^ 




i6o 

power 
workin 
for the 
I then 
the up 
workir 
engine 
inches 

Th< 
the wj 
depth, 
lower 
which 
readil; 
bottoi 
upon 
and t] 
courr< 
cxten 
itfclf, 
more 
howc' 
the I 
good 
die e 
ftillc 
is br< 
itfelf 
whic 
the r 
are n 
very 
fity 
Drift 
Sum 
be f 
laft, 
is tri 
lar. 
very 
quic 



fie Houfe-Cylinders of Fire-Engines, from 
refpedive Diameter ; and the Number of 
Pounds to a fquare Inch clear of Fridlion : 
.ch Cylinder will lift a Column of Water, 
liametcT. At the Bottom of thefe Columns 
Working-Pieces when the Engine makes a 
hews the Number of Ale-Gallons contained 
■Cylinders of any Dimenfions, from 20 to 

ces or Pit-Cylinders. 



17 

41 
6J 

9J 

•3f 

17 
22 

27 
33 
39 
46 

53 
61 

70 

79 
88 

98 
109 

57'9i 


18 

3l: 

Si 
12 

15 

20 

24 
30 
35 
41 
48 

55 
62 

70 

79 
88 

97 
64,94 


'9 

3l 
51 

7^- 
11 

14 
18 

22 
26 

31 
37 
43 
49 
56 
63 
7» 
79 
87 
7'i>39 


20 

3i 

5 

7 

9r 
III 
16 
zo 

24 
28 

33 
38 
44 
50 
57 
64 

71 

79 
8o,2i 


21 

2j 
4k 
6k 

m 

14 
18 

21 
26 
30 
35 
40 
46 
52 
58 
64 

71 
88,43 


22 

2> 

4i 

51 
8 
10 

13 

16 

20 

23 
27 

32 

37 
42 

47 
53 
59 
65 
97,06 


23 


24 

2i 

31 




2j. 


246,4 


3J 


384,3 


5l 


5 
6i 


553.7 


7t 


754,5 


9i 


8i 
II 

14 
16 

20 

23 

27 


985,1 


12 


1249 


15 


1539,6 


18 


1862,7 


21 


2216,2 


25 


2602,3 


29 


3018 


33 


31 


3464,3 


38 


35 
40 

44 
50 


3941,9 


43 


4450,1 


48 


4989 


54 


5559^^ 


60 


55 
115*5 


6160 


106,07 








AND WORKING OF MINES. i6i 

From the level of the Sumph if it is out of the Lode, or 
from the Sumph itfelf if it is in the Lode, they turn houfe, and 
drive on the courfe or body of the Lode to break Ore, or to fee 
if they can meet with any in extending the bottom or deepeft 
part of the Mine. 

Now if the Sumph proves good for Ore, they not only turn 
houfe, in order to make room and lengthen the bottom of the 
Mine ; but they likewife ftope or break away the Lode in the 
following manner : the Sumph being in the Lode, one man 
with a pick-axe breaks away about two feet of the upper part of 
the edge of the Sumph or pit, ftill driving on, on the courfe of 
the Lode ; and when he makes room, another follows him in 
like manner, and then others ; fo that this floping is not unlike 
the hewing a flight of fleps in a rock, where each man works 
away the ftep above that which he ftands on. 

But if the Ore is not generally plenty in the Lode, and only 
in uncertain branches, then they often follow thefe branches of 
Ore, both upwards and downwards. Thofe fmalt pits they 
make in digging down after the Ore, and all other pits that 
are made below in following the Ore, though they are large, 
are all called Dippas, provided they are not deeper than the 
Sumph, nor funk down to drain the Mine as Sumphs ait. But 
this way of finking many Dippas, is apt to diforder a Mine, and 
put it out of a regular courfe of working ; and often prevents 
the difcovery of Ore, which may lie hid in many places \in a 
Mine, that do not feem worth the charge of breaking that part 
of the Lode which appears poor and barren; however, if a 
Mine is on the point of being left off, then it cannot be impro- 
per to work in Dippas, where the Ore lies, in order to make 
the moft of it. 

It often happens that a Lode five or fix feet wide, may have 
a branch or leader on one fide of it, very rich for Tin or Copper, 
while the refl: of the Lode is very poor and dry. This rich part 
may be one foot wide, or it may be fcarcely fix inches ; fo that 
if it is not a working big, or there is not fufficient for a man to 
work on Ore exclufive of the barren part, he breaks down, if 
in an eiid, or digs up, if under his feet, all the poor part by 
itfelf, in length, or depth, according as he chufes, or is di- 
reded ; whereby the rich Ore is left (landing clean from any 
other mixture : this he afterwards breaks and keeps by itfelr, 
whence it is then brought up to cleanfe and drels. 

T t t>KJA 



i62 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

This feparation or breaking the bad from the good Ore, they 
call Pyzhuing the leader, or making a Dyzhu ; and the goqcl 
Ore that is thus expcjfed, is called a Dyzhu, from the Corniih 
Britifh Dyzhui, to difcover imto. This method of proceeding 
is very ufeful, to prevent the more valuable part of the Lode 
from being mixed promifcuoufly with the barren part, which 
would increafe the charges of drefling the Ore, and of ^onfe- 
quence diminifh its value by the deads and wafte that would 
neeeflarily be mixed with it if the Lode was broken altogether. 

But though the utility of this method muft be very obvious 
to the reader, Dizhuing the Lode in whole, is popularly under- 
flood in the following manner : when the whole Lode is rich, 
and perhaps not above fix or twelve inches big, it will be im- 
poSble to break the Lode away clean and free from wafte of the 
adjoining country without it is firft Dizhued : accordingly they 
obferve which of either wall or fide of the Lode is the moft fair, 
and eafily to be broken, and purfuant to that or any other con- 
tingent circumftance, they break down firft of all fome part of 
one wall and contiguous ftratum by the Lode, as hath been before 
defcribed, and afterwards the Lode being thus far Dizhued is 
taken down clean by itfelf. On the contrary, if one part of 
the Lode is very rich and fair, but fmall, and the. reft of it is 
dry, barren, large, and hard, they commonly dig out firft the 
pith or richer part of the Lode, which they call Hulking the 
Lode ; fo that in fuch cafe, the poor part which is left ftanding 
may not improperly be named a Dyzhu of the dead unprofitable 
part of the vein ; which, if it is very hard, they ufually deftroy 
or break down by a charge of gunpowder. 

For the more eafy comprehenfion of the reader, it is to be 
obferved, that Hulking of Lodes, is the term moft generally 
ufed in driving a high end, or finking a high ftope of the Lode ; 
and that Dyzhuing the Lode or the Leader, is mc^ ufed where 
the barren part of the Lode, or the adjoining country, is very 
fair, or more fo than the rich part of the vein. The interchange 
of terms, ari&s (lom the converie of the foregoing contingencies; 
for Hulking the Lode, is only ufeful where the country, or 
bacfen part of the vein, is much harder than its richer parts. 

- la Dyzhuing or Hulking the Lodie, a fuper abundant quan- 
tity of deads muft confequently incommode the workmen, and. 
fHi up the Mine, if not fpeedily drawn up to grafs or difpofed 
of in fome vacant place. The drawing fuch portions up to the 
:L1 . furface, 



AND WORKING O F M I N E S, 163 

furface, muft be very tedious, and as coftly as drawing up equal 
quantities of the richeft Ores. Now in order cheaply and 
fpeedily to difpofe of their refufe or deads, if the Mine has been 
worked any tolerable depth, they lay over their heads, acrofs 
the fiffure or evacuated workings, great beams of timber mor- 
tifed into the folid rock ; and acrofs upon thofe beams, firm 
planks of deal, which make a ftage or gallery, denominated a 
StuU, from the Britifti word Aftel a board or plank. Several 
of thcfe StuUs are made in different depths of Mines, that are 
of any {landing ; and we find they are many ways ufeful to the 
Mine and workmen ; for by fuch coverings over head, the 
■workmen are oftentimes preferved from great danger by the 
falling of Seals, or the tumbling down of rocks and ftones from 
various places of the workings over them. Thefe Stulls arc 
doubly ufeful to the Mine ; for all the deads or refufe part of 
the workings before mentioned, are conveniently thrown to 
Stulls^ as they fay, to the faving of much labour and great 
expence ; and at the fame time, when thus filled with Attal or 
deads, they help to~ prop or keep open the Mine from being 
cruflied together by the incumbent ftrata or country. One only 
inconvenience, that I know of, refults from the making of 
Stulls in a Mine ; that is, they often ferve for concealing Ore 
linder-ground, which the combined knavery of the workmen, 
with the connivance of the captains, may place there till it 
fuits their opportunity to remove it for their own advantage to 
mix with Ore upon tribute, where they are largely concerned* 
All publick undertakings are more expofed than private ones, 
to the peculations of diihcmefl fervants. 

In fome Mines, where Ore is broken more fpeedily than it 
can be drawn up to grafs, (and I have known fome Lodes fo 
fair and rich that one pick-man would keep a whym conflantly 
going) it is neceflary for them to have a place under-ground, 
diftind from the Shafts and Stopes of the Lodes, for lodging 
their Ore^ till they are at liberty to faring it to grafs ; particu- 
larly where they are driving a dj-ift either upon Ore or deads. 
This place, if it is dug out of the fblid rock or country, they 
call a Plot, or cutting a Plot. The Plot (commonly called the 
Plat) is feldom under twelve fact fquafe and fix feet high ; hut 
it may be much larger according as circumftances require. 
At the entrance or beginning of almoft every Drift, a Plot, or 
chamber, is convenient tp lodge the broken ftufF on, almoft as 
foon as it is broke, that it may nbt incommode the working of 
> the drift end ; and it is alfo more neceflary at the top of the 



i64 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

Little- Winds or under-ground Shaft, that communicates with 
the fide or bottom of the upper or grafs Shaft. It may appear 
ftrange to fome of my readers, how Shafts under-ground, like ■ 
thofe above, can be neceflary or even pradicable ; but it is very 
true, that few Mines are without many of them ; and that, in 
the workings of former times, they were more numerous than 
grafs Shafts. 

, The under-ground Shaft or Winds, is worked by hand, with 
a windlafs only ; and its area is not fo large as the grafs or 
working Shaft ; whence it is corruptly abbreviated the Little- 
Winds. Now that we may underftand how neceflary the Little- 
Winds is to the working of a Mine, the reader will be pleafed to 
remember, what I have before hinted, that Lodes in their 
underlie, go away from the Shafts, in which the work or Ore is 
brought up : the Shafts are thereby rendered ufelefs in courfe of 
time, and therefore it is commonly requifite to fink down new 
Shafts, and cut the Lode at a deeper underlie, that they may 
draw up the work perpendicularly with greater facility. But 
thofe Shafts in deep Mines, are often coftly, and troublefome 
to be funk, from the furface of the earth ; either by means of 
the water that falls into them, the intenfe hardnefs of the ftra- 
tum they muft cut through in finking, or by means of loofe 
foft ground, that requires much timber and boards to line the 
Shaft from top to bottom. When they find any of thcfc diffi- 
culties very great, they fink a Little- Winds in this manner : 
they go down in the grafs Shaft, from whence the Lode is gone 
fo far as the Shaft is perpendicular, or as far as they think pro- 
per ; from thence they work in a drift or horizontal line, till . 
they come as far over the underlie of the Lode, as they like : 
there they cut a Plot ; and in the middle of this Plot they fix 
a windlafs or winding tackle, and fink down their Little- Winds 
or Shaft until they cut the Lode in it, or to the depth they 
intended. If the Plot is not fufficiently large after the Winds 
is funk, they make it wider, for holding the work they wind 
up from the deeper workings ; whence the men roll it away in 
wheel-barrows to the grafs Shaft, where is another Plot, Sailer, 
-or ftage of boards, to place it on, from whence they draw it up 
-to the furface at their leifure. Hence it appears, that both the 
grafs Shaft,, and Little- Winds, are put down in ftrait lines ; 
and they would be parallel to each other, had the Winds been 
continued up to the grafs or furface ; but the line, or drift of 
'.jcommunication common to both, is horizontal and at right 
■^ '.. . . angles 



AND WORKING OF MINES. 165 

angles to each other ; and goes from the foot or fide of the graf« 
Shaft, to the top of the Winds. 

We may conclude, that the number and neccffity of thefe 
under- ground Shafts in a Mine, greatly depends upon the 
horizontal tendency of the Lode : for if a vein goes down nearly 
perpendicular, the grafs or working Shaft will anfwer- its pur- 
pofe very well ;. but if it inclines faft, or underlies a fathom in 
a fathom, that is, if for one fathom in perpendicular depth 
which the Lode is funk upon, it is gone likewife a fathom to 
the north or fouth, the ufe of the Winds foon becomes necef^ 
fary. And though there is a great expence in finking thefe 
under-ground Shafts, and cutting of Plots, yet their ufefulnefs 
counterballances it, where a great wafte of ropes and expence 
of draft are occafioned by dragging upon the long and flat 
underlie of a deep Mine. In deep Mines, fome whym ropes 
coft fifty or fixty pounds j and perhaps cannot be ufed with 
fafety beyond two months if daily employed, on account of the 
great wear by dragging fifty or fixty fathoms upon the' inclina- 
tion of the Lode ; befides the expence of putting four horfes to 
draw half the work, which two, but for the depth and impe- 
diment, might perform ; it being well known, the Kibbal in 
fuch cafes feldom comes up half full to grafs. Neverthelefs, 
thefe with many other difficulties are to be borne with in deep 
Mines inclofed by denfe ftrata ; and it muft of confequcncc 
follow, that the Winds is more eligible in a fair and feafible 
country. 

When a Mine is wrought very deep, it requires too much 
time to let many men down through the working Shaft, which 
is appropriated to the bringing the work or Ore to grafs ; and 
therefore their underlying Shafts, which are become ufelefs, 
and out of courfe of working, are converted into a foot way. 
To make a good foot way, they build a Sailer or landing plot 
of boards, on which they, reft the foot of a long ladder, the 
other end whereof reaches up to the top of the Shaft; at the 
furface ; then, from the foot of the ladder, they have ah hori- 
zontal pafiage to another deeper Shaft on the underlie of the 
Lode, where they have another Sailer or landing place, and fix 
another ladder to defcend deeper ; and thus ' they proceed, till 
they have ladders enough to go down to the bottom of the 
Mine. Yet it is very common in great Mines to have foot ways 
by ladders in their engine Shafts, which not only fervc the pur- 
pofe of going down into the Mine, but alfo of inf^eAiiv^^M^r^ 



i66 OF BOUNDS; OF TAXING SETS, 

crevice of the pumps that have loft water, that they may redtify 
them when any misfortune happens. . Thofe ladders in the 
engine Shafts are of various lengths ; but at the foot of each 
ladder there is placed a Sailer for it to reft upon, above which, 
the top of the next ladder prefents itfelf. 

Either in driving an Adit, or finking a Shaft in loofe moulder- 
ing ftratum or country, they are often obliged to bind and fecurc 
them with timber, to prevent the country from running into 
the workings, and thereby choaking them. If the ground is 
very loofe on all fides, they make a Durns, as they call it, 
which for a Shaft is fquare like the frame of a window, and for 
an Adit is the fame as a door cafe. Between the Durns and the 
country they thruft in deal boards, whofe extremities length 
ways are juft placed behind each Durns ; by which means the 
loofe ground is kept fecure from filling the workings and de- 
ftroying the men. This, in an Adit, or any other drift, is 
called Binding or timbering of it ; but in a Shaft, it is Collaring 
the Shaft j and indeed every Shaft, before it is funk into the 
hard rock, or while it is in the rubble of the country, muft be 
thus Collared ; and the top is thence ufually denominated The 
Collar of the Shaft. 

All deep Mines likewife require to be well propped and fup- 
ported with ftemples or maffy pieces of wood, which being 
boarded over make StuUs, as I have already obferved. Thele 
ftemples or pillars of wood, which fome call Lock-pieces, are 
generally placed perpendicularly, one end being fixed under the 
upper or hanging wall of the Lode, the other end refting on its 
underlying wall ; fo that thefe pillars fuftain and keep up, not 
only the roof or hanging wall of the Lode, but alfo the prodi- 
gious weight of the impending fbata or country. I have feen 
thofe maflive pillars crufhed almoft together in fome Mines, by 
their incumbent roof, and have been mled with horror at their 
appearance ; and in other Mines, where the Lode has been wide 
and but little inclined, they have appeared like the pillars which 
' farm the aile of a venerable piece of Gothick architedure. But 
to fave the charge of the timber, and coft of breaking the fruit- 
Icfs' part of the vein, they often leave pillars of the Lode un- 
broken and flanding, efpecially if they are poor in nature, and 
of a hard ftmiy confiftence ; and by driving holes through thofe 
|Milars, which are called Arches of the Lode, they preferve a 
communication with the reft of the workings. 

It 



AND WORKING OF MINES, 167 

It requires much judgment to know when to u£e timber, and 
when to do without it ; for an unfkilful perfon may at a ^eat 
charge lUe timber where it is not wanted ; or may apply it (a 
injudicioufly, that it may not anfwer the purpofe for which it 
was defigned. In this branch of Mining, indeed, many expert 
Miners are not verfed ; and therefore it is generally undertaken 
by pcrfons who have made it, their ftudy and employment; 
who are ulually called Binders and Timbermen ; and who, ac- 
cording to their reputed excellence, have very great wages ; ' for 
without a proper application of timber, both the workmen and 
Mine may be crufhed together and deftroyed. Of fuch an event 
we have had too many inflances ; but if a Mine that has fufFered 
thusy is worth the charge of recovery, new Shafts may be funk 
down from grafs, till they come under the old bottoms, and by 
leaving over head a firm back or feparation, to fupport and keep 
up the run of the former workings, it will be again in as good 
a flate as a new Mine. 

If only fome part of a Mine falls in, or a ftuU runs ; that is, 
K* it breaks down, and fills fome of the bottoms with deads ; it 
is ufually cleared by {hutting of Attal ; which is performed by 
introducing upright Durns, and driving deal boards pointed at 
one end, between thofe Durns, and the loofe Attal ; and at the 
fame time clearing and fhoveling away the deads as fafl as they 
can conjun<9:ively proceed with Durns and Laths ; by which 
latter name they call deal boards. By this procefs they carry a 
drift of communication through their Attal, to different parts 
of the Mine. 

The great expence in hydraulick machinery that fome very 
deep Mines are chargeable with, very often induces the adven- 
turers to ftop their workings for fome time, till they bring 
home a new and deeper Adit. Accordingly they look out for a 
place to take a level from, that will neither be expenfive, nor 
flow in the driving ; and they put more or lefs force upon the 
Adit, as they are more or lefs eamefl in the work. When they 
refblve to be expeditious about it, they arc not fatisfied with 
driving one fingle end, but fink many intermediate Shafts be- 
tween the loft flovan or tail of the Adit, and the Mine. In this 
matter, if they do not refled maturely, and confider, whether 
they can fink fo many Shafts, without drawing much water, 
they may feverely pay for their improvident temerity. The 
-greateft accuracy, Ikill, and circumfpedion are neceflaiy in 
dialing with a-compafs for an exa£t andabfolute lev'tl V^i^!C«^<etL 



i68 OF BOUNDS; OF TAKING SETS, 

the Shafts and the Adit end. A fmall error will be of great, 
very great ill confequencc ; fo that none but feniible, expe- 
rienced Miners, ought to be tnifted with fo momentous a 
tranfadion. 

The new Adit is feldom or never deeper, than the bottoms of 
the Mine ; therefore the holding this deep level to the houfe 
of water, is very dangerous. All the former workings, if the 
Mine has been fet idle, muft of neceflity be filled with water to 
the level of the firft or old Adit. The whole Mine then be- 
comes a houfe of water, according to the common expreflion ^ 
and fuppofing they were abruptly to hole the Adit, or make a 
communication from it to the former workings, without any 
precaution ; then the great weight and prefTure of the water, 
would force its way through fo precipitately, that the ftreani 
would inftantaneoufly fill the Adit, and the men could not 
efcape drowning. Therefore, whenever they are apprehenfive 
of coming towards a Gunnies,, or hollows of a Mine filled with 
water, they bore a hole with an iron rod towards the water, 
about a fathom or two, or fo many feet, further than they have 
broke with the pick-axe according to the denfity, or different 
texture of the ftratum in their Adit end; As they work on, 
they ilill keep the hole with the boner before them that they 
may have timely notice of the burfling forth of the water, and 
fo give it a gradual vent or paflage, which will foon enlarge ' 
itfelf, and drain the Mine, when once it begins to pipe out of 
the borier hole into the Adit. Yet notwithftanding all this care 
and prudence, they are often in imminent danger of their lives, 
and are fometimes lofl by the fudden eruption of the water. 
This very hazardous bufinefs is generally undertaken by enter- 
prizing workmen for the confideration of an advanced price ; 
and I have met with feveral inftances of its being attended with 
fatal confequences. 

In fome places, efpecially where a new Adit is brought home 
to an old Mine, which has not been wrought in the memory of 
man, they have unexpedledly holed to the houfe of water, be- 
fore they thought themfelves near to it, and have inflantly 
perifhed. Some have driven by the fide of the houfe of water, 
and have perifhed alfo by its unexpe<Sled eruption. But I think 
where they are tolerably acqtiainted with their fituation, much 
danger may be avoided, by keeping three or five bdrier holes 
before them, radiated or difplayed above and below, to the right 
sad ,to the left, from the center of the Adit. This advice 

however 



A N D WORK IN G O F MINES. 169 

however may not be reliflied by thofe who are impatient to be 
rich, and value a little money more than the lives of their 
fellow-creatures. 

It often happens, however, where they are driving home an 
Adit upon the courfe of the Lode, that the water, as they come 
near the old workings, zighyrs away by flow degrees, through 
the Adit end, if it is tender and porous ; and inflead of holeing 
to the houfe of water, they very happily hole to Learys, or the 
old Guonies, or excavated parts of the Mine. 

The new Adit being holed in to the old workings, they im- 
mediately prepare to draw out the water ; and when the bottoms 
arc forked, or quite unwatered, they proceed to clear them of 
all flime, fludge, and attal, that may have fallen into them 
jGlnce the Mine was knocked or fet idle. Afterwards they £nk^ 
(lope, and drive in various parts of the Mine, according to the 
beft of their judgment, and in the manner before defcribed. 
The reader will conceive, that almoft every Mine, from variety 
of pircumftances and natural contingencies, will require a dif- 
ferent management, and method of working ; and that one 
certain mode for working two different Mines is impradicable. 
We have only to remark, that no Mine can be well wrought 
without ufing the forementioned general methods, however 
Varied they may be in the manner and application. 



X X A General 



170 A GENERAL DISPLAY OF..A MINE. 

A General Diiplay of a Mbe, by Notes of Reference to and an 
. Explanation of every Part of a whole Sheet Parailel-Sedion 
of Bullen-Garden Copper Mine ; wherein is exhibited all the 
Machinery, and Workings, from Grafs to the Sumph, fhew- 
ing every Pump, Sailer, Ladder, Drift, Stope, End, Winds, 
and StuU, in the Mine. 

* m * 

1,2 The weftern water engine tyes, or pumps, which 
deliver the water to adit. 

3 The ciftern, into which the water runs, ^om the 

old fire engine rofe pumps 17. 

4 A fmall bore, or fmall pump. .. 

' 5 A ciftern : the water which comes from Dolc6th 

Mine through the level 6, runs into this ciftern j 
it then afcends through the fmall bore 4 into 
the ciftern 3, whence it is drawn to adit by the 
pump 2. 
6,6 An aquedud or level from Dolcoth Mine. 
7^7>7»7>7J7 Poles, or pump rods. 

8 Old fire engine tye pumps. 

9 The rofe ciftern. 

10 A pump, that conveys the water from the rofe 

cijftern 9 to the tye pump. 

11 Old fire engine rofe pumps. 

y Clack door piece, and iron pump or cylinder 
1 2 i inches diameter. 

12 A ciftern. 

13 Old fire engine crown lift. 

>• Clack door piece, and iron pump or cylinder 
1 2 i inches diameter. 

14 A ciftern. 

5 15 Old fire engine lilly pumps. 

16 New fire engine tye pumps. 

>• Clack door piece, and brafs pump or cylinder 
1 1 i inches bore or diameter. 

17 A ciftern. 

18 New fire engine rofe pumps. 

>• Clack door piece, and brafs cylinder or pump 
1 1 J inches bore or diameter. 

19 A ciftern. 

• ' 20 New fire engine crown pumps. 

>. Clack door piece. 
21 Ciftern. 

22 New 



2 2 New fire engiiie lilly^ piiinps. ■(•..., 
23,23 Launders, to convey tte water, from tlie rofc 

) . ; • ciftem 9, to the wefto-n: water i^ginc. 
24,24. Wooden pumps, to convey the witter from the 
... ) roi^ ciitem 9, to the eaftern \v«a>cer ek^gin^.^' A 

25 Eaftern water engine great- tye piunps^ ' ' ^'- . 

26 Ditto little tye pumps. Both thefe l^fes 'flr'Jifis 

draw to adit all the water from the ciftelin 9, 
which comes to them through -^e K^oo^n 
r pximps 24,24. "x /i 

27 A brafs cylinder or pump, 11 iachekbore. 

28 Ditto, I o finches. • V-^v 

29 A ciftem. 

30.30 A fhallow level or aqueduct, that conveys the 

water, after it is difcharged from the eaftem 
water engine wheel, to the top of the weftern 
water engine wheel, to work that alfo. 

31.31 The old level or adit. 

32.32 The new level or deeper adit. 
33,34 A level to Dolcoth fire engine (haft. 

35 Huel-Bryant drift, or a deeper level driving to 

Dolc6th. 

36 A drift. 

37 Kemps end. 

38 The broad ftuU. 

39 The long faller. 

40 A winds or windlafs, to draw deads, or attal, 

from the fumph to the ftuU. 

41.42 A winds to draw attal from the bottoms to the 

ftulls. 

43.43 Drifts, driven to the north branch. 
44,44,44 A ftuU and way to the top eaftern end. 

45 A drift to fouth Entral Mine. 
46,46 Foot-ways and ladders. 

47 The deep weftern end, or ftool. 

48 Weftern bottoms. 

49 Weftern fliaft bottoms. 

50 Sumph fhaft weftern bottoms, 
, ; 51 The fumph. 

52 Sumph ftiaft eaftern bottoms 

53 South fliaft bottoms. 

54 Tyacks bottoms. 

55 Eaftern bottoms. 

56 Thft 



172 A GENERAL DISPLAY OF A MINE. 

56 The deep eaftern end, or ftool. 

57 A horfe in the Lode. 
48>49>So,5i,52,53,54,55 The breadth or bignefs of the Lode, 

. in the deep bottoms. 
A,B,C,b>E,F,G,H,I,K,L,M Stopes on the Lode. 

N,N Fire engines. 
0,D,0 Whyms. 
P,P Capftans. 
. Qj Q^ Water engine wheels. 

R,R Triangles, rope, and fheaf, for raifuig the pumps, 
changing boxes, &c. 
S,S Water engine bobs. 



CHAP. 



mm 




adventurers prelent at thefe montlily-meetings take into confi- 
deration the mofl efFedual methods of working the Mine ; and 
their determinations, which are fettled not by voices but fhares, 
are conclufive for the whole body. 

Y y \^«e^ 



5 

i 



^n 



174 GERERAL OBSERVATIONS ON 

Deep chargeable Mines are carried on by perfons of fortune 
or great fkill ; but ihallow Mines are occupied indifferently 
either by fuch, or by the labouring Miners, and frequently by 
both. When the Book-keepers^ or any other officers, by fup- 
plying coal, ropes, candles, or other materials, are part adven- 
turers, they are always ftiled In-adventurers ; and thofe who 
Kve at a dilfcance from the Mine, or have no immediate intereft 
by fupplyifig the works with Materials, are called Out-adven- 
turers. By the Stannary laws, indeed, the latter have the fame 
privilege of fupplying a Tin work with noen* or materials in 
proportion to their refpe<^ive Doles ; and when this is exercifed 
in opposition to certain In-adventurers, it is produdive of much 
jealoufy and conteft ; fo that it is more advantageous to Mines, 
when they are difintcr^edly carried on, and fupplied with 
Materials, by perfons who have no property in them. In this 
cafe, the bickerings of contending interefts are prevented ; and 
the Out-adventurers are fatisfied, that too many materials are 
ft6t CTOodcd upon the Mine by favour and connivance : and yet 
it is but reafonable, that thofe adventurers who are in trade, 
diould have the preference in fupplying a Mine with Materials, 
#hen it can be done with probity and honour.. 

in larg^ and important Mines, befides the Book-keeper or 
Caihier, there is a luperintendant over ail, called the Captain ; 
who having the direction of the works both above and under- 
ground, ought to be an experienced pradical Miner, and to 
underiland every diftind branch of the bufinefs. Under him, are 
the Bottom-Captains, whofe bufinefs is to fee that the cominon 
men perform due labour down in the Mine, and that they do 
not promifcuoufly confound the good and bad Ore together, but 
break them feparately, or as nearly fo as pofllble ; and alfo, the 
Grafs-Captain, who direds the feparation of the Ore again 
above ground, fo that the beft or mofl folid parts of it be 
made fit for falc, efpecially if it is a Copper Mine,^ for which 
reafon, (bme call him the DrefTer : but whether as Captain or 
Drefler, having little more to do, than to dired the repair of 
what goes amifs in the Bal or Mine, among the horfes, whyms, 
carriers, fmiths, carpenters, &;c. if he can keep a tolerable 
journal or day book, he alfo delivers materials to the men, fuch 
as gunpowder, candles, fhovels, pick-hilts, 6cc. and is on that 
account often called the Material-Man. 

. Though it is much to be feared that adventurers are often 
injured by difhonefl captains, - in conniving at the impofitions of 

the 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 175 

the common men ; yet I muft declare my opinion, that many 
private peculations originate from the par£mony of the maftecs 
themfelves. It is an aphorifm in Mining, that << A Tinner has 
" nothing to lofe ;*' but upon tribute or fearchimg for Tin upon 
the mere ftrength of his labour, he puts himfelf in the way o£ 
fortune, to enrich him by one lucky hit. It is faid, " A Tin- 
" ner is never broke till his neck is broke ;" for though he 
may lofe all his labour this month upon tribute, the next may 
amply repay all his lofs with proiit. I, therefore, reckon a 
Tinner upon tribute, if he can clear thirty {hillings monthly, 
with the chance annexed of gaining four times as much, is 
better off than a captain at forty fhillings without any further 
chance. There will never be occaiions wanting for bad men to 
decoy fervants, and alienate them from their bounden duty to 
their mailers : accordingly, Takers of ground by the fathom in 
finking, ftoping, or driving, and likewife Takers upon tribute, 
invite the captains to drink with them, upon free coft, at 
publick houfes ; which leads to a further progrefs in deceit and 
corruption, till the incautious captains are feduced from their 
integrity by the prefents of the Takers, whom they fuiFer to mix 
and manage the Ores in fuch manner as will moft conduce to 
their own advantage } and to meafure the ground which is 
wrought by the fathom, to the lofs and injury of the adventurers. 
Inflead, therefore, of allowing the captains to draw the work 
with their own horfes, and to fell the workmen materials and 
provifions, the adventurers in every Mine of great confequence, 
ought to give them handfome wages, with a ftri<9: prohibition 
riot to have any private intercourfe with the Takers. 

But, inftead of dwelling on the faults of this ufeful body of 
men, which are not greater than thofe of others who are equally 
deflitute of the advantages of Chriftian inflnidion and good 
example, and which the wifdom and generofity of their mafters 
might in a great meafure reftrain ; we ought rather to conidder 
the number and ieverity of their diftre£es, and the moft prpba* s 
ble means of affording them efFedual relief. 

The principal part of thefe arises from the caTualties that 
continually befal them, and require the immediate application 
of chirurgical aid. It is conunon for the owners of a Mine to 
oblige the men to depofk twopence ^ month with the purler, 
for the payment of the furgeon belonging to the Bal 4 and as ail 
who work lefs than five nems, and generally all labourers at 
^(s, are exempted from this contribution, it is levied ocJo) 



176 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON 

upon thofe who are in conftant and imminent danger : and for 
this fum of two (hillings ^ annum from each contributor, the 
furgeon undertakes to attend at all times however unfeafonable, 
and at all places however diftant, and to perform all operations; 
and furnim all medicines. This kind of contrad has fubfifted 
near fixty years ; but unfortunately for thofe unhappy labourers 
who may hereafter want afliftance, the furgeons begin to be 
weary of it, and are gradually declining a pradice, which, 
ufeful and important as it is to the fufferers, affords no rccom- 
pence in any degree adequate to their own ikill, labour, and 
expence. Suppofe, for inftance, that a Mine employs three 
hundred men who contribute to the payment of the furgeon ; 
twopence monthly from each, amounts to thirty pounds ^ an- 
num. Now, in the courfe of a year, it is three hundred to one, 
that the trepan, or the crooked knife, will be wanted, not only 
once or twice, but very often ; befides the ordinary accidents 
of burns, wounds, contufions, luxations, or fimple and com- 
pounded fradures, where the knife is fpared ; and the blafting 
one or both eyes, and the two laft fingers of the left hand, by 
gunpowder. An accident of confequence may require at leaft 
fix weeks daily attendance five or fix miles diftant from the 
furgeon's refidence ; an accident of the like nature may require 
the fame attendance, at the fame time, a road five or fix miles 
diametrically oppofitc : and is there a recompence for all this 
attention and labour, that is likely to fecure the continuance 
of it ? 

We wifh not that any Mine fhould be attended by one parti- 
cular furgeon : we know it is for the advantage of a patient in 
the prbgrefs of his cure, to be under the care of that furgeon to 
whom his own afFedion or opinion moft inclines him; and 
when the cure is completed, or the furgeon has done all in his 
power to efFed it, let his bill be difcharged by the purfer of the 
Mine, purfuant to flated prices. If this, or fome plan like 
this, is not adopted, the poor labourers muft perifh very faft for 
want of neceflary help ; for to fuppofe a continuance of the 
prefent method, is paying no compliment either to the under- 
ftanding of our furgeons, or to the compafiion and prudence of 
the Mine adventurers. 

But the moft effedual relief for all thefe evils, is a publick 
hofpital. In almoft all the large and opulent counties in Eng- 
land, hofpitals are ereded nearly upon the fame plan as thofe in 
London : and it is ftrange, that a county fo large as Cornwall, 

fo 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, 177 

fo opulent, and abounding with fo many accidents that require 
the greateft care and expertnefs in furgery, fhould be fo long 
without a charity of this kind : I am forry to obferve, it is no 
proof of the wifdom and generofity of its nobility and gentry. 

If the annual proceeds of this county in Tin, Copper, and 
Fifti, are rated only at jf 400,000, it is generally known, that 
feven-eighths of that fum are produced from the Mines, by a 
buiinefs the mofl hazardous under the fun to health and life. 
As a maritime county, it has a great commercial intercourfe 
with the whole world, by exportation of Tin, Fifh, and Oil, 
and the return of Salt, Hemp, Iron, Timber, &c. : and the 
conveyance of our Copper Ores coaftways, and the return of 
Coal and Lime, together with our fifheries, and the number of 
foreign packet boats at Falmouth ; keep up no inconfiderable 
fleet of {hipping, and form a valuable nurfery of feamen. Surely 
then, the Mining part of this province muft be the moft proper 
and eligible fituation for an hofpital, for fick and wounded 
Miners and Sailors. And as Redruth is fituated on the narrowed 
part of the county, is the center of Mining, and within two 
hours diftance from our moft frequented fea ports ; all thefe 
circumftances combine to prove the expediency of eredting a 
county hofpital clofe by the town of Redruth. 

When an accident happens in a Mine, the poor fufferer lan- 
guiihes till the arrival of the furgeon, who is generally fent for 
in fuch hafte and confufion, that it may happen, he is not pro- 
vided with every thing proper to adminifter prefent relief. I 
have been called to a perfon fuppofed to have a compound frac- 
ture of the leg, by a fall twenty fathoms under-ground, and 
have brought a fuitable apparatus ; when the cafe has proved to 
be a fradured fkull, and the leg was only fcratched. The 
patient is then conveyed jGix or feven miles to his own hut, full 
of naked children, but deftitute of all conveniencies, and almoft 
of all necefiaries. The whole, indeed, is a fcene of fiich com- 
plicated wretchednefs and diftrefs, as words have no power to 
defcribe. 

How comfortable then, muft it be, to fuch miferable objed» 
of compaffion, to be carried to an hofpital furnifhed with every 
tieceflary to eiFed his cure, and every convenience to alleviate 
his diftrefs ! The fame trouble which removes him from the 
Mine to his wretched hovel, brings him to the place built and 
furnifhed for his peculiar benefit. 

Z z "^i^*. 



» 



178 Q^NEfiLAL O ]8 S E R V AT I O N S ON 

Th^ i»ore I confi4er thip matter, the more I am convinced, 
the accompKfhment of it may be well an4 certainly efFedle^. 
A voluntary fubfcription amoqg the nobility an4 gentry ; the 
lords, bounders, and Mine adventurers ; the Tin and Copper 
companies ; the merchants and owners of fifheries ; and every 
rank and degree of thofe, who are any ways concerned and 
conne(^ed with the county ; would raife a fufijcient fum, to 
build and fyrniih a large commodious hofpital ; which, after- 
wards, may be almoft wholly maintained and fwpported by the 
moathly contributions of the Miners, failors, and iiihermen. 
Suppoiie the whole body of Miners, including all who work 
ax grafs ag well as under-ground, men, women, and children, 
in drefling of Tin and Cppper Ores, either in the Bals, or at 
the ftampmg mills, were ta«ed at only threepence a month 
each : fupppfe.they amounted <mly to 3Q,QQo, and the failore 
and fifheriijen to half that number} the whole would raife ajot 
4im«al income of ;f4,50o, free of all drawbacks, and excluiive 
of the revenue from le^cies, and annual donations and fub^ 
fcriptions. Hoping an objeft fo interefting to the wife an4 
we^thy paf t of the county will meet with fpeedy attention and 
e/le<auil eacp»ragement, I return to our principal fubjeQ:. , 

When a Mine is mp^mljered ^yith much watser, it occafions a 
confiderable increafe of labour and coft ; it then becomes ne- 
ceilgry to ufe all poflible difpatch and diligence in working the 
Minet and raiding the Ore without any interval. When the 
pick-axe ought to be kept constantly at work, it is ufusU to 
t^ork ftopes or drift ends by double pick-men j allowing two 
men to eagh pick by day, and 9a many by night, if they woi^?^ 
t?welve hours core. Thofe long cores, however, are now gene- 
rally aboli/hed : when they wer^ cuftomary, they were nothing 
more than a prefienjce for idknefs 5 twelve hours being %qq many 
ftjr a man to work under-pound without intermiKton. Ac- 
q^dingly, when a pair of men went under-ground formerly, 
they nifAe it a rulf, to flpep out a candle, before they fet about 
thjcir work ; that is, if tbeir plft?e of work^g wn» dry, they 
would lay themfelves down and fleep, as long as a whole candle 
would continue burning ; then rife up and work for two or 
^e& hours pretty bfi^ly 5 afte? ithat, have » touch-pipe, that 
i^, fell themfelves half an hour tp fmoke * pipe &f tob»eco ; 
%n^ ip pl^, and fleep away hftlf their working time.? hit 
MimRg being now naore deep fiwi expgnftre than k hfmtvly 
t^ftfo thofe i^ cuAwns 8r« l^perfeded by more labour and 
induftry. Conformable to th^ hiMlidijty or drinefs of the p.la<Be, 

the 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAOEMENT. 179 

the (ienljty or fairnef? ^f the groi}i»d, and the diftance from the 
fumph, it may be mpre or lefs neceffary, to work in cores of 
fix or eight hours with double picks » To work with doublfs 
pick-men, they allow two men to one pick in this manner ; in 
ftoping or driving fair ground, one man works two hours, and 
then gives the pick to hi» companion to work with for the fame 
time, and he that ftands by rolls or carries off the broken Ore 
or ftuflT as there is occafion ; and thus they work and carry off 
alternately. So likewife in boring of rocks for blafting with 
gunpowder, one man holds the fteel borier, whilift the other 
beats it with a (ledge of fix pounds weight ; the latter having 
had the hardefi tafk, when the hole is bored to its intended 
depth, refigns the remainder to the perfon who had only held 
the borier, who charges the hole, fires it, and works away the 
ihattered rocks. 

After this manner they work out their core till frefh men 
come under-ground, and relieve them in place : but fometimes 
they are neceffitated to work cwifiderably longer than their 
Jftftted hours j and then they are faid tp make a ftem, or part of 
a ftem, or to work a f^em out of core ; for which they are 
entitled at the month's end to an additional pay for fo many 
ftcms M c«ch man makes, over and above his ftated time of 
wwking 5 but ae this is an inlet to many impofitjons, it ought 
not to be allowed except upon a great emergency. 

A Lode that is large, fair, and rich, will fometimes prodnice 
Ore in fuch quantities, that the men cannot wind it up, and 
difpofe of it, a9 faft as it is broken ; and the want of more plota 
and room to hold it, greatly retards their operations. In 
this cafe, the owners fet the winding up of the work fo broken, 
cm the Whip i that is to fay, over and above the men'3 stated 
wages, they gi^e them a finaJl gratuity for every hundred kib-* 
bals of Ore that are brought «^ tografs out of core : but, in 
this winding by th^ whip, a Arid: attention ihould be paid to 
the filling dbo kibl^ls to chs bnm, jand alfo to making a lawful 
tale of five feore to the hundred, for reafons too plain to be 
mentioned, This method* however, is only puifued in £baUow 
Mines, or at leaft wh^rc Whyma aiw aot ^te&od, . Whyms or 
engines drawn by horfes, have larger kihbab ; and can difchargtt 
more work, not cmly he that reafon, but because they ma^r bo 
kept conftantly employed where the quanti^ f£ Ore or ftuff is 
very great. 



v. 



i8o GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON 

It is a good and a cuftomary way for the owners to fet their 
dead ground, either in or out of the Lode, to be funk, driven, 
ftoped, or cut down, by the fathom : but if there is no choice 
in refped: of faving the Ore clean, or the like, they fet it to be 
funk, driven, ftoped, or cut down upon Tut ; and in fuch cafe 
the Miners take wh^t they term a Tut-bargain ; that is, a piece 
or part of unmeafured ground, by the lump, for fuch price as 
can be agreed upon, exprefling the fituation and fuppofed 
dimenfions of the ground. This is not only beneficial to the 
owners, but alfo to the workmen : every one knows, that a 
labourer employed for daily hire, will not execute that quantum 
of labour for his mafter, that he will upon his own rifle and 
account ; and, therefore, it is profitable for the Mine owners, 
to fet all their work upon Tut, that can with propriety be fo 
fet ; and it is likewife an incitement to the induftrious Tinner, 
to acquire additional gain confiftent with a good confcience, 
and his duty to his employers. 

Under certain reftridions, it is alfo many times proper, to fet 
an end to drive, or a fhaft to fink, at fuch a price ^ fathom, 
for as many as can be driven or funk for one month ; or to drive 
fo many fathoms certain. For inftance : I have plain feafible 
ground in my working fhaft, that I am finking to cut the Lode 
upon its underlie. I fet it to fink by two men in a core of every 
eight hours ; and fuppofing the men to deferve ^3 ^ fathom, 
I conclude they may fink four fathoms in one month, which 
will amount to jf 1 2 between fix men, for which they find every 
thing but running tackle. Candles and fmith's work dedu<9:ed, 
it may be, thofe workmen may clear for their labour thirty fliil- 
lings each, which every good labouring Tinner well deferves : 
but fuppofing that an alteration of ground may be expeded in 
my favour, I fhall then be unwilling to fet by the month, and 
will allow them to fink two fathoms only at that price ; whereby 
1 have it in my choice to *fet for a lefs price, if the ground 
becomes more fair after the ftipulated fathoms are funk. In 
much harder ground, that deferves fix pounds ^ fathom, though 
the fame men may fink three fathoms, amounting to /"iS, yet 
their gain will be no greater than in the former cafe, on account 
of their additional coft in fmith's work, gunpowder, &c. The 
fame will hold equally true in driving or ftoping : but matters 
oiF this kind are fo complicate and various, that it would be an 
endlefs tafk to explain them all. 

When 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. i8i 

When they fet a Lode to be broken by the fathom, they are 
particular in expreffing its fituation and other circumftances, as 
all fuch tranfadions are or ought to be determined by a publick 
furvey. Sometimes they fet it by the cubick fathom ; for 
though they muft often break it irregularly, becaufe the Lode 
may be fmaller in fome places than in others, and by means of 
pillars or arches which they often leave ftanding ; yet when the 
contraA is finifhed, they meafure the breadth, length, and 
depth of each particular place, and adding thefe together, and 
dividing the amount by two hundred and fixteenj the quotient 
is fuppofed to fhew the number of cubick or folid fathoms, 
broken by the labourers. 

But it is much more ufual to fet the breaking of the Lode by 
the fquare, or fuperficial fathom ; ftill remembering the depth 
that muft be broken, as they work along. When the bargain is 
performed, the captain meafures the length and breadth of each 
particular place ; and adding the particulars into one. fum, and 
dividing that by 36, the quotient gives the contents in fquare 
fathoms. If the men are deficient in the depth they were 
obliged to carry with them, they ought to make it good, before 
the agreement can be faid to be performed. In breaking of 
folid ground, however, they are generally compelled to carry 
or work the Lode, &c. , by a certain breadth or width, ; called 
the Gunnies ; that is a Gunnies of either three, four and a half, 
or fix feet wide ; which are denominated by fome, a fingle 
Gunnies, a Gunnies and a half, or a double Gunnies wide. A 
Gunnies is expreflive of any certain meafure in breadth. Now 
with refped to the meafure of ground fo broken, it is more 
mafterly and concife, to take the dimenfions in feet and inches, 
which may be reduced in(o, fathoms by the following plain 
examples. 



A a . a . . ~ ', Suppofe 



iS2 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON 

Suppofe a piece of ground meafures as follows : viz. ' 

Feet In. Fath. Feet In. 

Length 27 4 = 4 3 4 

Depth 8 9 = 1 2 9 

Gun. Feet In. 

Breadth 4 6 =s i ^ 

Qj^ How many arc the Fathoms, at three feet to the Gunnies ? 

Method of Solution. 

Fath. Feet In. Fath. Feet In. 

4 3 4 by I 2 9 
T » 3 I 4 

i 2 3 4 

i I I 8 

■ ' Gun. Feet In. 

6 3 104 by I I 6, which is a Gunnies and half. 
I 3 I II 2 

Fath. Feet In. 

9 5 96 Content 9 5 9h at iC3 ^P' Fathom. 

Amount ^^29 18 4. 



Suppofe a piece of ground meafures as follows : viz. 

Feet In. Fath. Feet In. 

Length 19 9 sa 3 i 9 
Depth 44 = 044 

Guto. Feet In. 
Breadth 5 6 ss i i 6 

Q^ How many are the Fathoms, at four feet to the Gunnies ? 

Method of Solution. 

Fath. Feet In. Fath. Feet In. 

3 I 9 by o 4 4 

I I 3 10 6 

T 3 3 6 

^ 112 

' Gun. Feet In. 

2 2 32 by I I 6 

i 3696 

I 1949 , 

— — — ^— . Fath. Feet In. 



743 Content 3 i 74 



T 



Suppofe 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. i«s 

r * 

Suppofe a piece of ground meafures as follows : viz. 

Feet In, Path. Pect In. 

Length 13 lo =? 2 i lo 

Depth 98 = 138 

Breadth 8 2 =s i 2 2 

Q^ How many are the Fathoms, at fix feet to the Gunnies ? 

Method of Solution. 



Path. 
2 
i I 


Peet 

I 



In. 

lO 

II 


by I 3 8 


• 




I 
T 

1 
T 

3 
i 


I 

4 

I 


I 10 

4 7 

3 5 

5 I 
7 5 


Gun. Feet In. 
by I 2 2 
8 

I 8 
.... Fith 


Feet 




In 


5 





3 " 


9 8 Content 5 


4 



Further, If a plot be nineteen feet ten inches long, eleven 
feet feven inches broad, and ten feet three inches high, how 
many folid fathoms are therein, and what is the amount of 
the charge, at two pounds eighteen (hillings and fixpence 
^ fathom ? 









Feet In. 


Path. 


Peet 


In. 








Length 


19 10 


— 3 


I 


10 








Breadth 


II 7 




5 


7 








Heighth 


10 5 


CSS I 


4 


5 










Method of Solution. 








F^th. 


Feet 


In. 


Path. Feet In. 








3 


I 


JO by 


f 


5 7 


^ 




i 


J 


3 


II 


> 










I 





7 4 






; 




i 




X 


7 10 










t 






3 3 8 


Faiii 


. Feet In. 
4 »o 


- 






6 


2 


3 5 « 


by f 


. 




i 


3 


X 


I $ 10 










T 


I 





4 6 II 


4 


- 






t 

T 




2 


163 


9 4 








i 






646 


II 4 






f 



'J.- 



II o 5 8 4 o 8 «t j^2 18 rr^ ( ft* Fathom. - 

Aaiotmt ' £^2 i , '71, 

But 



i84 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON 

But where there is no refped to breadth, it is ufual to call it 
a fuperficial or common groimd, in floping particularly. Sup- 
pofe, for inftance, a ftope of ground meafures fixteen feet nine 
inches long, and feven feet three inches deep ; how many fuper- 
ficial fathoms are therein, and what is the amount at three 
pounds twelve {hillings ^ fathom ? 





Feet In. 


Fath. Feet In. 




Length i6 9 
Depth 7 3 


= a 4 9 
= 113 




Q^ How many 


are the Fathoms ? 




Method of Solution, 


Path. Feet 


In. Path. Feet In. 


2 4 

i 2 

i 


9 by I ] 

9 ^ 
846 


[ 3 


. 3 2 


3 at iC3 


12 ^ Fathom. 

Amount ^^la 



o. 



We may with certainty pronounce, there can Be no ftated 
rule given for the value of fetting ground to break by the 
lathom ; for fome may be wrought for four (hillings ^ fathom, 
and other ground may require twenty or thirty pounds. 

It may be Hoped for 10s. or jT/^y 
It may be driven for 5s. or ^f 10, 
And funk for 5s. or ^^25, and even more ^ fathom. 

It may probably anfwer better in other countries, to fet the 
ground to break on the monthly account or wages, provided 
the Captain who takes care of it, is a man of integrity and 
worthy of truft ; for the great inconvenience that attends this 
Tut-work or bargains by the lump, or by the fathom, is, that 
if the ground proves hard and chargeable in the working, the 
labourer has no ability to go through with it, and confequently 
muft run from it, and leave it on the adventurers hands. There is 
then no fatisfadion to be had of the Takers of the bargain, btcaufe 
they have not wherewith to make reftit^tion ; arid, therefore, to 
obviate this lofs, fome adventurers iniert a provifo in the agree- 
mfent, Aat a quarter or foine other part of the; money fliall be 
ifferved, till the bargain is completed, in order to recompenfe 
tnc damage that may enfue on non-performance. Though I 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 185 

have feen this forfeiture impofed in feveral Mines of great im- 
portance, I muft take the liberty to difapprove of it, for reafons' 
that will plainly fhew its infufficiency. A (haft may be fet to 
fink ten fathoms" at twenty fhillings ^ fathom ; and the Takers 
may be obliged to forfeit one quarter of their earnings, if they 
run from or defert their bargain. Perhaps the firft fix fathoms 
may be funk for five fhillings each ; that is, the Takers have fo 
far earned fix pounds ; but the remainder of the bargain, being 
four fathoms, may require twelve pounds to finifli it, by an 
alteration to harder ground. Now, in this cafe, if they defert 
their bargain, and incur the forfeiture, they are only entitled to 
four pounds ten fhillings ; and this they will readily accept ofj 
as they may have earned that money in a few flems ; while the . 
adventurers are obliged to refet the fhaft to another Pair of men^ 
at the advanced price of three pounds ^ fathom. Hence it 
may appear to be the interefl of the adventurers to fet the 
ground by the lump, or the fathom, when the ground in a 
fhaft or any other part of a Mine is fair and tender, and not 
when it is hard and chargeable to be wrought ; as in one cafe, 
the Miners will undertake it at an eafy rate, but in the other 
they will make a large demand, upon a fuppofition, or at leafl 
a pretence, that the ground may flill continue hard. But 
inftead of this it would be more eafy for the men, and more 
fecure for the owners, to fet as many fathoms at a flated price 
as can be funk in a month : the men cannot gain great wages, 
nor fuffer great lofs : and as ground that is very flifF or denie, 
requiring ten pounds to fink a fathom, may alter, and be fet 
for a lefs value, it would be prudent in the adventurers to fet 
but one or two fathoms at that price. Thefe matters, how- 
ever, from the great interchange of circumflances in different 
Mines, are too intricate to be difcuffed in this place ; and I 
wifh I may not have incurred the cenfure of fome Captains, for 
having fo far interfered in the cunning workmanfhip pf their 
order. 

The quantity of ground that is broken annually in Cornifh 
Mining, if it could be calculated, would appear incredible. 
But though it is not in my power to afcertain this matter, yet, 
for the entertainment of my curious readers, I will attempt to 
calculate the quantity of metallick Lode broken annually in 
Cornwall, by the returns of white Tin and fine Copper. 

We will fuppofc the average produce of the county to be 
three hundred weight of Tin in one hundred facks of Tin-ftuff. 

Ebb K^<(s>«\ns^ 



i^ GlE^fiRAL OBSERVATIONS. ON 

Allowing one fack to weigk one hundred and a quarter, then 
one hundred fecks will be iix tons five hundred weight j con- 
fcquentij there muft be one ton of Tin produced out of forty- 
one tons thirteen hundred weight. The county has been found 
to produce, annually, for feme few years paft, about three 
thoufand tons of pure Tin-metal ; which multiplied by forty- 
two tons of Tin-ftuff as above, gives the total fum of one hun- 
dred and twenty-fix thoufand tons of Tin-ftuiF ^ annum. 

The Copper Ore fold upon an average for the laft ten years, 
is about twenty-four thoufand tons ^ annum, which produce 
nearly three tlioufand tons of fine Copper. Now let it be fup- 
pofed, diat two tons of maxrhantable Ch« are produced from 
every one hundred fadks of one hundred and a quarter each as 
above : then twenty-four thousand multiplied by fix and a 
quarter, is equal to one hundred and fifty thoufand tons of 
tough Lode. To fum up all, for about fix thoufand tons of 
pure Metals, we muft tlig and drefs (the far greateft part by 
ftamptng mills) two hundred and feventy-fix thoufand tons of 
L-od,e. 

If this quantum of Lode which is worth the charges of 
dreffing, is annually digged and raifed from our Tin and Coppei^ 
Mines, how much greater muft that quantity be, which is not 
aihfc, hut is a dead wafte or ufekfs refofe ? I will venture to 
alfirm, it may be a portion far greater than the foregoing : but 
fuppofe it to he equal, the fum will then be five hundred and 
finy-two thoufand tons of Lode. Now we all know, the tons 
of Strata, or country, which are broken every year, muft be 
immenfc, when we confider the number of Shafts, Winds, 
Aaits, Drifts, Plots, &c. that are continually finking, driving, 
and cutting around us. I cannot form a method of calculating 
this ; but if, with the former fum, we make this equal to two 
millions of tons of Lode and Strata broken annually in our Cornifh 
Mining, I believe my countrymen will not think that I have 
exceeded the bounds of truth. All this will ferve to fhew the 
vaft employment for men and cattle in our Mine country ; 
which I am very confident might be much increafed, and of 
courfc be of more national utility, provided we had a market 
and a price for our rrifpeAive Metals ; but as the cafe now 
flands, we labour under every difficulty and difadvantage that 
can militate againil us, which, as it is now moft feverely felt 
^ the commonsdty of Cornwall, muft be hereafter felt by the 
community in generals 

When 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT^ it; 

When a Mine is in due courfe cT worlcing and produces Ote, 
the adventurers rometimcs £nd it better to fet the Mine on Tri- 
bute, than to work it on their own account. The inaaner ^f 
fetting or leafing a Mine on Tribute, is this ; fome able Miner 
takes the Mine of the adventurers for a determined time, that 
is, for half a year, a whole year, nay even for feven years, as 
was the cafe at Bullen-Garden, uad the means of ber dafcovery. 
If it is a Tin Mine, he articles firft to pay the Lord, or ths 
Lord and Bounders if any, their (hares or Doles, free of all coft, 
in the ftone made ready for the ftamping mill. This muft be 
fuch a proportion of all Tin-ftuff as (liall be rat(ed during the 
limited time. Of the remainder, he pays the adventurers one 
moiety, or one quarter part, according to the agreement, it 
being more or lefs in proportion to the richnefs of a Mine. For 
example : In a Tin Mine not boMnded, the Lord grants for, 
perhaps j one-feventh : now the Tin-ftuff, when it is properly 
iized to (lones not larger than a man*s fift, is divided into feven 
Doles or piles ; the Lord** Agent, Steward, or Toiler, <»fti 
lots upon the& Doles by written tickets, iiK marked A, ' and one 
L, and which ever of them falls to his lot L, on that Dole he 
puts the turf, and upon the turf a ftone. Three and a half of 
the fix A Doles remaining may belong to the Tributor, and the 
other two and a half to the adventurers, which alfo is tranfaded 
by dividing and calling lots as before. Where a Tin Kfine i« in 
waftrel and bounded, the manner <^ dividing and cafting lotis> 
is more complex. , : . 

In moft Tin bounds, the Lord's part is one-fifteenth <il[ the 
whole, and the Bounders part is one-twelfth, commonly only 
one-tenth of the remainder. For inftance : The Tin-ftuff it 
divided into fifteen Doles, one of which is marked by the Lord's 
Agent, as above, after the lots are caft ; then fourteen Doles 
remain, two of which are equally fubdivided and carried to the 
other twelve. One of thefe, by lot, as before, belongs to the 
Bounders ; ai|d that very likely mufl be fubdivided ag£un arid 
agdn, it being for the moft part the property of fevend perfbns. 

Of the eleven Doles to be divided among the adventurers and 
the Tributor according to the articks of their agreement, the 
adventurers fhall have three Doles and one qusffter of a Dele, 
and the Tibutor feven Doles and three quarters t tliey then caft 
eleven lots, viz. three marked A, feven marked T, and ^on^ 
blank, and where this blank falls, that Dole is redivided into 
four parts, and lots are recaft upon it; otie A the adventurem - 



i88 GENERAL. OBSERVATIONS ON 

part, and three T the Tributors. This, however, is not all ; 
the adventurers three doles and a quarter are again divided into 
eighths, fixteenths, thirty-feconds, and fixty-fourths, and even 
much fmaller fractions, that each may know and carry away 
his own. 

The Tributor again has feveral perfons concerned with him, 
who redivide their feven Doles and three quarters in like man- 
ner : and thus are thefe fractional complicated divifions, which 
at firft fight would puzzle the moft expert arithmetician, ef- 
feded by our illiterate Tinners upon the nmpleft plan, and with 
the utmoft dexterity, difpatch, and accuracy. To any other 
but a Cornifli reader, it may appear ftrange, that fo much 
trouble fliould be taken in dividing and redividing the Tin-fluff 
in this manner, when it might be carried and returned altoge- 
ther, and the proportions reckoned in money ; but this cannot 
always be done ; for flamping mills are numerous, and the fe- 
parate eflat« of feveral people, whofe value rifes in proportion 
to the ufe and employment they have for them ; therefore if 
the Tin-fluff is rich, every one is ready to carry off his refpec- 
tive Dole orfhare, immediately after it is divided out, and the 
lots are caft. 

The fetting t)f a Copper Mine upon tribute, has this differ- 
ence : the Tributor is at the fole expence of digging, raifing, 
and drefling, all the Ore that can be made merchantable ; and 
the proceeds of fales are received by the adventurers, who pay 
the Lord his one-feventh, one-eighth, or one-tenth part, wmch 
ever it is, in money. If it is one-eighth, that is two fhillings 
and fixpence out of every pound or twenty fhillings, of the re- 
maining feventeen fhillings and fixpence the adventurers may 
have eight fhillings, and account to the Tributor for the refidue, 
which is nine fhillings and fixpence: and thus, it is faid, 

Petherick Kernick of Hantergantick, Abednego Baraguanath 
* of Towednack, Dungey Crowgie of Carnalizzy, and Degory 

Tripeoney of Gumford, have jointly taken a Copper Mine 

upon tribute for nine and fixpence out of the pound.'* 



cc 



■-^ 



When the adventurers thus fet a Mine to farm, they oblige 
the Taker or Tributor to keep the Mine in good repair, and 
weU fecured with whatever timber is needful j the putting of 
which into the Mine, ought to be according to the fkill and 
.•4i(cretion of a perfon deputed for that purpofe by the adventu- 
rers... They alfp ftipulate with the Taker of the Mine upon 

tribute. 






MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 189 

tribute, to work it regularly with a certain number of men 5 
but not in dippas, holes, and corners, to encumber the adven- 
turers, at their re-entrance into the Mine, with the charge of 
breaking and clearing the barren part or deads, which the Tri- 
butor would otherwife leave under-ground. It is very reafonable 
that the Tributor fhould be obliged to deliver up the Mine in 
good order and condition, at the expiration of the time fpeci- 
fied ; and that the adventurers fhould referve to themfelves and 
agents, a power of going down into the Mine at will, to 
examine if the premifes be duly complied with and fulfilled. 

So far we have been fpeaking of a whole Mine, taken upon 
tribute ; but it is much more common, and has been always 
the cafe in large Mines, to fet feveral parts of them in fmall 
portions of ground called Pitches. A Tribute-Pitch, confifls 
of a few fathoms in length on the courfe of the Lode : two 
Pitches may meet half way between two Shafts, and draw their 
Ore to that Shaft, with which either of them are conneded. 
If a Pitch is high up in the Mine at a fhallow level, it is called 
a Pitch upon the Backs ; but if lower down, in or joining with 
the bottoms, it is called a Bottom-Pitch. The time they con- 
trad for is generally four months, and to work the Pitch at all 
working times, in a regular manner with a certain number of 
men. The Tributor is obliged to work one month, or forfeit 
to the owners twenty fhillings for every man he is obliged to 
employ ; in lieu thereof, if he does not chufe to continue at 
the month's end, he declines the occupation of his Pitch, and 
forfeits to the adventurers all the Ore which fliall be broken. 

The boxes and clacks or valves of the engine pump often go 
amifs, and if they are not made of good leather well fewed, a 
misfortune of that nature will happen almofl every day ; fo that 
every method muft be contrived, to have afllflance at hand to 
man the capftan, while a clack or a box is changing. Accord- 
ingly, a Tribute-Taker, as well as every other Miner in a Bal, 
obliges himfelf and partners to lend a hand gratis at the capftan 
whenever required, upon the .penalty of two fhillings and iix- 
pence for each perfon refpedively who refuies his afllftance. 
Without a regulation of this kind, a Mine would be in danger 
of fetting idle, for want of ncceflary help : but when they 
cleanfe a boiler, which is once a month ; or drop pumps, that 
is, let them down into the Mine ; the adventurers charge each 
man at the capftan a ften\ or a day's hire, and give them fome 

C c c additional 



I90 GENERAL O B SE R V AT I O N S ON 

additional recompence if the weather is fererc, or they make a 
long day's work. 

The Takers of Tribute-Pitches in a Copper Mine, are like- 
wife obliged to mix their Ores with thofe of other Pitches, or 
with the owners Ores ; and to fample the fame according to the 
will and difcretion of the Captains; elfe the parcels of Ore 
would be very fmall, where they may be twenty Pitches upon 
tribute in one Mine. Before the parcels are mixed together, 
they take from each a fair honefl fample, and mark them A, B, 
and fo on, which they call private famples. The afTay-mafter, 
who buys at the publick ticketing or fale a mixed parcel of Ore, 
hath thefc private famples given to him, which he affays for 
two fhillings and fixpence each with all the judgment and 
dexterity he is capable of, to make the moft of each ; and it is 
a very rare thing for any complaint or diflatisfadion to arife from 
the appropriate difpenfations of pur aflayifts, fo expert are they 
in their bufinefs. 

The ufe of private famples is this : though the fundry par- 
cels of Ore which are mixed together for fale, may appear 
nearly of one value at fight, yet it muft neccffarily follow, that 
fome difference will arife from different management in the 
dreifing^ and other accidental caufes. In a mixed parcel of fifty 
tonsy A may have twenty of fifteen pounds value ^ ton ; B may 
have twenty-five of fourteen pounds ten fhillings ; and C may 
have five of fixteen pounds ^ ton, according to the private 
famples ; yet the grofe fifty tcms may fell for fifteen pounds 
five fhillings ^ ton. Neverthelefs the amount muft be divided 
among the Tributors according to the felling price, fubjedl to 
3 regulation by the private famples ; that is, the excefs or di- 
minution, for what it fellsj muft be proportioned by the produce 
of the private famples ; for, if fifty tons fell at fifteen pounds 
fire fhiliingff) the amount is equal to feven hundred and fixty- 
t^d pounds, ten fhillings. Purfuant to the above private 
famples £• £* 

A's 20 tans at 15 — • =a» 300 — 

B's 25 • '" ■'■ 14. 10 = 362 10 

C'« 5 *— 16 — . «fe 80 — 

The amount 74a 10 

which is so fhort by the private famples. 

This is called ;^20 increafe by 762 10 which it fold for. 

Now 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGBMENT. 191 

Now the method of proportioning this twentj pounds ijELcreafe, 
is done by the rule of three dired, thus : 

If 742 10 20 300 — A 8 I 7f increafe 
If 742 10 20 362 10 B 9 15 4 increafe 
If 742 10 20 80 — ■ C 2 3 o* increafe 



742 



10 add 20 o o 

Amount ^^762 10, 



Here it is evident, that if the Adventurers were to account 
to the Tributors at the private prices, they would deprive them 
of twenty pounds of wnich they ought to have their refpedive 
proportions, it being the abfolute value for which the commo^ 
dity was fold. Alfo, by mixing thefe three parcels, they have 
altogether brought a better price by twenty pounds, than if they 
had been fold feparately. 

The interchange of terms in this matter is very applicable, 
and eafy to be reconciled ; for in cafe of a decreafe, that is, if 
the felling price had been feven hundred and fixty-two pounds 
ten fhillings, and the private famples had exceeded that by 
twenty pounds, making the whole feven hundred and eighty- 
two pounds ten fhillings, then the method of folution would 
be the fame by the rule of three, deducing each ones particular 
fhare, according to the amount of his Ore. x 

We may further illuftrate this matter, by entry of an account 
of Ores, fold and proportioned to the Lord, Adventurers, and 
Tributors. 



Dolc6th Copper Ores weighed the 24th of March 1777. - 



Quantity 



Tons -e^ Q^ 
21 10 2 



Quantity 



Tons i^ Qi 
A 10 10 2 
B II — — 



Price 
^Ton 

10 — 



To whom fold 



Amount 


Lord's pt. 
i-feventh 


215 — 


30 »4 3 



Corniih Copper Comp. 
Tributor*s Account of the above Ores. 



Price 


Amount 


Increafe 


Amount 


Tribcrtors 
Pitt 


II 

8 10 


£' 
115 10 

93 >o 


3^4 
a 13 8 


118 16 4 
96 S 8 


S. S. 
5 from 20 
10 — ao 



21 10 



Sold at £iQ i^ Ton £215 



Advcntur. 
net part 

■ H it 

£^ 

184 59^ 



Tributors 
Moncjr 

29 14 X 
4B i 10 



^^ 



192 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON 

By this time, I prefume, the reader has a pretty clear con- 
ception of the afFair, and that each (hare of the ^2 15 (lands 
thus : 

The Lord*s one-feventh - ^^30 14 3I 

The Tributors - - - - 77 15 iif;C2i5 

And the Adventurers net part 106 9 loj 

The fpirit of adventure hath many times fo prevailed among 
the lower people, that very large fums have been won and loft 
by this kind of gaming, much to the injury of the caftiiers, 
who can have no recompence from poverty and rags. It is a 
method that will always anfwer for the adventurers, provided 
the Takers upon tribute will execute their part and fulfil their 
articles of agreement, which it is difficult for the adventurers 
to compel them to perform. Thefe reafons have induced the 
adventurers in fome Mines, to fet their Tin and Copper Ore to 
break by the fathom ; and I believe it is productive of more 
certaia wages to the men, and larger quantity of Ore to the 
owners ; which is of confiderable importance to a Mine, obliged 
to fiipport a monthly charge of eighteen hundred or two 
thoufand pounds. It would be well if the Takers of Pitches 
on tribute, would allow fo much in their calculations for the 
decay of a Lode j for it is generally known thofe people com- 
monly take a rich bunch of Tin or Copper Ore upon tribute 
according to its full value in fight, not confidering, perhaps, 
that it is almoft impoffible for fuch to be richer ; and that it is 
great odds whether it may continue half fo rich for the limited 
time. This want of precaution plunges them into many diffi- 
culties, when an alteration of the Lode happens from riches to 
poverty ; and, indeed, any perfon may conclude, that little 
more than common wages can be gained, by working a Pitch 
for twelvepence in the. pound. Neverthelefs, I have known 
feveral wrought at that value ; and many fcore tons of Copper 
Ore raifed out of North-Downs Mine at tenpence, for which a 
(haft in that Mine bears the name of Tenpenny-Shaft (fee 
North-Downs plate). But my readers will wonder more when 
I declare, that I have known feveral hundred tons of Copper 
Ore wrought, and drefled for fiyepence halfpenny in the pound, 
at Huel- Virgin Mine : this, however, muft be underftood to 
have been the cafe, when the commodity brought a better price 
by thirty ^ cent, than it now bears : which obfervation fuits 
with the decreafed value of Tin as well or more fo ; for it is 
equally true, that where I have been formerly concerned, as 
part owner of a Tin Mine, we have fet a Pitch to be wrought 

for 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 193 

for three fixty-fourths of the whole, ot three-eighths of one- 
eighth in the ftonej before it was made merchantable, by the 
additional expence of carriage, ilamping, and drefling. 

With refped to the pjan laid down by Miners for calculating 
the charge, at which they can work this or that Pitch, it is 
much the fame as that for floping of ground by the fathom. 
For inftance : if a Tin Lode is a three feet Gunnies wide, a 
fathom in depth and length of that bignefs will produce fifty 
kibbals of Lode, which when fpaled may amount to one hun- 
dred facks of Tin-ftuff fit for the damping mill. This, when 
drefTed, fliall produce three hundred weight of white Tin, 
which they call " being worth three hundred weight of Tin a 
** hundred ;" that is, for every hundred facks of Tin-ftufF, it 
will yield three hundred weight of Tin-metal, worth, we will 
fay, three pounds ^ hundred weight, that is, nine pounds. 
The Tin in the leavings of which (a term that will be more 
eafily comprehended, by turning to the chapter upon drefllng 
of Tin) at five fhillings ^ hundred weight, or more commonly 
expreffed " at fifty {hillings ^ thoufand" or half ton, is fifteeen 
fhillings. The Lord's part, dues, or land-dole, is one-fifteenth 
of the whole, that is to fay, fix two-thirds facks ; the Bounder's 
or toll part 4s one-tenth of the remainder nine one-third facks— 
thefe fixteen facks being taken from the hundred, the refidue 
becomes eighty-four ; worth, at the above calculation, feven 
pounds eleven fhillings and threepence, and the leavings at fifty 
fhillings ^ thoufand twelve fhillings and fourpence — ^in all for 
eighty-four facks eight pounds three fhillings and feven pence. 

Now the charge of working the fathom, is /*! 6 o 

Raifing, fpaling, and dividing 080 

Filling the facks and loading the horfes o 2 o 
Carriage, flamping, and dreffing (the expence of 
which is different as the Mine is more or lefs 

diflant from the mill) we will allow to be only o 90 

Carriage to fmelting-houfe and expence 040 

In all 2 90 

So that the Tributor mufl have two Doles and three quarters out 
of nine Doles, to get wages ; which two Doles and three quarters 
are worth two pounds nine fhillings, according to the above 
calculation. 

D d d K^§iasw> 



194 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON 

' Again, if a Tin Lode is only fix inches big or wide, one 
fathom may produce twenty facks of Tin-ftufF, worth fix 
pounds, at the rate of " a thoufand Tin a hundred ;'* that is, 
at the affignable quantity of ten hundred weight of Tin-metal 
for every hundred facks of Tin-ftufF. The Land-dole, or 
Lord's part, being one-fifteenth, is one fack and one-third ; 
the toll or Bounder's fhare, is one-tenth of the remainder,- 
which is one fack two-thirds and one-fifth. Thefe three facks 
and one-fifth taken from twenty, the remainder is fixteen and 
four-fifths of a fack, value five pounds and ninepence. The 
leavings at forty fhillings for ten hundred weight of white Tin 
(the richeft Tin generally yields the pooreft leavings, which 
win be fhewn hereafter) will give fix fhillings and threepence, 
which added to five pounds and ninepence make five pounds 
feven fhillings. 

The expence of working the fathom will be ;f i lo o 

Raifing, Spaling, and dividing 018 

Filling the facks, loading the horfes, carriage, 

flampingj dreffing, and fmelting-houfe expences 026 

In all I 14. 2 

The Taker or Tributor muft, therefore, have three doles out of 
liine, to get a livelihood. 

On the other hand, if a Copper Lode is wrought a three feet 
Gimnies wide, one foot o( which is worth faving for Ore j al- 
lowing the whole Gunnies to turn up fifty kibbals of ftufF, 
fixtefcn of them may produce one ton of Copper Ore \v^tth 
fix pounds. 

Now the expcncc of working the fathom of Lode 

would be jTi to o 

Drawing or rarfing the broken fluff or Lode 070 

Breffing the Ore at eightpence in the pound 040 

In all 2 I o 

tV^idi divided by fix, the qvotieat will be fix (hillings &nd 
tenpence, the money the- Tributor ought to have in the pound 
iternng to gam bare wag^ 

Again, 



MINES, AND THEIR MANAGEMENT. 195 

Again) fiippofing the Lode to be fiit inches big or wide, the 
Gunnies muft ht two feet big, and oiie fathotn in length and 
depth of the Lode, to make a tort ©f Copper Ore worth twelve 
pounds* 

The expence of digging the fathbin £1 70 

Drawing the broken ftufF thirty-four kibbals 050 

DrefHng the Ore at threepence ift the pound 030 

III I \^mt^^K^mm4 

In all I 15 o 

Which being divided by twelve, the quotient will be two 
jQiillings and eleven pence, the money the Tributor ought toi 
have in the pound to earn a living. 



C HAP. V. 

Of Damps in Mines, and of Levelling and Dialling MineS| 

Adits, 8cc. 



IN a treatife oil the wholefbmeftefs^ and utiwholefomefieis 
of airy Mr. Boyle makes it appear, that they depend princi-^ 
pally on the impregnation received from fubterraneous effluvia, 
a caufe generally overlooked ; and it is probable, that moft of 
the difeafes which phyficians call new, are caufed by fubterra- 
neous fleams. In general, though the wholefoiheiiefs of the aif 
in fome places may arife chiefly from the falubrious expirations 
of fubterraneous bodies, yet is the air depraved in far more 
places than it is improved, by being impregnated with Mineral 
emiffiori^s. Indeed among the Minerals known to us, there are 
many i^ore noxious thaili whofelbme ; and the power of the 
htitiet to do mifchief, is tAbrt efStaddtsfi than of the latter to 
do good^ asi we tMj guefs by the fmali benefit then receive iii 
point of health by the efflui^' of any" MAefal or other knowA 
Fofni, in cdmparifon bf the gfeat and- fiiddeii daiiiage tJiat is 
often dbfte by the foiiies 6§ MtLnikk, ArfiJnick, Vitriol, Sul- ' 
phur, and other dekteriott^ Mift^dk {BbyUy BoerhaaVe)*; 
And thdiigh thefe Minc^ §xt taoMy fdfXhd i& Mines, pits^^ 
and bthei' places de^tiiidSN^tthd, yiit thif ef6 cotAmclHlf 
fcatt^red on the hsams of t%^ Mini» it the fur&i^e^ in all 
^lac^ ^tbdu£titr^b^ Minerals a^ oW ci^uifty ». 



tg^ OF DAMPS IN MINES, ANp OF 

Hence it may, perhaps, be no difficult matter to fliew, that 
an alteration of the common air by an undtuous vapour of the 
vitriolick kind, raifed by an unfeafonable warmth, and too 
great a proportion of watery and other grofler particles mixed 
with it, may be the caufe of thofe epidemick difeafes, which 
are ufually called Nervous and Malignant, Bilious and Putrid. 

The Mineral effluvium then, ading on the fluids in a degree 
{kort of extinguifhing life, is abforbed into the habit, infers 
the blood, and from that minute the whole frame becomes more 
and more feeble : whence it will be eafy to deduce all the 
fymptoms which accompany a flow continual nervous fever. 
(Huxham). 

It is well known, that this contagion in the blood and animal 
fpirits will produce in different perfons very different diforders, 
though they may juftly be attributed to one and the fame caufe ; 
nay, in the fame conftitution, by length of time, and the folu- 
tion of the red blood globules, a flow nervous fever will termi- 
nate in the highly putrid and malignant : yet the latter may be 
immediately derived from the fame fpring, and fhall vary only 
in a vigorous conftitution with rich blood, or in a weak lax 
habit and very incompad crafTamentum. Upon the whole, 
then, it is hot flrange that thofe different diforders are fre- 
quently confounded, as the fame conflitution of the atmo^here 
contributes to both. 

I was drawn into the particular confideration of thefe matters, 
by our endemick fevers in the fpring of the year 1773, and 
my peculiar lot to fall in with thofe of the worft kinds : fo 
prevalent were they indeed, that I may venture to affirm out of 
three thoufand inhabitants here, not lefs than half the number 
were manifeilly affeded in a; greater or lefs degree with febrile 
fymptoms of the nervous, bilious, or malignant kind ; and 
though not above fourteen perfons died, yet we have many who 
may lament the effeds of thofe diforders to the lateft day of their 
lives. In the year 1752, nervous and malignant fevers were 
reckoned mortal in this p^ifh, and particularly in families 
lyhere a flmilarity of conflitution equally favoured the produc- 
tion of one diforder. I then knew three brothers to have died 
of a putrid. malignant fever, out qf four which had the difeafe ; 
yet thefe men all lived in feparate houfes, at a quarter of a 
mile's diflance ; and had the IcsSk intercourfe with each other 
that ever I obferved in perfons fo nearly allied : I take this to 

be 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &c. 197 

be a great inftance of the efficacy of contagion ill one derivative 
habit of body. Some part of our Mining diftrid is ever mo- 
lefted by fuch violent fevers : one or other of the parifhes of 
St. Agnes, Kenwyn, Kea, Redruth, Gwenap, Stithyans, Wen- 
dron, Sithney, Breage, Crowan, Gwinear, Camborne, and 
Illugan, have epidemick fevers always among them. 

Mineral exhalations are allowed to be one caufe of contagion, 
and, Mr. Boyle fays, even of the plague itfelf : my principal 
defign, therefore, is to prove the obnoxious fituation of our Mine 
country to thofe dangerous difeafes ; and from thence to infer, 
that they are with us the peculiar produdion of Mineral effluvia. 
If this is not the cafe, I Ihould like to be informed what occa- 
fions thofe diforders to rage with fuch violence among us, and 
be endemial to our Mining parifhes ? Perhaps it may be faid, 
they are produced by the unwholefome and uncleanly manner 
of living among the Tinners. But I have known them to 
originate in the mofl cleanly healthy families ; nay, it is 
notorious, that the more regular livers, and more delicate inha- 
bitants of this town, have more generally and powerfully expe- 
rienced their attacks. 

In December 1772, particularly at the time of* the pdll for a 
knight of the fhire, we had a warm moifl atmofphere for three 
weeks, without rain, or a currency of air fufficient to blow out 
a lighted candle. Soon after, nervous and malignant fevers 
were very rife, and were generated I apprehend by thofe Mineral 
effluvia, which, in that month, by means of the foregoing con- 
flitution of the atmofphere, were fufpended for a confiderable 
time, and particularly afleded thofe perfons whofe nervous 
fyftem was very- weak and lax, or thofe of quick and lively 
fenfations ; while fuch as were athletick, robuft, and fanguine, 
generally efcaped their peflilential influence. Again ; it was 
obfervable, that the weather, in December 1774, and in the 
beginning of January following, was unfeafonably warm, ferene, 
and mild ; the air for three weeks before was fcarcely agitated 
by one breeze, but continued, all that time, warm, moifl, and 
vapid. The writer then predided the confequential malignant 
efFeds which happened foon after ; and he thinks any one may 
foretel the eventual incidents that mufl follow fuch continual 
unfeafonable weather, in a country teeming with Metals and 
Minerals. But it is time to come nearer to the point in hand, 
and to fhew, that we are obnoxious to poifbnous Damps under- 
ground, notwithftanding the precon%eived notion of many to 

E e e ^^ 



i^S OF DAMPS IN MINES, AND OF 

the contrary. If it is poflible for the fuperficial Mineral fleams 
of our eartn to be thus deftrudive among us, how much reafbn 
have we to conclude, that many inftantaneous deaths from 
Damps in the Mines, are more eminently occafioned by fuf- 
pcnded mineralick vapours of the moft deleterious miafm. 

in thofe Mines which are replete with Mundick and Copper, 
and where fome parts are not Aipplied with a fufficient current 
of air to difperfe the effluvia, I have known feveral men and 
boys perifh in a few months : and though fome may linger for a 
longer time, they are generally grieved with naufeas and Teach- 
ings to vomit, oppreflion upon the breaft, latitude and torpor 
of the limbs, till at laft the whole habit becomes tabid, and 
they die hedick or confumptive. 

It is a miftake, that " Damps in our Cornifli Mines are never 
'* fo venomous as to be immediately fatal." I have known 
many inftances to the contrary ; particularly one, in a fhort 
Drift, by the fide of an Adit, which carries a large ftream of 
i^ater, a father and fon, with other pcrfons, were walking 
through the Adit, when the fon ftepped into this old fhort 
Drift, and inflantly fell down dead : the father on obferving 
this, followed the fon to give him fuccour, and fhared the fame 
fate : their companions feeing this misfortune, avoided the 
danger, and cautioufly recovered the bodies for interment. To 
what lefs caufe can we attribute this fudden deflrudion, than to 
a venomous damp in this particular place ; which the famous 
Grotta dc Cani, fo nanled from its mortiferous effeds upon dogs 
and other animals, cannot exceed ? 

Mr. JefTop, in the Philofophical Tranfadions, obferves, that 
there are four forts of Damps : the firfl is the ordinary fort ; 
the figns of its approach are the candles burning orbicularly, 
the flames lefTening by degrees, till they quite go out ; and 
fhortnefs of breath : fuch as cfcape fwooning, receive no great 
harm thereby ; but thofe that fwoon away, and efcape an abfo- 
lute fuffocation, are, upon their firfl recovery, tormented with 
violent convulfions : the ordinary remedy is to dig a hole in the 
^irth, and lay them on their bellies, with their mouths in it ; 
if that fails, they fupply them with large quantities of good 
ale ; and if that mifcarries, their cafe is concluded defperate. 

The fecond fort of Damps is called the Peafe BlofTom Damp, 
becaufe it is faid to fmcU fike that bloom : it always happens in 

the 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &c. 199. 

the fummer time ; and is obferved in Mines,, that are not in- 
fedted with any other. It is not reckoned mortal ; but on 
account thereof, many Mines lie idle for the heft and moft 
profitable feafon of the year, when the fiibterraneous waters, 
are loweft. 

The third is the moft extraordinary, and moft peftilential of 
all 'y SLhd thofe who pretend to have fecn it, for it is vifible, dc-* 
fcr&e it thus : In the higheft part of the roof or backs of large: 
Drifts, which branch out from the Mine or main workings^ 
ibmething round is often feen hanging, about the bigneis of a 
football, covered with a fkin of the thicknefs and colour of a 
cobweb. This, they fay, if broken by any accident, imme- 
diately difperfes itfelf, and fuiFocates all the company : there-^ 
fiare, to prevent its ill effects, as foon as it is obferved, by th^ 
help of a ftick and long rope, they break it at a diftance ; after 
which, the place is well purified by fire, before they venture in 
again. It is aflerted, that the fteam, arifing from the bodies of 
the Miners, and from the candles, afcends into the higheft part 
of the Drifts, condenfes there, and in time contrads a film, 
which at length corrupting, it becomes peftilential. 

The fourth is that vapour, which, touched by a candle, 
prcfcntly takes fire, giving a report like a gun, and producing 
the effects of lightning. 

Thefe pernicious Damps in Mines, {hew abundantly, that 
nature aftbrds infiammable air in fome cafes ; and we find by 
experiments, that art can do the fame, and that, probably, on 
the fame principles ; for if you mix Iron filings, oil of vitriol, 
and water, by the addition of common air it will become in- 
flammable. Sir James Lowther having coUeded the air of Ibme 
Damps in bladders, preferved it fo well, that when brought up 
to London, it would take fire at the flame of a candle, on let- 
ting it out at the orifice of a piece of tobacco pipe. It is well 
known to all that are verfed in chymical experiments, that moft 
Metals emit a great quantity of fulphureous vapours, during the 
effervefcence they undergo in the time of their folutions in their 
.refpedtive menftruums : this vapour being received into bladders, 
in the fame manner with the natural air of Sir James Lowther, 
has been found to take fire, in the like manner, on being let 
out in a fmall ftream, and anfwered all the phenomena of the 
natural kind. 



200 OF DAMPS IK MINES, AND OF 

We fliall obferve that this inflammable air, the condenfed air 
N° 3, and the Peafe Bloflbm Damp, are never known in our 
Cornifh Mines ; but that the fixable air which is readily imitated 
by a mixture of oil of vitriol, water, and chalk, and extinguifhes 
candles, is common to fome parts of them. . . 

Dr. Conner in his Diflert. Med. Phyf. relates a cafe of fome 
people digging in a cellar at Paris, for fuppofed hidden treafure : 
after a few hours working, the maid going down to call her 
matter, found them all in their digging poftures, but dead. 
The perfon who managed the fpade, and his attendant who 
(hovelled off the earth, were both on foot, and feemingly intent 
on their feveral offices : the wife of one of them, as if weary, 
was fitting on the fide of a hopper, and leaning her head on her 
arm ; and a boy, with his breeches down, was evacuating on 
the edge of the pit, his eyes fixed on the ground : all of them, 
in fhort, in their natural poflures and adions, with open eyes, 
and mouths that feemed yet to breathe, but ftiff as ftatues, and 
cold as clay. 

I have known fome inflance^ in Cornwall fimilar to this ; and 
I prefume it has been often the cafe with us, that people have 
fallen into a pleafing kind of flomber, from which they never 
awoke : at leafl I have been told fo, by fome who had expe- 
rienced the approaches of it upon themfelves, . and^^^liad the 
fortitude to fhake off that fatal reverie, into which J|^ had 
been infenfibly drawn. In the Mine of North-Dowh^^fi' drift 
end was in driving, where 'the air was fcarcely knowh'.to be 
fcanty : one evening, at the ufual hour of relief, an elderly 
man, called Bamfield, and a boy, came to the Mine, and went 
down to their place, from whence the other workmen were jufl 
come. Some time after the next hour of relief was elapfed, 
their partners were furprifed that Bamfield and the boy did not 
come above ground. After waiting a little longer, the^ went 
idown, and found the boy in a recumbent poflure ; and Bam- 
field clofe to the end, fitting ftifF upon his breech, with both 
hands to his forehead, and his elbows refling on his knees, in 
a kind of fleepy nodding attitude -, but both of them cold 
and ftifF. 

■' A want of air is indeed fo frequent, that few of our Shafts or 
Adits can be driven or futik to any confiderable, deptB. or length, 
without fome degree of its ill efieds ; but as Ibolfc/as! tliey can 
conveniently give the Shaft or Adit a free communication of 

air. 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &c. 201 

air, they are relieved, and the Damp ceafes. For this purpofe, 
they fometimes make ufe of a kind of air pipe, which conveys 
air down to the labourers : at other times, they fink a fide Shaft ; 
and as they go deeper in it, they work holes . or drifts, as occa- 
fion ferves, from the fide Shaft into that which contains the 
Damp J and this communication between the two Shafts, gives 
the air a draft or current. • But when this want of air happens 
at the end of an Adit, as it is very ufual, they ufe thofe 
methods of fallering, &c. already defcribed, book iii. chap. 3. 
which fupplies them with air till a new Shaft is funk down 
upon the end, and holed to the Adit, which gives the men a 
free refpiration, and liberty of working, till another Shaft is 
requifite. Sometimes they are annoyed with Damps in dry 
fhallow pits, which are probably caufed by noxious thick va- 
pours that are emitted out of the pores of the earth ; at other 
times, the Damps feem to proceed from the corrupt effluvia of 
ilagnating waters, that have lain a long time in the Lode or a 
Shaft. Both thefe Damps are fo thick and heavy, that they kill 
and fiibdue the vivifying fpirit of the air ; fo that for want of a 
frefii fupply, the Miners cannot continue long under-ground. 

Befides the finking of Shafts and putting down air pipes or 
the like, there are fome other things which help to fet the bad 
air in motion, and fo ferve in part to difpel the grofs unwhole- 
fome vapours : thus, the drawing of water out of a Shaft, and 
the motion of the tackle, or the water that runs in an Adit, 
will help to diffipate the bad- air ; alfo, if faggots on fire or any • 
burning fewel be thrown into a fufFocating Shaft, it will rarify 
the bad air for a while, and by the admiflion of frefli air the 
men may work fome time longer, till the Damp condenfes and 
gets to a head again. 

Damps are generally moft common in fummer. About the 
dog-days we obferve they are not fo eafily remedied by air pipes 
and fallers, as in the other months ; becaufe the earth and 
atmofphere are greatly warmed by the folar rays, and the air 
itfelf is fo very cdm and ferene, that for want of a due agitation 
thereof. Damps arc occafionally more or lefs, from thefe cir- 
cumftances or the feafbn, and very often in thofe places which 
are not affeded by them at other times of the year. When they 
blafl rocks by gunpowder they are frequently obliged to come 
above ground, and wait fome hours before they can venture 
down again, to work and clear away the fhattered ftones; 
Linden fays, he is fure, the fmoke of the gunpowdec wvt.W x!ca. 



202 QiF DAMPS IN MINES, AND OF 

heat will difTplve and raife up in fumes a great deal of the Terra 
Mercurialis Metallorum, which will occaiion a poifonous Damp; 
and therefore it is neceflary that the gunpowder fhould be mixed 
with fomething . that will prevent the folution, and fheath and 
envelope the acid particles of the fait petre and brimftone. 
Any unduous or oily body will do it ; and will be fo far froni 
being detrimiental to the blading, that it will be rather of fervice 
to it, becaufe it will add to the ftrength of the gunpowder, and 
make it do more execution than if it was ufed alone ; and not 
only hinder its fmoke from occafioning any noxious' Damps, 
but deftroy the naturally poifonous qualities that lodge in the 
cavities of the Mine. The mixture that I would ufe with the 
gunpowder, is as follows : 

Take one pound of gunpowder, one ounce of oil of turpen- 
tine, two drachms of camphor, and half a drachm of borax. 
Mix them well in a marble mortar, and they will be fit for im- 
mediate ufe. 

Dr. Brown in his Travels and Obfervations on the Mines of 
Hungary, a book in which are many excellent remarks on 
Mines aAd Minerals, and highly ufeful to all concerned therein ; 
fay$, that where an air Shaft cannot be conveniently funk, the 
Germans apply & large bellows with pipes of lead or leather to 
throw in air to the workmen. In the year 1696 this was put 
in pra<Stice, for the firft time, in St. George's Adit in Goon-Laz 
in St. Agnes, where by reafon of the great depth, (at leaft forty 
fathoms from grafs) it was impofllble to fink a Shaft, and to 
have fucceeded without this or fome other invention to convey 
air. It has been fince tried in other places with the like fuccefs, 
as I am informed, for I never faw it put in practice niyfelf ; 
indeed it was invented by the lord St. Albans, before the time 
of Brown's travels, and pradifed in Wales by his fervant Thomas 
Bwfehet, Efq; (Fuller's Worthies in Wales, p. 4). 

Now as we fee fome Adits muft have a great many Shafts to 
convey air to the workmen, as well as to fave the expence and 
trouble of rolling the broken work a great way back to the lad 
fliaft ; fo it is neceflary likewife for them to underftand the ufe 
of a dial compafs, to dire<9: them where to put down fuch Shafts 
as are wanted in their right places. Dialling is requifite in 
almoft every Shaft they fink oil an Adit, or elfe they may dig 
out of the way to no purpofe ; and when they work out of their 
light way in an Adit, it correds and re^ifies their miftake. 

Indeed, 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &c. 203 

Indeed, without Dialling, they would often infenfibly go aftray 
from the line they had juft begun or proceeded in, and inflead 
of working forwards towards the Mine, they may inadvertently 
drive in a contrary diredtion. It is true, a candle is a great 
guide to the labourers ; for if they work fo ftraight as to fee a 
lighted candle that is placed where they began, they need fear 
no error, in cafe they began right ; but if they once chance to 
work awry, and lofe fight of the candle, it is no longer of any 
fervice for keeping them in a ftraight line. 

This art of Dialling is alfo very ufeful, in dire^ing them 
where to fink a Shaft exadly on any part or end in a Mine ; and 
where to fink a Shaft for cutting the Lode, or Gunnies upon 
the underlie, which Shaft in fuch cafe is called an underlier. 
It is equally neceflary in other refpeds for meafuring the ground 
to the extent of this or that place or limit ; for want of which 
knowledge, one fet or party of adventurers may injure another, 
by encroaching on their property. Hence I apprehend, that 
Dialling, well and truly underftood, is of no little confequence 
to the different neighbouring Lords atnd Bounders ; otherwife 
it would be no difficult matter^ for the adventurers to drive and 
dig promifcuoufly, into the fcveral lands and properties c^ 
diftind and feparate perfons, whereby great confuuon and lofe 
might enfue to fome or other of them ; which this art effectually 
prevents, by afcertaining the juft limits of each, and fixing 
their proper boundaries, through means of a line himg perpen- 
dicularly under-ground, with more exadnefs than is commonly 
fettled by hedges, ditches, ftones, or land-marks above-ground. 
Nothing can be more exad than a limitation of property, by 
the breadth of a fingle line ; and yet I really believe a difference 
of one inch, in fome very rich Mines, might make a difference 
of feveral pounds to the different proprietors. 

This laying out a travcrfe or meafure under-ground, pantu 
however, be very accurate with thofe., who take no account <3 
the points or angles of the cotnpafsj but in lieu thereof, chdk 
the bearing of the line they meafure with, on the board the 
compafs lies in ; for if they are not exceedingly carefiil and precife 
in their operations, they may commit almofl unpardonable and 
irretrievable blunders : yet formerly, before penmanfhip and 
figures were fo generally underftood and pra&fed among the 
common Tinners, as they arc at prefent, moft of our Mines and 
Adits were dialled for in this manner. 



204 OF DAMPS IN MINES, AND OF 

The inftniments ufed for Dialling are, a compafs without a 
gnomon or ftyle, but a center pin projeding from the middle of 
the compafs to loop a line to, or ftick a candle upon, fixed in 
a box exadly true and level with its furface, about fix, eight, 
or nine inches fquare, nicely glazed with ftrong white glafs, 
and a cover fuitable to it hung fquare and level with the upper 
part of the inftrument : a twenty-four inch gauge or two feet 
rule, and a ftring or fmall cord with a plummet at the end of 
it : a little ftool, to place the dial horizontally : and pegs and 
pins of wood, a piece of chalk, and pen, ink, and paper. 

The method of Dialling an Adit, in order to fink a new 
Shaft down-right upon its end, is this : firft they drop a line or 
plummet down in their laft Shaft, in the middle of the breadth 
of the Adit ; a man that ftands at the mouth of the Shaft above- 
ground, marks the place of the line there on a deal board flung 
acrofs the Shaft, while the perfon who dials under-grouna 
obferves the fpot on which the plummet falls in the Adit ; there 
he holds the end of a fmall cord in his hand, while another 
perfon carries the other part with him, as far as he can go in a 
ftraight line, without lofing fight of the Dialler's candle : the 
cord being drawn ftraight and tight, he holds it in the midft of 
the breadth of the Adit, while the Dialler fixes the. fide of the 
compafs accurately parallel with the line, and notes the bearing 
of the compafs upon paper ; and meafuring the length of the 
cord to the other man's hand, he notes the length thereof on 
paper likewife. In the fame manner the Dialler takes his fecond 
meafurement or draft, by fetting his line and compafs afrefh, 
and proceeding as before, till he comes to the middle breadth 
of the Adit-end. This being done, he comes up from under- 
ground, obferves the place of the plummet line above at the 
Shaft, where he fets his compafs, and lays off the very fame 
.traverfe at grafs which he took underneath ; at the end of 
jlrhich, a new Shaft muft be put down, diredly on the Adit- 
end. In cafe there are one, two, or many more angles or turns 
in the Adit, the compafs muft be refet at each of them, and 
their bearings or lengths meafiired, and taken down on paper ; 
which will exadly anlwer to an experimental Dialler, by laying 
out the fame traverfe above-ground, as hinted before. 

Some, inftead of meafuring each draft or length of cord, 
untwift it, and faften pins of wood numbered i, 2, 3, and fo 
on, at the noted places, which may ferve the purpofe ; but I 

think 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &c. 205 

think it more regular to take the bearings of the compafs on 
paper, and alfo the refpedive lengths, in columns oppofite each 
other. It is alfo to be remembered, that if the cord be wet in 
meafuring under-ground, it ought to be the fame in meafuring 
at grafs, and vice verfa ; ptherwife it may caufe no fmall error, 
becaufe when wet it {brinks, and lengthens when dry. 

To know the exad depth of an underlying^ Shaft, and a 
Winds, and how far a Gunnies may extend from the bottom of 
the Shaft to the brace of the Winds ; you muft order fome one 
to defcend into the Shaft : then let your firing down in the 
manner of a plumb, through a hole made in a deal board, 
laid acrofs the brace of the windlafs, taking the moft convenient 
place where it will go deepeft, and not touch the fides of the 
Shaft. Where it touches at the bottom or underlying wall of 
the Shaft, there let a mark be made with a pick-axe. As the 
firing hangs in the Shaft, apply the fide of your dial to it, a& 
horizontally and diredly acrofs the Gunnies or excavated Lode 
(which is here in the Shaft, or the Shaft in the Lode, which 
you pleafe) as you poflibly can, obferving what degree the 
needle flands on, which we will fuppofe to be fifty-two. Thia 
degree you mufl keep for your fquare. Then take up the firing 
aiid meafure it by the two feet rule, noting the length of the 
firing on paper in rules and inches, under the word depth, as 
you are defired to obferve in the following example. You may 
fuppofe this depth to meafure twenty-four rules, which you 
mufl fet down, and the degree fifty-two dire<5lly againfl it. 

Then go down to the bottom of the Shaft, where the mairk 
was made. From hence you may begin to take the underlie of 
the Shaft, by laying a line horizontally acrofs the Shaft from 
the mark, to the oppofite fide, roof, or hanging wall, of the 
Gunnies or excavated Lode ; applying your dial to the fide of 
the line, or moving them up and down together, till you fee 
the needle fland upon your fquare degree fifty-two. Then 
drop your line and plummet from the roof or hanging wall of 
the Shaft, till they touch the fide or bottom wall, ' as you did 
before from the brace of the Shaft ; and where the plummet 
touches at the bottom wall of the Shaft, make another mark. 
You mufl then meafure the breadth of the Shaft from the bot- 
tom of the lafl plumb, to the oppofite or hanging wall, which 
we will fuppofe to be one rule twenty inches. Pull up the line, 
and meafure its length from the rule to the mark below. This 
meafure mufl be noted under the word depth ; becaufe, it is 

G g g <ic.^ 



2o6 OF DAMPS IN MINES, AND OF 

the fecond dropping or plumbing of the Shaft; and we will 
call it fixteen rules. This being noted under Depth, fifty-two 
under Degree, and one rule two inches under the word Length, 
as in the following example ; you muft defccnd to the place 
where the laft mark was made, and lay the line horizontally 
acrofs the Shaft from the mark to the oppofite fide or wall, 
applying your dial to the fide of the line, moving them up and 
down together, as you did before, till you fee the needle ftand 
upon your degree fifty-two. The line and dial lying thus 
horizontally by the fide of each other, drop your line as far as 
it will go before the plummet touches the bottom wall of the 
Shaft, holding the line at the hanging wall where you will fee 
it will go deepeft, and not touch the fides. Here make another 
mark, where the plummet touches ; which done, pull up your 
ftring, and meafure this depth, meafuring likewife the breadth 
of the Shaft where you held it : fuppofe you fay, depth twenty- 
fix rules fourteen inches, degree fifty-two, and length or breadth 
two rules four inches. (See the example following). Here, the 
Shaft appears to be eight inches wider than it was, eight 
fathoms, five feet, and two inches higher up at the l?ottom of 
the laft drop or plumb; a circumftance very common in all 
Shafts underlying with the Lode, as in fuch places the breadth 
of a Shaft muft depend upon the width of the Lode, if it is 
worth the breaking. But to proceed. 

In order to make a third drop in the Shaft, before we arrive 
to the bottcmi of it (which I chufe to do, that it may appear in 
a more practical light, as fome Shafts underlie fo faft, as to re- 
quire a great many drafts before the bottom can be dialled, and 
its pofitioH and depth afcertained) we will defcend to the mark 
laft made, where the Shaft is two rules four inches, or four feet 
four inches wide ; and ftretch a line from the mark horizontally 
acrofs the Shaft to the oppofite wall, applying the fide of the 
dial as before tiB the needle ftands on the degree fifty-two. 
The line muft then be dropped till the plummet touches the 
bottom of the Shaft, clear from any contad with its fides. 
Here, at the plummet, a mark muft be made alfo. Obferving 
tke breadth o£ the.Shaft at the horizontal line, take up your 
plumb, and meal^re how many rules it is ; fay twenty-eight 
rules twenty-two inches depth, fifty- two degrees ; and the 
n^imber of inches acro& the Shaft, fay one rule twelve inches, 
length, or breadth. 

The 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &fe. 26^^ 

The Shaft being now dialled to the bottom, go dowfi- 
there, and hold the Dial where the mark was made, re<aifying 
the needle to the degree fifty-two. It is many times the cafe, 
that a fhort crofs length muft be taken, to gain room or liberty 
to take a long length in a Drift or Gunnies. I will fuppofe it 
muft be done here ; and it is very eafy to be done, as before^ 
in taking the breadth of the Shaft, by applying the firing Of 
line parallel to the fide of the Dial. At the end of the ftioftf 
length, meafure how many rules and inches it is, and fet hr 
down ; which you may fuppofe here, one rule ten inches ; 
degree fifty-two. 

This fhort crofs length being taken, you proceed to take i, 
long length, upon the courfe of the Lode or Gunnies, towards 
the brace of your Winds or under-ground Shaft, by giving your 
affiftant the end of the line, and direding him to go back into- 
the Drift or Gunnies as far as he can, till the ftring touches 
fomewhere on the fide of the Drift, yourfelf holding, at the 
fame time, one end of the line, in the mark you made at the 
end of the fhort length. The ftring muft touch no where 
betwixt you and your affiftant. Apply the fide of your Dial 
to the ftring exadly parallel one with the other : thieti take the 
degree the needle ftands on (no matter which it is) fay thirty- 
fix ; and let him that is at the other end of the line drop a ftone 
to the bottom of the Drift. Meafure the ftring in rules anrf 
inches, which you may fuppofe to be twenty-twa rules eight 
inches, degree thirty-fix. Proceed onwards to the place where 
the ftone was dropped ; and if there is occafioii to take another 
fhort length or draft, which we will fuppofe, lay the ftring 
acrofs as before, one end being in^the mark, rectifying the 
needle to fifty-two ; which being done^ fet down the degree, 
and this fhort draft over againft it. Say only ten inches, where 
you make a mark as before. 

This fhort length being taken^- ybti^ are nttw agiin at liberty 
to take a long one forwards in the Drift or Gunnies ; then left' 
your affiftant take the ftring, and- go as hi bs^Wsu'ds ^ he can, 
till the ftring almoft touches foniewhere in the middle on thtf 
fide : thus, (holding one end in th^ mark yott* Aiad^ faft, whew 
you took the fhort length) ftretch thejine tight, ajiply the {id& 
of the Dial to the firing, and tiake the dbgf ee' the* ni^dle ftands* 
on, viz. thirty-fix : fet down- the diegrec on paper, and bi<t 
him make a mark at the end. Meafbfe the Kne, and note the 
length diredlly againft the degree ft4iip|?y-fi«) yoit took USl^ 



ao8 OF DAMPS IN MINES, AND OF 

which may be twenty-four rules fourteen inches to the middle 
of the brace of the Winds. 

The next operation is to take the exad depth and underlie of 
the Winds, which muft be performed by redtifying the needle 
upon degree fifty-two, the old fquare ; but if there be any need 
to take a fliort length to gain a greater liberty to plumb the 
Winds, you muft take it. Your afliftant defcending into the 
Winds, let the ftring down after him, and where it touches on 
the fide or underlie, let him make a mark ; yourfelf holding a 
line or one end of your rule in the mark that was made at the 
Wind's brace, lay the fide of the rule or line parallel to the fide 
of the Dial, and redify the needle till it ftands at degree fifty- 
two. Note this fhort length: -on paper, which you may here 
fuppofe to be eight inches. Meafure your line ; fay twenty- 
eight rules fix inches ; fet it down, and the degree fifty-two 
alfo : which being done, go. down to the laft mark, and becaufe 
the Winds ftill. underlies, put one end of a line in that mark, 
and flretch the - other horizontally acrofs the Winds to the 
hanging wall, with the edge of the Dial exadly parallel to its 
fide, and redify the needle till it ftands upon the degree fifty- 
two. Thus let the plummet down from the hanging wall to 
the bottom of the Winds, if it will not touch the fides betwixt 
you and the bottom ; fet down the length or breadth of the 
Winds which is two rules, degree fifty-two. Make another mark 
at the bottom of the Winds where the plummet touched, and 
meafure the depth of this laft dropping or plumbing, which 
you may fuppofe thirty rules two inches : and thus you have 
finifhed the plumbing of your Winds. 

• 

If you have any further to dial, obferve to take your fquare 
degree, where there is this occafion ; for if you omit taking 
your fquare, you will lofe yourfelf in the exadnefs of the 
grounds length, fometimes making it more, and fometimes lefs 
than really it is, and fo commit very great blunders when you 
come to dial it above-ground. You muft alfo take care, that 
you hold your line exadly level, when you take your crofs 
lengths in drifts, and by that means you will have the exa<3: 
depth. You muft likewife obferve, that your rule or line lie 
parallel with the edge of your Dial, that is, equal, at both 
ends ; or elfe you will rnifs in taking the true degree. Re- 
member, that under-ground, the Dial is guided by the line ; 
but, above-ground, the line is guided by the Dial. The fol- 
lowing example of the foregoing drafts, I truft, will ferve to 

inform 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &c, 209 

inform the reader, of the manner in which they are noted pn 
paper. 



Depth 



Degrees 



Length 



Rules- 


-Inches 




Rules- 


-Inches 


24 


— 


52 


— 


— 


16 


— 


52 


I 


20 


26 


14 


52 


2 


4 


28 


22 


52 


I 


12 


— 




52 


I 


10 


— 


— 


36 


22 


8 


— 


— 


52 




10 


— 


— 


36 


24 


14 


28 


6 


52 


— 


8 


30 


2 


52 


2 


— 



Here you fee the depth is one hundred and fifty-three rules, 
one foot, eight inches. The rule containing two feet, make 
in all three hundred and feven feet, and eight inches, for the 
depth of the Shaft and Winds ; which, by redudion, make fifty- 
one fathoms, one foot, eight inches, for the true depth of the 
Mine at that place. 

If you chufe to know how much your Shaft and Winds under- 
lie, you muft add together the lengths that ftand againft your 
fquare degree fifty-two ; in all feven rules, fixty-four inches, 
which, by redudion, make three fathoms, one foot, four 
inches, the exad underlie of your Shaft and Winds. 

To know the length you have driven in the Mine, without 
laying it forth above, you muft add up the rules and inches 
that ftand under the word length, againft your bye degree 
(thirty-fix) which in this example are only two drafts, viz. 
forty-fix rules, twenty-two inches, equal to fifteen fathoms, 
three feet, ten inches, which you have driven in the Mine. 

But if you defign to dial and lay it out above-ground, let the 
Dial upon the degree fifty- two ; and looking in your notes for 
one rule twenty inches, which was the firft length, put one end 
of the rule to the hole in the deal board (page ) flung acrofs 
the Shaft-brace, where you held the ftring, when you began to 
plumb the Shaft. The rule lying to the fide of the Dial, and 

H h h the 



2IO OF ^AMPS IM Mli^£S> ANt> OF 

'\ 

t^ needle being redified to the degree fifty-two, make at nmrk 
at one rule twenty inches upon the ground ; and thus you have 
done the firift degree. In like manner you may do all the reft, 
if you go over thefe degrees iingly, one by one ; but as here are 
feveral fquare degrees (fifty-two) before you come to any bye 
one, which goes upon the courfe of the Lode, you may take 
all thefe fquare degrees together, firft adding their lengths to- 
gether, to know how many inches and rules they are. 

The lengths oppofite the fecond, third, fourth, and fifth 
dergees (fifty-two) are equal to three rules forty-fix inches, 
which by redudion amount to two fathoms, one foot, ten 
inches, the exacSt underlie of your Shaft ; therefore if you firft 
meafure out fo much of your ftring or line, and the needle is 
redified to fifty-two, bid your affiftant make a mark there : 
thus you take all the four degrees together and find the mark at 
grafs, which he made at the bottom of the Shaft. Go to the 
mark your afiiftant made, and look to your notes for your next 
length, meafuring out fo much upon your cord, viz. twenty- 
two rules eight inches ; then let him go forward with one end, 
and caufe fome one to hold the other end in the mark he made 
laft : look to your notes for your degree over againft that length, 
which is thirty-fix, and redify your needle to it ; let him that 
has the plummet end of the line, bring the ftring to the fide of 
the Dial, yourfelf ft:anding at fome diftance from him that holds 
the other end in the mark. The ftring lying exaftly even with 
the fide of the Dial, and the needle ftanding upon the bye 
degree thirty-fix, bid him make a mark at the end of the 
plummet, and fo you have done that length. 

Now go to your laft mark, and put one end of your rule to 
it, and fet the needle upon fifty-two, laying the edge of the 
rule parallel to the fide of the Dial. This length being but ten 
inches, make a mark there. 

Look into your notes for your next length, which is twenty- 
four rules fourteen inches : meafure this out, and let your 
affiftant go on with the ftring, caufing the other end to be held 
m the laA mark. Set the needle upon thirty-fix, the degree 
oppofite that length ; appfy the Kne cxadly parallel to the fide 
of the Dial and ftretch it ti^. At the plummet end of the 
ftring make a mark, wliich fimfhts another length. Laftly, 
becaufe the other two lengths are both to be taken upon one 
degree, and there bemg no otber bye degree between them, 

you 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, tcb. stii 

you may add the lengths together, and take the?m at once, 
which are two rules and eight inches, the needle (landing upon 
the degree fifty-two. The end hereof is the place at grafi^ 
directly over the m^k you made at the bottom of the Winds. 
Here, if there is a neceflity for it, or it is worth your trouble 
and expence, you may fink a new Shaft down-right upon the 
bottom of the Winds, which you may as infallibly depend upon 
performing, as on any the moft facile tranfadion in Mining. 
No one thing is more commonly done 5 it being often of thre 
laft importance to fink down a rteW Shaft, and thereby lave the 
charge of drawing the work by a double draft. It is hot always 
requifite to fink a new Shaft, diredtly on the Winds ^ but when- 
ever it is thought fo, the undertakers muft firft dial under- 
ground and afterwards at grafs, before they can prefume to fink 
a perpendicular Shaft upon the Winds bottom. 

Now, to know whether you have dialled this exadly or not, 
without going over it again, add all your fquare (hort lengths 
oppofite the degree fifty-two together : the fum Will be nine 
rules, fixteen inches ; Which, by redudion, make thtee fathottii) 
one foot, four inches, the exa<^ declination or underlie bf ybui* 
Lode in the Shaft and Winds, from the brace of the fottner to 
the bottom of the latter at fifty-one fathoms, one foot, eight 
inches, the depth of the Mine or Lode in that place. A^n, 
if you chufe to affcertaih the average uftdeflie of the Lode, fbi* 
one fathom with the other, you muft work the above drifts by 
the rule of three dirCift ; by which it will appear^ that fdr fevefy 
fathom the Lode has been wrought in perpeildicular depths -iti 
inclination or undei-lie is fdur inches and d hdf. Thii und^Hie 
is very fmall and fcarcely meHts the name in Cbrnwallj wliei« 
frequently our Lodes undetlie a fathom in a fathbm^ and MdbtH 
lefs than two feet in a fathom. Indeed, fome few Lodes go 
down in form of a Zig-Zag ; arid by that meahs, at a ^kAt 
depth, deviate from d petpendieiilar very littk frotH the plftfcc 
where they firft begin to fiilk : but thi$ is very rare j aiid thbdg^ 
it may fave coft in not fitiking msdxf unde^liers afid tHfidi, f^t 
the conveniency is over bttllanded by h&ving a \t(k qimtitity 6f 
Mineral in a given pdtpeadkfal&t L&dt, that! in tkait which. 
underlies one half in the other. That is, a Lode th&t titiderl^s 
three feet to the right or left from a perpendicular, will meafiire 
nine feet in dcipdi fot cv(fly fix «f a ddntfal tettdAity. 

But to prooeed i in laying oUt the drafts tipbifr th^ faffkc^i 
you muft n«zt add }sp the leftj^ht you t6efe uperfj tM cdiWf^ ^ 

rua 



212 OJP DAMPS IN MINES, AND OF 

nin of the Lode, which were but two ; viz. twenty-two rules, 
eight inches, and twenty-four rules, fourteen inches, in all, 
forty-fix rules and twenty-two inches ; which, by redudion, 
are equal to fifteen fathoms, three feet, ten inches : meafure 
thefe out with your rule and line, and give your plummet to 
the afliflant, to go on with the fuppofed run of the Lode, 
caufing fome one to hold the other end at the board upon the 
Shaft brace, where you firft began to plumb : then go to the 
middle of the firing, and fetting the needle upon the degree 
thirty-fix, apply the line exadly parallel to the fide of the Dial, 
and. bid the afllftant make a mark at the end : go to this end or 
mark, and meafure out your fquare lengths, which in all are 
three fathoms, one foot, four inches : then give your afiiftant 
the end, holding the other end in the mark ; fet the needle 
upon fifty-two, and bid him apply the line exadlly parallel with 
the box, and make his mark. If this mark hit that you made, 
when you dialled it before, you have done the work exaftly ; 
otherwife, you have committed fome blunder, and ought to try 
it over again : for this rule always holds true when you take 
fquare lengths, and your lengths forward, on the courfe of the 
Lode Or any way, by one degree ; as you here took thirty-fix 
for your degree. 

Many more examples in Dialling might be given, fuch as, to 
dial Shafts and Winds that underlie and beat into the end ; to 
dial .'in a , Gunnies with many crofs drifts and turnings, and 
afterwards to fquare the fame at grafs, &c. : but as they are 
already given in Houghton's Rara Avis, and Hardy's Miner's 
Gi|ide, and as one hour's converfation with pradlical Miners 
\vijyt illuftrate the fubjed better than a week's reading, I fhall 
conclude what I have faid on it, with this fingle remark, that 
the crude, goflany, ferruginous Ores in the Mines, have no 
influence on the needle of the compafs : I have often found, 
that even the magnet or loadflone will not attrad pure Iron Ore 
(much lefs the ferruginous Ores of other Metals) till they have 
undergone the iire, by a calcining heat, or fome other, procefs ; 
otherwife, . there could be no pofiibility of Dialling moft Copper 
Alines, becaufe they commonly abound with much Iron (Gofi^n) 
im .Copper Ores, 

The other branch of Dialling, is properly ftiled Levelling ; 
which is an operation to find the inequality, afcent, and defcent, 
pCany grotPid or hill. Hence it is of great ufe for all aqueducts 
t9 towns, hbuies, ponds, mills, &c. and particularly in Mining, 
• vrj, either 



LEVELLING AND DIALLING MINES, &c. 213 

either to bring a water courfe to a Mine, in order to ered an 
engine, or elfe to find how deep an intended adit will be from 
or to a prefixed or given place. But as the rules of this art are, 
fully laid down in books that treat on land fiirveying, I need • 
not dwell on it here ; efpecially as the two authors above men- 
tioned have defcribed its ufe and application to our fubjed:^ 
Neither is it heceffary to defcribe the feveral inflruments and 
improvemients that have from time to time been made and ufed 
in Levelling, fince the Miners^ inftead of the true Levelling 
inflruments, called the air level, or fpirit level, commonly fub- 
ftitute (though not to their credit, for the beft may be had at 
little expence) a water level of their own conftrudion ; which 
is. generally a clumfy inftrument in form of a fmall narrow 
trough, an inch wide, and three feet long, planed very exaS: 
and true. 

To find the fall or declination of the ground, they lay this 
Levelling inftrument on the higheft part of the ground they are 
about to level or meafure, and by pouring water into the trough, 
they eafily perceive when it lies truly horizontal, and then they 
proceed in the fame manner that is pradifed by others who ufe 
the air level. But when a Mine lies on a fteep hill, and there 
is room for a proper ftation below for taking a juft obfefvation 
by a quadrant of altitude, then the height of the hill (which 
is the fame as the level or depth of the adit at the Mine) may 
be eafily found by the rules of altimetry. The theory of thefe 
operations, however, is not confidered by the Miners ; neither 
is a fmall error difcoverable, becaufe they feldom level any great 
length of ground at one time, and content themfelves With the 
common manual operations. | 

Dr. Halley fuggefted a new way of Levelling which is wholly 
performed by the barometer, in which the mercury is found to 
be fufpended to fo much the lefs height, as the place is further 
remote from the center of the earth. Hence it follows, that 
the different height of the mercury in two places gives the 
difference of level. Mr. Derham found, from fome obfervations 
at the top and bottom of the monument in London, that the 
mercury fell one-tenth of an inch at every eighty-two feet of 
perpendicular afcent, when the mercury was at thirty inches; 
Dr. Halley allows of one-tenth of an inch for every thirty yards; 
and confidering how accurately barometers are now made, he 
thinks they are fufficiently exad to take Levels for the convey- 
ance of water, and lefs liable to errors than the common Levels. 

1 i i '$^\jBK. 



*i4 OF DAMPS IN MINES, &c, 

Some years fince, the reverend Mr. John Pickering, Mr. R. 
Phillips, Mr. Waltire a travelling ledurer on philofophy, and 
myfelf, took the altitude of the higheft eminence of the cele- 
. brated Druids hill called Cam Brea, by one of Mr. Waltire's 
beft barometers ; when we made the utmoft perpendicular 
height, at the luftration rock bafons, three hundred and fixty 
feet or fixty fathoms from the bottom of Redruth town. Ne- 
vcrthelefs, one great obftacle to this way of menfuration in our 
county, arifes from the (udden and frequent changes of our 
atmofphere, which muf): influence the mercury, and caufe fome 
difference between the fpot of departure, and the place of 
deftination, in proportion as the atmofphere alters ; fo that this 
method can be ufed only in clear, ferene, and fettled weather. 



BOOK 



BOOK IV. 



CHAP. I. 



The Method of Sampling and Vanning of Tin-ftuff, with the 
Stamping, Burning or Calcining, and Dreffing the fame ; 
with the Manner of Dreffing the Leavings, Loobs, &c. 



TI N - S T U F F that lies by the fide of the Shaft, when 
it becomes a great heap, or if it otherwife fuits the 
humour of the concerned, is firft fpalled or broken to the fize 
of a man's fift or lefs, by which the moft indifferent parts are 
feparated and forted from the beft ; fo that perhaps not more 
than one half of a large heap may be referved for dividing and 
ftamping. After the Tin-ftuff is thus culled, and properly 
fized, it is divided out in fmaller heaps by meafure of a Imnd- 
barrow, that ufually contains a fack and a half, or eighteen 
gallons. Thefe (hares, which they term Doles, are parcelled 
out into fo many different heaps on any the moft adjacent parts 
of the field, fometimes to the great prejudice of the hufbandman, 
who is not confidered for his xiamage by the lord of the foil, or 
the owners of the Mine. The method and number of Doles, 
into which Tin-ftuff is frequently divided, may be feen in book 
iii. chap. iv. The parcels being laid forth, lots are caft ; and 
then every parcel has a diftin<ft mark laid on it, with one, two, 
or three ftones ; and fometimes a bit of ftick with the initials of 
the proprietor's name, or a turf laid on the middle of the Dole. 
When thefe marks are fixed, the Doles may continue there un~ 
molefted for any length of time : the property is fettled j and 
no one, but the right owner, may add or take from it. 

The Doles which are defigned for fale, are very accurately 
meafured ; for as the barrows are carried off for their relpedtive 
divifions, one perfon, who is the reckoner, keeps an account 
by making a notch in a ftick for every barrow; and if there be 
an odd one left, it is equally divided by the gallon, the fhovel, 
and, when it is rich, even by the handful. The Doles being 
divided, they proceed to caft lots for that which fhall be 



21 6 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

fampled. This Dole being turned over, equally levelled and 
mixed, is theii divided by a man with his fhovel, into two 
equal parts, taking a little of the Tin-ftufF from one end to 
the other of each of thofe parts to the amount of fome gallons 
if the Dole is pretty large. This quantum is bruifed down by 
large fledges to the fize of an hazle nut, then equally levelled 
and divided into four parts, two oppofite quarters of which are 
feledted and bruifed over again to a fnialler fize. Thefe re- 
ductions and fmaller divifions are repeated again and again 
ad libitum ; till the quantity defigned for fampling, is well 
mixed, and made as fine as common faiid ; when each fampler 
fills his little canvas bag with it, and proceeds to a trial of its 
value by water, in the following manner. 

To make a rough guefs or coarle eflay, the fampler takes a 
handful of it, and waflies it on a fliovel, till the impure earthy 
parts are carried off by the water from its fides. The more 
ftony, folid, heavy particles being left behind, they are bruifed 
by an afliftant, with a fledge on the fliovel, till the whole 
affumes the appearance of mud. This is waflied again, till it 
lofes its muddy afped ; when by a peculiar motion of the fliovel 
not to be defcribed, the metallick particles are coUeded together 
on the fore part or point of it. By repeating thele bruifings, 
wafliings, and motions, it becomes clean black Tin, fit for the 
fmelting furnace. This is called a Van (from the French word 
Avant, foremofl:, as I apprehend) it being thrown forth upon 
the point of the fliovel, by the dexterity of the fample-trier. 
After the Tin is thus made clean to his mind, he dries it ; and 
if it be as much black Tin as will entirely cover a good fliilling, 
or rather if it is the weight of a fliilling, he terms it a Shilling 
Van, which is not rich j but if the Van will cover or equal the 
weight of a crown piece, it is good Tin-fl:uff, and is termed a 
Crown Van. Now they fay, the Shilling Van will produce one 
hundred grofs or avordupois weight of block or white Tin ; and 
the Crown Van will yield five hundred weight of block Tin, 
for every hundred facks in meafure, of the refpeftive Doles that 
the fample or Van is taken from, and fo proportionally on, to 
the richefl: Tin-ftuff called Scove, which is reckoned ten thou- 
fand of white Tin-metal ^ every hundred facks ; or in other 
words, it will produce one hundred hundred weight of Tin- 
metal, for each hundred facks of Tin-ftuff; yet there is none 
near fo rich as this in any quantity, except a particular ftone 
or lump. 

But 



CALCINING, AND DRESSING TIN-STUFF. 217 

But a meafure of a wine half pint is much more exaft and 
true than a handful, to form a judgment from ; though the 
handful be accounted a half pint. The manoeuvre is alfo more 
nice and true, by ufing a large {hovel, and taking off the fized 
Tin from time to time on another ihovel, and fo proceeding till 
all the Tin is reduced clean and to a proper fize. When this is 
done, dry the Van in a Ihovel upon the fire ; then take it ofF 
and weigh it in a money fcales by pennyweights and grains : for 
every pennyweight and half the Van weighs, the produce will 
be one hundred weight of black Tin for every hundred facks of 
Tin-ftuff ; and fo on in due equation : three pennyweights is 
equal to two hundred weight ; fix pennyweights to four hundred 
weight ; twelve pennyweights to eight hundred weight ; fifteen 
pennyweights to ten hundred weight ; or, as they term it, a 
thoufand of black Tin a hundred, i. e. for every hundred facks 
of Tin-ftuff : and if it be Tin worth ten for twenty, or one for 
two, then the Tin-ftuff is valued at five hundred weight of 
block or white Tin, for every hundred facks. If the Tin be 
worth twelve for twenty, the ftufF is valued at fix hundred 
weight of white Tin a hundred ; or if. it be worth only eight 
for twenty, it is only valued at four hundred weight of white 
Tin a hundred ; and fo if the metallick quantity of the Tin be 
more or lefs, it muft be accounted for after that manner. 

This black Tin is rather of a liver colour, though called 
black in contradiftindion from white Tin, or the Metal pro- 
duced from this black Tin Ore. It is very ponderous ; for, in 
a general way, it may be computed to hold one half clean Metal^ 
and fome of it will produce thirteen, hay even fourteen parts in 
twenty ; whence the term of fo much white Tin for twenty of 
black Tin, that is, eight for twenty ; ten for twenty, which 
is the fame as one for two j twelve for twenty, and fo on, 
be it more or lefs given for Metal ; in the knowledge of which 
the fample-triers or Tin-drefTers are very expert, without the 
ufe of crucible and furnace. Thus if the Van of one hundred 
facks of Tin-ftuff weighs fix pennyweights, being four hundred 
weight of black Tin at twelve for twenty, the white Tin or Metal 
muft be two hundred weight, one quarter, fixteen pounds. 

In the preceding manner, they form a near conjedure of the 
quantity of white Tin that their work or Doles of Tin-ftufF will 
produce at the fmelting-houfe, when it is dreiled, and brought 
into black Tin. But if the black Tin is infeded with any bad 
brood or mixture, as Mock-lead, Copper, or Mundick, after 
' K k k ^^ 



i»8 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

the Van h bruifed fmt and waOled, they lay the ihovel over the 
fire, and burn the bkck Tin, continually ftirring it till it 
6nokes no more. Laftly, they wafh it again on the (hovel, and 
A) the fe'ood is carried o£F by the water, it becoming light by 
being bwrnt ; for when bkck Tin is calcine4 or burned, it ftill 
retains its fpecifick gravity ; but Copper, Lead, and other crude 
Minerak, become mfuch lighter by torrefadion, and are eafily 
feparated from the Tin by water. 

ft Ihould be obferved, that each fack ought to hold twelve 
gal^Ions of Tin-ftuff, though they often hold but nine or ten j 
which want of meafure, when known, fhould be taken into 
confideration by the Tin buyer. 

Now, whoever intends to buy a quantity of Tin-ftufF, either 
for profit in trade, or merely for the fake of employing his 
ftamping mills, horfes, and labourers ; when his adventure 
Tin-flKiff falls fhort, which is very commonly the cafe, he muft 
not give the value of its full produce, without dedu^ng what 
is called the returning charges, that is, the carrying, ftamping, 
and dreffing thereof. On the other hand, the reader mtfft be 
app^ifed, that the value of Tin-ftuff, is fhort of its intrinfick 
worth by the Van only ; for m the dreffing and management of 
Tin by ftamping, &c. there are two forts of black Tin to be 
cybtained, viz. the crop and rough, or the crop and leavings of 
Tin. The firft is the prime Tin, immediately feparable from 
the bafer parts by its fuperior weight and richnefs ; the latter 
is that which is carried off, and mixed with the lighter earthy 
parts, by its being under fize, and therefore more fufceptible 
of the force and impreffion of a determinate ftream of water. 
Such Tin being compofed of the moft flimy moleculae, as well 
as of the larger rough grains, which get through the greater 
lized holes of the ftamping-milt grate, have very little Tin in 
them, and muft therefore undergo another treatment to get out 
and clcanfe the Tin. This being called the leavings, muft 
be accounted for and valued in addition to the crop Tin, in 
proportion to the denfe or lax confiftence of the Tin-ftufF and 
the fpetifick granules or minutiss of the Tin Ore in the ftone. 
All this depends upon the experienced judgment of the Tin- 
drefler ; and it is fo difficult and various a fubjed, that a man 
fimply a theorift in the matter, cannot lay down a certain rule 
OH which another can abfblutely depend. The cuftomary valu- 
ation is, byfetting a price upon the leavings of this or that 
Tin-ftuff, according to fo mtich the tcft hundred weight or 

thoufand 



CALCININ(5, AND DRESSIKG Xm-^Of^F. atg 

thouiand k make& ia'crop Tto, from 6% ikiUings to five 
pounds ^ thousand fbrtheioaurtngs^ Hesoe it follows, that the 
leavings of fome Tin-ftuff will nxoie than pay the teturning 
charges ; but whenever the leavitsgs are rich enough to pa); thofe 
incumbrances, they pcooounce fiich Tia-ftuff to be " Tio in the 
" Bal ;'* that is,, to be worth four, five, or fix hundred o^ 
white Tia ^ hundred facka by the Vati> 6:ee of all cofta and 
charges, which the leavings will exonerate^ 

All things being well coafidcred, we ttMiy conclude, by trying 
the fample, how to fizc a parcel of Tin-ftuff by fuiting it with 
a grate or holed plate, adapted to the natural grain of the Tin, 
which is one of the principal articles in drei&ng ; but of this 
m. its place. Mean, while let us obferve that the drefllngs of 
Tin in its prefent improved ftate> has been very lately invented ; 
for by Mr. Carew's account, no longer back than one hundred 
and eighty years, in queen Elizabeth's reign, the manner ot 
drcffing was exceeding flovenly ; and I am very fure, notwith- 
ftanding our prefent advance, we are yet at fome diftance from 
pcrfeddon in that art. He fays, " As much almoft dooth it 
exceede credite, that the Tynne, for and iii fo finall quantitie 
digged up with fo great toyle, and pafUng afterwards thorow 
the managing of fo many hands, e're it come to fale, ihould 
'< be any way able to acquite the cofl ; for being once brought 
*' above-ground in the ftone, it is firft broken in pieces with 
*< hammers ; and then carried, either in waynes, or on horfes 
<< backs, to a ftamping«mill, where three, and in fome places 
*< fixe great logges of timber, bounde at the ends with Iron» 
** and lifted up and downe by a wheelc, drivea with the 
'* water, doe break it fmallcr. 

" The ftreame, after it hath foriaken the mill, is made to 

" fall by certainne degrees, one fomewhat diftant from another ; 

*< upon each of which, at every difcent, lyeth a green turfe, 

<< three or four foot fquare, and one foot thicke. On this the 

*< Tynner layeth a certayne portion of the fandie Tynne, and 

<< with his (hovel foftly tofTeth the fame to and fro, that, thro 

" this ilirring, the water which runneth over it, may wafli 

" away the light earth from the Tynne, which of a heavier 

« fubftance lyeth faft on the turfe. Having fo cleanfed one 

« portion, he fetteth the fame afide, and b^nneth with 

'< another, untill his labour take end with his t^e. After it 

*< is thus wafhed they put the remnant into a wooden diihy 

broad, fiat, and roimd, being about two feet over, and 






C( 



u 

Ci 

a 
a 

a 

€i 
iC 

a 



220 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

" having two handles faftened at the fides, by which tliey foftly 
'* fliogge the fame to and fro in the water between their legges, 
as they fet over it, untill whatfoever of the earthie fubftance 
that was left, be flited away. Some of later time, with a 
fleightcr invention, and lighter labour, doe caufe certayne 
boyes to ftir it up and down with their feete, which worketh 
the fame effect : the refidue, after this often cleanfing, they 
calle Black Tynne. But fithence I gathered flicks to the 
buildinge of this poor nefl. Sir Francis Godolphin enter- 
tained a Dutch Mynerall-man, and taking light from his 
experience, but building thereon far more profitable conclu- 
fions of his owne inventions, hath pradifed a more faving 
way in thefe matters, and befides, made Tynne with good 
profit of that refufe which Tynners rejefted as nothing 
*' worthe." Thus far Mr. Carcw. 

iSeeing that a drefTer's judgment is required in the choice of a 
grate, I begin with a defcription of that firfl and neceffary part 
of a flamping mill, which is a thin plate of Iron one-tenth of 
an inch thick, and twelve inches long by ten wide. The mid- 
dle of this, from eight inches and an half by feven inches, is 
punched full of holes from the diameter of a fmall pin, to that 
of a large reed ; for the larger the Tin cryflals inclofing the 
Metal are, fo much the more capacious mufi be the holes, and 
vice verfl. This holed plate, commonly named the Grate (I 
prefume from the cuflom formerly of difcharging their flamped 
Tin through grates or iron bars) is nailed on the infide of 
the frame, at Y,, plate V, near the bottom where the flamp 
heads pound the Ore. The Tin-flufF being depofited on the 
floor, at C, called .the Garden of the Pafs, from thence it 
flides by its own weight, the motion of the flamps tackle, and 
the afliflance of a fmall rill of water, D, into the box at Y ; 
there by the lifters a, b, c, falling on it, after being raifed by 
the axle-tree, d, which is turned round by the water wheel, B, 
it is pounded or flamped fmall. The lifters are three to each 
flamps, made of afh timber, fix by feven inches fquare, and 
about nine or ten feet long. They are armed at the bottom 
with large maffes of Iron called Stamp-Heads, of one hundred 
and forty pounds weight in each, or more : thefe are lifted up, 
and let fall, between two upright parallel planks of oak timber, 
by wooden knobs or teeth, called Caps, nxed in the barrel of 
the axletree at proper diflances, and in number proportioned to 
the circumference of the axis, which goes round by the power 
of the water wheel. Thofe caps in their round, take up pieces 

of 



CALCINING, AND DRESSING TIN-STUFF. 221 

of wood called Tongues, about fix inches proje<fting from each 
lifter, which are fixed one in every lifter at a proper place, fo 
that each cap from the barrel of the axle comes under the 
tcMigucs, and lifts them up, one after another, in a uniform 
rotation. Each lifter with its iron head falling upon the Tin- 
ftufF, bruifes it down fo fmall, that it is all difchargcd throu^ 
the little holes of the grate. The hinder head lifts firft ; that 
falling, forces the Tin-fluff under the fecond ; the fecond fal- 
ling, forces it to the third ; that falling, forces it on to the 
fmall holes in the grate, from whence it is conveyed by the 
fame rill of water before mentioned (which likewife ferves to 
keep the Ore wet, and the flamp heads cool) through a fmall 
gutter, e, into the pit, F, where it makes its firfl pure fettle- 
ment ; for the rough metallick part lies at the head, while the 
loomy part or flime is carried back by the water, to the hinder 
part, G. Adjoining to this pit is another large refervoir, H, 
where the flime leavings coming from the firft pit, are finally 
depofited ; the remainder which flows over into the river, being 
reckoned good for nothing. 

When the firft pit, F, is full, they throw it up, carefully 
feparating the good from the bad ; or in two parts, the head 
and the tail, according to the difcretion of the drefler. Then 
they carry it to the buddlc, I, a pit feven feet long, two and a 
half wide, and two feet deep. The dreffer, or a ftout boy, 
Handing in the buddle at I, fpreads the pulverized Ore upon 
an inclined plane at K, called the head or Jagging board of the 
buddle, by a fhovel full at a time, in fmall ridges parallel to the 
run of the water, which enters the buddle at L, and falling 
equally over the crofs bar M, wafhes the lighter parts from the 
ridges, which are moved to the right and left with a fhovel till 
the water, permeating every part feparates the better from the 
worfe ; the dreffer in the mean time lightly fcraping his. naked 
foot acrofs the Tin in ththody of the buddle, which raifes the 
light wafte, in order to' its being carried back by the water 
whilft the Tin remains clean in the head or fore part of the 
buddle. When the buddle is filled iii this mariner, if; the Tin 
is of a moderate value it is forted into three divifions ; that next 
the jagging board, K, at g, is thepiireft, and called the head 
or crop, which is faved by itfelf ; the middle, at h^ is next in 
degree, being named the middle head,: but mote xx)mmonly .the 
Creafe ; and that, at i, being moft impure, jis.'by fome called 
the Hind-Creafe, which is thrown b^nd the buddle for leav- 
ings, and thence called by fome the Tails. . If .need be, . the 

L 1 I Vbsa.^ 



222 . OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

head of the huddle is huddled over again, and Co is the creafe, 
till it is brought to equal purity with the fore part or head. 
Thefe buddlings are repeated, till the quantity defired, to a 
certain flandard of purity, is brought about, as they term it, or 
freed from its wafte, which is thrown afide with the tails, and 
hind-creafes, for leavings. 

It is then carried to a large vat called a Keeve, about one- 
third filled with water, where the dreffer ftirs round the water 
with a fhovel, while another puts in the Tin by a fliovel full at 
a time, letting it fall down into the water by little and little at 
the fide of the keeve, wherein it is continually tozed (toffed) 
or ftirred by the dreffer with his fhovel, till the keeve is almofl 
filled. By this method the fmall wafte that remains among the 
Tin fwims about in the water. When the tofling is at an end, 
a boy or two with mallets employ themfclves for a quarter of an 
hour beating the fides of the keeve, near the top (which they 
call packing) till the whole is fettled hard, according to the 
different gravities of its component parts; when the water is 
poured off from the furface of the Tin, and the light wafte 
upon it is fkimmed df and laid by itfelf, to be huddled over 
again by the name of the Skimpings. The Tin is then fiftcd 
through a capper bottom fieve, into another keeve of water, by. 
which the g^velly wafte, whofe pondcrofity funk it equally 
with the Tin Ore in packing, is feparated from the cleaa Tin ; 
the Tin that runs through the copper or brafs bottom fieve, if 
it does not require to be buddled again, may be made cleaa by 
rejieatedly tofling and packing it as before. If it is neceftary to 
buddle the Till over ^ain, after it is fifted (which is the beft 
method for c)eanfing moft forts of Tin, for there may lie a 
rough wafte, that will not come off by toiling and packing) 
then buddle it over again, and fave it*in three parts, viz. the 
crc^,. . the crea^ and the tail. The crop is to be cleanfed by 
tetSing, &c. and the cveafe muft be buddled again, out of which 
muft be laved a& much as will clean& by tofting and pa^cking. 

The Tcamnda muft be ckanied by an opeiation called 
DtUeuing, froisii Dillei^h, to let go, let fly, fend away. A 
dilleugher is s large fiiie h^ir £eve, which the dre£fer holds in a 
keeve one-third full of wateif, whib an a£iflant throws a fhovel 
SdiXi or twia at a time into the dilleugher, which the dreffer 
fhakes to and Froi, and, by his dexterity^ turns round the watef 
in the dillciighsr, till alLthe Tin that is ia it i^ in motion. He 
tKdn.dipi one ;fide of the dilbngher uiider water and laifes it 
i>v' again. 



CALCINING^ AND BRESSIira: rriN-STUEF. ^2$ 

again, letting the water run over the other fidc^ cither flow: oc 
fail according to his judgment of the* nature of the Tin 4iid 
waftc : the latter will run or fly over, and is called dilleughiog 
fmalls or pit- works, which muft be laid a£tie, to mix with the 
ikimpings, to make the famples of a low value, called the rough 
(or row) Tin. But there is another operation upon this rough 
Tin to gain as much out of it as poffible^ to mix vrith the crop^ 
which manoeuvre they term " drawing the row Tin in the 
** huddle," viz. by putting the quantity of a fmall tub full in 
the bottom of the huddle, on one fide forth againfl: its breaft ; 
then with a pretty ftrong rill of water, moftly turned the other 
iide of the huddle, they draw it with a fhovel by little and little 
from one. fide to the other, where the water runs. By the force 
of the rill, the rougheft and poocefl: of the row is carried back, 
while the beft ftands forth. This muft be repeated, • till it is 
cleanfed from the rough gravelly parts, which may be known 
by vanning of it on a fhovel : which done, they dilleugh it 
again, till it is fit to mix with the crop Tin. 

The .rough that is carried badi with the ftream, by drawing 
it over again, may be ren<{ered merchantable at a kwver rate 
than the crop ; and the rough of this roughly is thrown afide to 
make leavings. The pit- works and flcinipings mufl be ibparately 
huddled, tofled,^ ^nd. packed again^ till they are quite ckah, 
and the rcfiduc put by for leavings. Thua every part is kept 
feparate to make it clean ; fisfi: the head, next the creaie, then 
the fkimpings and pLt^works,.^ when all atre mixeid together for 
the finelting-houfc, there ta he bartered fijr white Tin, except- 
ing a finall proportion of .mW(ot an inferior &mp^ which if 
naixed with the xarop would fpoil' the wHolc 

A p^rfbn that is :^noraht of cleanfii^ Xin Ore^ may falely 
undertake) to pronOunce, whether a babch car parcel o^ black 
Tin is well purified or not,' bf plimging' his wet hand into it ; 
for if there is. anj waile in theTia it.wiU ftick to his hand ; 
otherwife' his hand may be dta^wn without any thmg adhenng to 
.it, except fbme few evident Tin giains iathe lines of hi9pah»h: 
confeqvently, if a wafte is; tha& idfihle in. la fi:w- pbJKtss'of eoti- 
tad, then certainly muft the wafte be very-gieat and prejudicial 
in the whole batch. •> - -. • v.;; 

• ..-. ■■ •.' • . • .- .h\. • . : .-. .; .. .:• .. 

From the defcription of drefEng clean' work, we mufl: pi^ 
ceed, in couxfe, t& give a» acttoont of drefling Tinki^u:^ t^at 
is corrupted with Copper, Lcai^ MaiwKcki Blacfc-Jack, astd 



224 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

other Semi-Metals J for fomctimes we meet with all thefe forts 
6f Minerals intimately blended in one and the fame ftone of Tin 
Ore ; which being Ipccifically heavier than the Tin, whatever 
Tin-ftuff is incorporated with thefe muft be burnt to evaporate 
the fulphur, arfenick, &c. after it is firft ftamped, drefTed, 
and cleanfed from its earthy fordesj in the manner before de- 
fcribed, in order to make it fit for calcination in the furnace, 
called a burning-houfe. 

A burning-houfe much refembles a fmelting-furnace, but not 
in every particular. The furnace is built without doors, at one 
end of the houfe, where the chimney is raifed to carry off the 
fmoke and fublimate of the calcined Minerals. The houfe ferves 
no other purpofe than that of a covering for the man who rakes 
the calcining Ores, and the preservation of fbme few tools that 
would be unfafe out of doors. 

The foundation of the furnace is built of hewn moorftone 
about four feet and a half high, on which the bed or bottom of 
the furnace is laid. Under the bottom, a little towards the 
houfe where the man (lands to juke the Tm, is left a hollow 
place for holding the Tin after it is burnt, which they call the 
Oven, that will contain about fixteen or twenty Winchefter 
buihels, with an opening on that fide next the ilamps plot, in 
jfhape and fize much like a finall chamber chimney, in order to 
come at and take out the calcined Tin,, which is let down 
through, an orifice in the- bottom^ of the furnace adjoining to the 
houfe. Except at this orifice,, the oven is arched over to lay 
part of the furnace bottom upon. The top, bottom, and 
hewns (fides) of the calciner were formerly made of moorftone 
wrought very fine ; but brick is now moftly ufed, it being more 
durable for fire work than ftone. The length of the calciner is 
generally about nine feet, and the width five in the belly or 
middle, gradually decreafing towards the dbimney or houfe to 
fixteen inches, and towards the grate or fire place to three feet, 
which is at the further end diredly oppofite. to the houfe and 
chimney. The hewns, or fides^ '■ are about ten inches high ; 
upon which is turned a flat arch or covering, which includes the 
fire place alfo. This grate or fire place is about ten inches wide, 
and three feet long ; at the fide of which, .between it and the 
furnace, is a brick thick partition or bridge three inches high, 
to prevent the Tin from mixing with the coal. Over this bridge 
the fire conftantly reverberates upon the matter in calcination, 
while the fmoke and fulphur afcend the chimney at the houfe«- 

end 



CALCINING, AND DRESSING TIN-STUFF. 225 

end oppofite the fire place. Upon the tpp of the arch or back 
of the calciner, is made a fquare hollow place called a Vate or 
Dry, fufEcient to contain a ferving or hand barrow full of Tin, 
which acquires heat enough to dry it ready for calcination in 
the furnace below, where it is conveyed through a fmall hole in 
the bottom of the vate. 

A calciner of thefe dimenfions, will confume three Winchefter 
bufhels of coal to every ferving, if the Tin is greatly corrupted 
with a ftubborn brood, but moft commonly half the quantity, 
or lefs, will do ; alfo fome forts of Tin, that are very fulphur- 
eous, will yield a flame for feveral hours, and greatly help their 
own ignition to the faving of fuel in the operation. As for the 
time of making a complete calcination of a ferving or laying of 
Tin, it cannot be limited till a trial is made ; for if it is not 
very foul, it may be burnt in fix hours, and fo on the contrary 
from that to twenty-four hours, according as it is more or lefs 
corrupted ; efpecially if there be Copper in it, when it will 
require a longer time to weaken and deaden the Copper as they 
pretend, otherwife it will not cleanfe fo well in the future 
dreffing ; that is to fay, the ignition muft be flrong, uniform, 
and conftant, to render the Cbpper a light wafle to wafh ofF 
from the Tin, which by the ftrongeft calcination ufed here,; 
lofes very little of its firft ponderofity. 

When the fire is up, and the firfi ferving of Tin in the vate 
is dry, the dreffer lets it down into the furnace through the hole 
at bottom, where he levels.it with his rake through an opening 
twelve inches fquare, made under the chimney in the houfe. 
After it is all down, he flops the hole in the vate with clay,, and 
carries another ferving into it in readinefs for the next layer. 
The Tin in the calciner mufl refl for fome time before it is 
turned, that it mky be quite hot ;. otherwife if it be flirred -be- 
fore ignition it will efFervefce and fly up the chimney ; but when 
it is ignited, and ready forturning, the drefTer rakes it backwards 
and forwards alternately, moving that which is furthefl from the 
fire near to it, and that which is clofe by the grate further ofF. 
This mufl: be repeated over again^ at due intervals of perhaps 
every hour, or more frequently if the nature of the Tin requires- 
it. But in either cafe, a flrong heat fhould be kept upi,^;and * 
the fire not let to flacken, till the Tin is fully calcined ; which 
may be known by the dead weight of . the Tin againft the rake, 
by its having exchanged its fiery red hdt appearance fbr a black 
one, and its yielding little or no arfeoicaLfiiiokd ; upoia fli^rin^. 

M m la "t>os. 



226 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

Tlic Tin aftjer it has been fufficiently burnt is let down into the 
oven before mentioned, and from thence is drawn out and fifted 
in a keeve, through the biafs or copper bottom fievc ; whence 
it is removed to the huddle, and undergoes all the feveral lotion^ 
of huddling, tolling, packing, &c. till it is quite clean for 
fmelting. 

Let us now advert to the dreffing of leavings of Tin. Lea- 
vings confift of flime and tails ; that is, of Tin mud and Tin 
gravel, which a Lappier^ or dreffer upon tribute, will commonly 
undertake to bring about for the mafter Tinner, for one-third 
part of the produce to pay his charges ; or, in other words, the 
former will account to the latter, for two-thirds of the produce 
in white Tin, free and clear of all trouble and expence. The 
tails I have (hewn before are in abfolute bulk, produced from 
the hinder or tail part of the buddies ; from whence they derive 
their name of tails: The flime being compounded of the fmall 
and lighter parts of the Ore intimately mixed with a greater 
quantity of earth and ftones, bruifcd to duft by the mill, is- 
noated on to the flime pit H, which is emptied, as occaiion re- 
quires, on one flde, into another flime pit called a Hutch, till 
it accumulates to a great heap, where the water leaks away and 
leaves it dry, expofed to the fun and air, which do not a little 
contribute to its better working when it comes to be drefled ; 
for this we find every day by experience, that the longer the 
flime is left before it is dreflfed, the more profit it yields, 
and the purer the Tin : from whence fome have concluded, that 
Tin in the ftate of fludge or flime, by length of time, muft 
grow and increafe. It muft, however, be confefled, that the 
fim and air ad as menftrua upon the flime, by confuming or 
rather diflblving the Poder, that is, the Mundick, particles of 
Copper, and other trafli, not fo denfe and compad as the Tin, 
which comes out the cleaner and with greater eafe by fuch info- 
lation and expofure. Therefore, when the water is (ufficiently 
ibaked out of the flime hutch, it is removed further off to a large 
plot of ground near the veflels deflined for its future lavations, 
where it is fpread and expofed to the weather that it may 
mouldo- and decay the fafler. Then it is digged and broken 
to pieces with a bidax, or hedging tool, when it is trunked and 
framed, thus : 

A trunk O, is a pit lined with boards ten feet long, three 
wide, and nine inches deep. At the higher end is a circular 
pit C^ called the Sfrkk or Stpcp, large enough to contain four 

hand 



CALCINING, AND DRESSING TIN-STUFF. 227 

hand barrows full of flime:, where it mixes with a little rill of 
water that floats it down into the femi-circular pit P called the 
Head or Pednan, wherein a boy treloobs or ftirs the flimy water 
round about with a fmall {hovel, that the water may warn away 
both the filth and Tin over a crofs board ten inches deep at the 
lower part of the pednan : the board is ibmewhat lower in the 
middle than at each end, for admitting the watery mixture with 
more eafe into the body of the trunk O, R, R : that which refts 
in the fore part of the trunk at O o, is carried off to be framed, 
arid the fettlement at R, R, is moved forwards to P, to be 
trunked over again before it is fit for the frame : the rough 
grains lie at the bottom of the ilrek, whence it is removed for 
namping, and the mofl light and fmall ilime paffes the bottom 
or lower end of the trunk into a pit, where it fettles and ac- 
quires the name of Loobs. 

The frame or rack T W, confifts of two inclined planes of 
timber ; the body W, the head T. The frame is an oblong 
fquare eight feet by five, with fides four inches high, all joined 
clofely, that nothing may efcape but at the extremity or lower 
end. At the middle of the two ends are fixed two round pro^ 
jeding irons called Melliers, by which the frame hangs and 
turns as it were on an axis, upon two upright pieces of timber 
one at each end, whereby the frame may be fwung up and 
down, perpendicular to the horizon. The head T, is two 
boards wide, and in length parallel to the breadth of the frame. 
To the bottom of this is joined a water head, or board, feven 
inches high ; to which is hung, by hinges, a flight piece of 
board fix inches wide, and the length of the head, called the 
Lap, or Lippet, whofe ufe is to convey the water and Tin 
equally down upon the frame. Underneath the fore part of the 
frame, is fixed a little tray or chefl three feet long, called the 
K6fer, and another at its lower end called the Hind-K6fer. 

The water failing in a gentle manner from S upon the head 
T, wafhes the Ore, wl^ch there offers itfelf (as at the buddle) 
in little ridges, downwards over the lippet, upon the body of 
the frame W. On this frame the water is fpread fo thin, and 
runs (o fiowly, (the plane being very little inclined) that by 
moving the flimy Tin to and fi-o with a light hand, and expofing 
it cautioiifiy to the water by a finall femi-circular toothlefs rake, 
all die fordes are wafhed away, and the Tin though ever Co 
fmsdl, remains on the fnune near the head. When the Tin is 
f<mnd i^sfficiently clean, the body of the frame beinjg hun.*^ <sBk 



228 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

Aielliers, as I have faid before (by flipping the ftake underneath, 
which fupports it) is turned eafily from horizontal to perpendi- 
cular ; and the Tin which remains on the frame runs off, by 
the afliftance of a little fprinkling, in two degrees .of purity, 
into the fore and hind k6fers. The frame is then righted into 
its horizontal pofitions, and the procefs repeated till the kofers 
are full. The fmaller llime, which runs off the lower end of 
the frame, is yet preferved in a pit by the name of Catchers, 
and makes a part of the loobs or leavings of leavings, to be 
worked over again at a future time. The contents of the fore 
k6fer is then fifted through a fine hair fieve or copper bottom, 
into a keeve with water in it, to feparate the gravel, chips, or 
any other accidental mixture from it. Then it is huddled and 
faved in different portions, like crop Tin ; as well undergoing 
the feveral operations of tofling, packing, fkimping, dillhuing, 
&c. After all, if the Tin is very fmall, it is carried to the frame 
again, and reframed or cazed, as they term it ; which is per- 
formed, by floping the lower end of the frame with mud and 
turf, that the water may be almoft ftill, and the Tin more eafily 
fettle upon the frame, and defcend the more furely into the 
kofer : the fore k6fer is then emptied the fecond time, the Tin 
carried to the keeve again, there tofTed, packed, fkimmed, &c. 
and thus the flimcs are finifhed, and brought to as great a de- 
gree of purity, as the fize of the Tin will permit, which being 
exceeding fmall, will necefTarily have fomewhat more of wafte, 
than what is larger and heavier. 

The great pile of tails behind the buddies, are commonly 
wafhed down into the trunk below, by a pretty ftrong current 
of water, which may be rendered more or lefs forcible by an 
alteration of its fall, to divide the rough from the fmall, by 
treJoobing them in the femi-circular k6fer of the trunk with a 
fhovel. The fmall that flafhes over into the trunk, is defigned 
for framing, and fo divided into two parts, the fore, and the 
hind k6fer. The latter muft be tofTed and framed again ; but 
if the fore kofer is pretty good, it may be tofTed and packed, 
the fkimpings of which mufl be cazed in the huddle, that is, 
one perfon buddies it ias ufual, but with a very fmall flow flream 
of water, while another with a few quils fixed on the end of a 
pole, . lightly fwecps the buddle acrofs from fide to fide, begin- 
;ung at the bottom, and fo proceeding forward every flroke, 
jEill.Jie comes to the b!reafl of the buddle, when he returns in 
Uk^; manin^ progreifively to the end or tail. By this method it 
.'19- made fit for cleanfing in the keeve, &c. and the hind part, 

that 



CALCINING, AND DRESSING TIN-STUFF. 229 

that is not fit for toiling, &;c. muil be framed again, and pro- 
ceeded with in the former manner. 

Mean time, all tails that are taken from the bottom of the 
trunk head or pednan, together with the roughs (or rows) that 
come from the ilime, or from the toflings of the hind and fore 
kofers, that are not of a proper fize, muft be ilamped over 
again, and dreffed in the manner before mentioned for bringing 
about the crop Tin or bal work. But in the damping them, 
care muft be taken to fuit them with a proper grate and fmall 
weight of tackle, or worn old ftamp-heads ; otherwife they may 
be ftamped under fize, and choak the grate, which they call 
being dumbed ; to prevent which, they mix with them a fmall 
quantity of Goflan or poor Tin-ftufF, to cut and jagg them up, 
elfe the ftamp-heads would mudify them too much to pafs the 
grate holes as freely as they ought ; nay I have known common 
Quartz ufed for this purpofe, entirely deftitute of Tin. If there 
be a corrupt brood in the leavings Tin, fo as to damage its 
value two parts in twenty,* it muft be burned in the manner 
before dire^ed, but with a lefs violent fire, and then dreffed 
again from its calcined impurities : the calcination of leavings 
Tin fliould, however, be always avoided if pofiible, becaufe 
it is fo fine, like floran Tin, that it will, by its fized levity, 
be elevated and carried off, together with the arfenick and 
fulphur. 

The modes of drefilng Tin and its leavings, are too various 
to lay before the reader, without danger of prolixity : all of 
them depend upon the difference of the kinds of Tin in the 
ftone, and muft be dealt with, agreeable to the judgment of 
feveral manufadurers. So much depends upon the fkill of a 
dreffer, that one may fave one-twelfth part of a batch of Tin, 
which another for want of equal knowledge may caft away in 
wafte, or perhaps take up fo much wafte with it, as to depre- 
ciate the value of the whole by two parts in twenty. Never- 
thelefs, all dreffers fave the hinder ftuff from the frame end, as 
it wafhes off in a pit by the name of Catchers, which is expref- 
five enough ; and likewife the mud at the trunk ends, by the 
other name of Loobs, both of which arc denominated the Loobs, 
after leavings, or leavings of leavings. Thefe are wrought over 
in the fame manner as the former, moftly upon tribute, by an 
aged workman and a few little boys in the fummer months, 
when they can ftand out in good weather, and do a long day's 
cafy labour. The tribute paid by the undertaker is one-th«:d 

' N n n ^ 



230 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, 

of the produce in white Tin ; the other two-thirds he has for 
himfelf to pay his coft and charges. 

Proceeding upon this fingle principle, that the force of water, 
properly applied and introduced among the particles of Tin Ore 
arid the fordes mixed with it, will difperfe the latter and leave 
the former at reft for them to colled and treafure up, they vary 
their operations inconceivably, conducing them with great in-> 
genuity, leffening, encreafing, diffuiing, or contrading their 
water, the great inftrument of purity, as the fize, weight, and 
combinations of the Metal and its feeders require ; and that 
with great eafe, cheapnefs, and regularity, throughout the 
feveral proceffes. 

Hence, this bufinefs of drefling is a particular trade, entirely 
different from that of the labouring Miner j and is beft learned 
under a mafter workman, who makes it his fole occupation to 
follow the ftamping mill and the works belonging thereto. 
• This mafter workman hires boys from feven years old to eighteen, 
gives the former about three {hillings a month, and raifea their 
wages as they advance in years and workmanfhip, till they have 
man's wages, viz. at the leaft twenty-four millings, at the 
higheft thirty (hillings ^ month. This is of double benefit to 
the poor parents ; and the boys being taken in fo young, become 
healthy and hardy by uling themfelves to cold, and to work 
with naked wet feet all day ; and they learn early to contribute 
to their own maintenance. Each ftamping mill which has 
conftant work and water, will employ one man and five boys ; 
and one hundred facks are carried, ftamped, and dreffed, in the 
fpace of a few days, at the average rate of about fourpence ^ 
fack, or one guinea and a half ^ hundred. 

We {hall here obferve, that even burnt leavings of Tin are 
often confiderably valuable, efpecially if they are cupreous ; 
and even the pooreft of thefe leavings bring ten or twenty {hillings 
^ ton ; which is better than to throw them away, as was the 
cafe no further back than forty years. All burnt leavings taken 
from Tin-ftuff, till the year 1735, were efteemed good for 
nothing. But in that year there were feveral fmall parcels lying 
on fundry ftamps plots in this parish, which induced Mr. Morgan 
Bevan, an old experienced aiOayer, to try whether he could 
reduce them into Metal. For the firft time he affayed a fample 
e£ three tons ; and, to his own great furprife, as well as that of 
others, he £ound that he could give feven pounds four {hillings 

and 



CALCINING, AND DRESSING TIN-STUFF. 23 1 

and fixpence ^ ton for them, which he adually did, and 
prefently after bought feveral parcels more of Meffrs. Carter, 
Reynolds, Penrofe, Cornifh, &c. the principal Tin dreflers of 
thofe days. From that time all burnt leavings were taken 
much care of, provided they were fufficiently impregnated with 
Copper ; for fome of them are merely Mundick, with little or 
no Copper in them. When the Brafs-wire Company carried on 
the great Tin Mine, of Chacewater, before this difcovery they 
caft away fome hundred tons of burnt leavings, to their great 
prejudice ; but fince that time there have been large quantities 
fold from the fame Mine. 

The very water in which burnt Tin is wafhcd, may be con- 
verted to a ufeful and profitable account, either by evaporation 
to a pellicle for cryftallization of Copper, commonly called 
Blue or Roman Vitriol ; or for the precipitation of Copper by 
the medium of Iron, laid in veflels filled with this vitriolick 
water. The precipitation of Copper by Iron, is too generally 
underftood to make an explanation neceffary here ; but we have 
obferved among our Copper precipitate, where it has been 
efFe<9:ed by a very ftrong folution with the cleanefl Iron, feveral 
pieces of malleable Copper, fome of them retaining the form of 
the Iron, like incruflations fallen off from it. Hence it feems 
as if there was a degree of attradion between the Iron and the 
particles of Copper, floating in the water ; as well as the more 
obvious attradtion between the acid and the Iron. Mufl not 
the particles of Copper thus attraded, cohere by their own 
magnetifm, or the attradion of cohefion ? 

It may not be improper to add how far this quality has 
already tended or may tend to the advantage of the publick. 
Perhaps the hiftory of its rife and progrefs in this country, and 
in Ireland, may ferve to illuitrate that matter. About fixty 
years ago, this phenomenon was firfl obferved by Mr. Cofler in 
Chacewater Mine near this town ; for after he had drawn ouf 
the water, which had been in the Mine for feveral years, he 
found the poll of a pick-axe wholly encrufted with a cafe of 
malleable Copper between two and three pounds weight. This 
it was juftly fuppofed was obferved by the workmen, fome of 
whom afterwards fettled at Cranbaun Mine in the county of 
Wicklow in Ireland. The water of Cranbaun having this 
vitriolick acid in a very high degree, Capt. Thomas Butler, 
who was one of Redruth, and manager of that Mine, perfuaded 
the proprietors to adopt the fckeme of precipitating Co^^t^ q.€ 



232 OF SAMPLING, VANNING, STAMPING, &c. 

which they have maJe for many years paft and now continue to 
make very conjfiderable profit. They dig pits at proper dif- 
tances in the Adit, (or fo near as to admit the water) in which 
pit they place wooden rails, fomewhat like a bottle rack, To as 
to fufpend the Iron thereon. They put in many tons at a time ; 
and, in about fix weeks, the Iron is totally difljjlved. The 
precipitated Copper is then taken out, fit for fale ; the greateft 
part in the form of our GofTan pounded, with feveral grains of 
pure Copper interfperfed. 

An attempt of this kind was fome years paft made in Huel- 
Crafty, but without fuccefs ; for the water being in one part of 
the Mine only, and in no greater quantity than would run 
through a quill, was too much diluted by other water mixing 
with it in the hutch where the Iron was placed ; befides, the 
Iron itfelf was very rufty which will always obftrud the fuccefs, 
unlefs the water is . in the higheft degree impregnated with the 
acid. A fmall and ready experiment proves this ; for take a 
bright piece of Iron, fuch as a key, or polifhed knife, and 
immerfe it in the water for half a minute, and it will be ftained 
of a Copper colour. Many Mines in this county have fome rills 
of this water, fo as to do confiderable mifchief, without having as 
yet (perhaps for want of proper attention) applied it to this ufe. 

But though we may date the firft hints relating to this matter 
in England and Ireland from the foregoing difcovery in Chace- 
water, it is no new thing in other countries. Brown mentions 
it in his travels into Hungary, as a profitable appendage to the 
Mining of that country. Dr. Rutty, in his Natural Hiftory 
of Dublin, fays, " Our water at Cranbaun in the county of 
Wicklow, may well vie with thofe of Herengrund and Ciment 
in Hungary. Of ours I received the following account in the 
year 1765 from a perfon converfant in thefe matters.'* 



n 
<c 



(< 
(< 

C( 

(( 
c< 
i( 
n 
<< 

(C 



" It is faid to tranfmute Iron into Copper ; but the fad is, 
that it precipitates its contained Copper upon Iron bars im- 
merfed. It continues in its full ftrength ; and, in feven years 
laft paft, yielded to its proprietors a fum no lefs than feven- 
teen thoufand two hundred and fifty-nine pounds eighteen 
{hillings and ninepence halfpenny, and all this without any 
expence of fuel and men. The precipitate thus formed being 
fluxed, yields above half of pure Copper : for an ounce gave 
twelve pennyweights and eighteen grains in one experiment, 
and thirteen pennyweights twelve grains in another." 

CHAP. 



C H A p. 11. 

Of Drefllng Copper and Lead Ores, and Sampling Copper 

Ores for Sale. 



WHOEVER Gonfiders the difliniilarity of Copper Lodes, 
in my chapter " on the different kinds of Lodes i^I 
** refpeft of the earth and ftones they contain," will foon per- 
ceive, that there can be no uniform inethod for dreffing their 
Ores : the hard and poor Ores require much bruifing, and 
many lotions, before they can be feparated clean, and made fit 
for fale, fuch as the hard Peach, Quartz, Killas, Mundick, 
and Black-jack ; but the more tender Peach, Pryan, Cryftal, 
Killas, Mundick, and Flookan Lodes, admit of lefs handling, 
lefs water, and of courfe are attended with lefs -expence in the 
dreffing, provided they are well given for Ore ; for it is one 
general maxim, that a judicious application of water, the prin- 
cipal feparator of them from their fordes, conftitutes the ^rft 
article of fkill in dreffing Copper Ores. 

The manner of dreffing and cleanfing Copper Ore, is partly 
like that of Tin ; but as good Copper is common!^ diig and 
raifed in large maffes, as little mixed with any thing clfe. as-pof- 
fible, a great part of it is folid Ore that needs no w'affiing. When 
it comes to grafs they make a fortment of thie larger ftoneS frdrti 
the fmaller, and fpal or break them to a lefs fize, ' thiTOWiiig 
afide the poorer part, which is afterwards to be fti-^k'ed iina 
waflied. But when Ore rifes plentifully, and with little Wafte^ 
it may perhaps be a lofs and detriment to wafh it; and, there- 
fore, if it comes moderately dry," a perfon near the Shaft wli^e 
it rifes, fifts it in a Griddle, or iron wire fieve, of one' ihich 
meafli or lefs. The part that runs through the griddle, if , not 
clean enough for fale, is waflied ; and it is feldom that grrd^ed 
or fmall Ore is fo pure and clean as hot to 'reqtiire wafhiiig. 
The poor and fmaller Ore is generally carried to the' ftr^ki 6t 
ftrakes, fometimes after being griddled, but oftnfer before, smlH 
as it comes out of the Mine. ' > .;>. .' 'f'^ 

The ftr^ke or ftrakes is made of two deal boards laid fkt'fdr a 
bottom fourteen inches in the ground, on ^inclined, planev 
with two fides formed of one deal -board each, rcfembUti^-a. 

O o o w-M^^s^ 



234 OF DRESSING COPPER AND LEAD ORES, 

narrow fliallow cheft without a cover. In this runs a pretty 
quick ftream of water. One perfon throw? the foul Ore into 
the ftr^ke, while another moves and tofles it with a fliovel in the 
flream, by whith means the flimy earthy parts are carried by 
the water into a flime pit juft below ; and the ftoay Qoa/tk 
poorer part fettles in great meafure on the tail or lower end of 
the boards, which at times is divided, and caft afide to be 
ftamped, as it contains fome Ore. The better Ore by its 
gravity, and a peculiar motion of the fliovel in ftirring it, refts 
at the head of the ftr^ke. But if there be much pure Muodick 
in it, this alfo fettles moftly near to the head of the ftream, . 
becaufe it is more ponderous than moft forts of Copper Ore ; 
and it is feparated and laid by itfelf. Moreover, the largeft 
ftones, either of Ore or waftc, rife uppermoft by the motion of 
the fliovel ; thefe the drefler throws on one fide of the ftr^ke, 
where women and children fit to pick out the good ftones of 
Ore, and arc from thence called Pickers. The remainder is 
laid by to be Bucked, or broke fmaller with flat iron hammers 
made for that purpofe, if the Ore be worth this trouble j other* 
wife it is carried to be flamped. 

The picked Ore, which is rich and folid, is put to a number 
of girls called Cobbers, who break it on large ftones with flat 
polled hammers to the flze of a chefnut and lefs, and it is then 
called Cobbed Ore, being the £une as Knocking or Bing Ore in 
the Lead Mines. This requires no water, nor further drefling, 
being fit to mix for fale. The ftony Ore that is left by the 
pickers, which is called by fome Dredge Ore, from its being 
poor and fprinklcd as it were in the ftone, and alfo the little 
refufe which is feparated by the cobbers, are carried to the 
bucking-mill, which is fomething like a wooden coal fcuttle 
placed on a low hedge with a hard ftone at its lower narrow 
end, whereon a ftrong wench with her flat hammer or bucking 
iron break? thofe ftones, to the iize of fmall beans or peafe. 

From thence it is carried to the kieve or vat, where it is 
further cleanfed by an operation called Jibing ; which is by 
far the beft method, not only for thofe Ores which have under- 
«one a previous lavation, but alfo for all tender rich Ores, a$ 
they are immediately dug out of the Mine. 

Prqwu-atory to jigging, they fill the kievc half full of water, 
on the furface of which the jigger holds a coarfe wire fieve of 
two holes to the inch, while another perfoa throws the unclean 

Ore 



AND SAMPLING COPPER ORES FOR SALE. 2 3 5 

Ore into the Heve^ which the jigger dips into the water and 
ihakes twice or thrice until the unaller part falls through to the 
bottom of the kieve. What remains in the fieve, he referves by 
itfelf, till there is a quantity. This coarfer fize made by the 
fieve, is jigged pure and clean, if it be well given for Ore ; or 
elfe it is picked, and the refufe bucked over again, purfiiant to 
its richnefs or poverty, and the dreffers diredion and judgment. 
When the kieve is almoft full, they pour off the water, and 
take out th& fmall Ore, which perhaps they fort again after the 
fame manner in fieves with lefler holes. Being thus divided, 
they drefs each fort apart, in kieves half full of water with 
proper fieves, whofe holes are fmall enough to keep the Ore 
from running through. 

The jigging fieve made of brafs wire four or &ve holes to 
each fquare inch, and fometimes for fmall Ores feven or eight 
holes, is held by the jigger in the kieve, while a girl throws 
two or three fhoveU full of the Ore into it. The jigger dips 
and fhakes it a few times in the water, by a peculiar indefcrip* 
tive motion and tiu-ning of the hand, which makes the light 
wafte, fuch as Quartz and Killas-gravel, &c. rife uppermoft in 
the fieve, the Ore lying under it, and the Mundick (if in any 
quantity) under the Ore, each according to its fpecifick gravity. 
Now to feparate thefe, the jigger takes a fmall femi-circular 
piece of wood called a Limp, being the Ihape and fize of half 
the head of a quarter hundred powder barrel, with whicluhe 
fcums or rakes o^T the light r^fe or gravelly part, and throws 
it by, perhaps to be jigged over again. In like manner he 
fcums off the good Ore, and lays it afide for fale. LafUy he 
referves the remaining Mundick, until it comes to fbme quan- 
tity, in order to jigg it over again ; becau^ the firft operation 
may not be fufficient entirely to take out all the Ore, either 
from that or the light waftc tiat lay uppermoft. 

This refiifc part of the Ore is commonly ib light, being as I 
have juft faid, a Quartz; and Killas-gravel, d^t it may £>me- 
times be very properly put to the fb^ke, and wafhed in a pretty- 
quick flream of water, which will carry the wafle to the tail or 
hinder part of the flx^c, To as to be dmded from the good 
Ore, which lies at the head. Bat the flimy fine Ore, which 
falls through the fine fieves to the bottom of the kieve, is often 
cleanfed by the tye, which is the fame as the ftr^ke, but with 
an exceeding flow and finall ibeaai of water, cm:, which is much 

llkft 



^36 OF DRESSING COPPER AND LEAD ORES, 

like it, by huddling or framing, the fame as Tin Ore ; alfo by 
jigging it in a very fine clofe fieve like a dilluer. 

All this is varied and modified according to the difcernment 
of the dreffer : and though Ore cannot be perfeAly dreffed by 
.water fo as to be entirely clean, yet all Ore, except Tin-ftuff, 
is beft cleanfed by jigging, though it is the floweft way, and of 
confequence the moft coftly ; alfo the flimy earthy part is apt 
to lie among the laft or fmalleft Ore, more than in the other 
methods of drefling, and thereby depreciate its value : therefore 
I fuppofe the fine flimy part of it may be packed in kieves like 
black Tin ; but the dreffer's guide in this cafe, fliould be the 
tendernefs and value of the Ore. Here is not, . however, that 
wafte of Ore, that is made by the ftrakes, which is the reafon 
why the method of jigging ought to have the preference. 

As the foregoing is the moft general rule for drefling of 
Copper Ore that I can form, it would render my diflertatiori 
upon the fubjedt too prolix, minutely to defcribe the various 
methods of cleanfing different forts of Ore : I fliall, therefore, 
content jnyfelf with juft hinting the feveral diftin6b operations 
each fort feparately requires, and leave the regulation of them 
to thofe who are employed in the bufinefs. 

Common yellow Ore fliould be feparated at the Shaft fide, 
the rough from the finall, cither by griddle or ftr^ke. The 
folid Ore fliould be further difunited from the ftony part, by 
fpaling with fledges, or cobbing with hammers to a proper fize. 

Dredge Ore, which may be left from the above, or which 
may rife fo poor and difleminate in the ftone from the" Mine, as- 
to deferve that name, in the firft place, -fliould -be • fpaled, 
cobbed, and then bucked to a proper fize^to run through a 
fieve two holes to the inch, preparatory to its being jigged in a 
four or five hole fieve. The remainder fliould be waflied, and 
then put on a table of loofe deal boards, thjit the pickers may 
chufe the good from the bad, that the good, may be handled as 
the firft. The fmall, which runs through the four or five hole 
jigger, fliould be tyed in a fine fmall ftream of watery and thus 
by repetition be made, fit for fale. 

If, Copper and Tin Ore are mixed together, which is often 
the cafe, the latter being moftly the heavieft body, may be 
wholly faved in the fore part of the tye, by repeated eflays. 

But 



AND SAMPLING COPPER ORES FOR SALE. 237 

But if each Ore is of equal gravity, (and J apprehend fome poor- 
Tin Ore, which they call dry for Metal, may be lefs ponderous 
than Copper Ore) if the tye will not fepar^te them, they fhould 
be firft cleanfed from every other impurity, and then moderately, 
calcined in a burning-houfe. The Copper Ore Jbeing thus ren- 
dered light, will eafily feparate from the Tin, and both will be 
made faleable by huddle, kieye, . dilluecj &c. I am not certain 
whether all this may be too exp,enfive or not, efpecially when I 
recolle<9: that fome buyers .of Copper Ore may I prefer, it with 
fome Tin for fmelting to pot and belUmetal. 

Copper Ore that is charged with Mundick, may be-difunited, 
at the ftreke or by. jigging, provided the Mundick is hard and 
folid.; but if it is fmall and £ne like fand, jt mufl;,be feparated 
by the tye, buddle, . kieve, 69c. .• ;. 

If the infection is Black- Jack, care muft be taken in cobbing, 
and picking to divide them> as they are ;nearly of dne weight.^ 
Some have advifed calcination ; but they are alike ponderous 
after calcination ; and, therefore, water will equally float them 
away. Mock-Lead is not the worft brbqd in Copper Ore, 
efpecially for the ufe of the brafs founders, it being a Zinc Ore. 

Gray Ores are generally the hcjavieft of all, and are commonly 
infeded with Iron. They muft be drefled like the common 
Ores, by forting and fizing them, &c. ^ 

In the drefling of light pryany black Copper Ore, very little 
water is neceffary ; for the fmall fhould be fifted, and. put to 
pile from the Shaft fide ; and the remainder muft be cobbed, 
bucked, and jigged ; but if it is committed to a fmall ftream 
of water, the major and beft part of it will be carried away and 
loft by its fuperior levity and finenefs. 

The prime Ore being feparated and drefled by itfelf, the re- 
fufe goes by the names of Halvans and Hennaways ; and is 
generally drefled over again and again by ftr6ke, ftamps, &c, 
The halvans of halvans are moftly drefled by an undertaker for 
fo much in the pound fterling of the money they produce, ac- 
cording to the richnefs or poverty of the Ore, and the price ^ 
ton it will bring when ultimately drefled. No exad eftimation 
can be made of the value of a pile of Ore halvans ; the method 
of calculating, is by guefling how many, tons of Orie it will, 
make for every hundred facks of the pile. As for thofe halvans, 

P p p n^^svrSr. 



i38 OF DRESSING COPPER AND LEAD ORES, 

whofe contents are lefs than half a ton ^ hundred facks, it ig 
fcarce worth the trouble of returning and dreffii^ it, except the 
Ore is rich in quality, and will bring a good price ; much al(b 
depends in this cafe upon conveniencies, care, and expence 
more or lefs in carriage and water to drefs it, 

Halvans ftamped fmall, and then wafhed in a flr^ke with an 
eafy ftream of water, is termed Stampt Ore. But a finer (brt is 
ftill to be had from ,the (lime pit, which proceeds from the 
minute particles that glide away with the mud and water ; this 
fort will not bear a briJk ftream, therefore it ftill retains much 
dirt and mud> whence it is called Slime Ore. The rough part 
of ftampt Ore fhould be tyed in a ftream of water, and the 
hinder part of the tye jigged through a fix or feven hole fieve. 
If it is much adulterated with Tin, Lead, or Mundick, it muft 
be cleanfed by frequently tying or huddling of it. In order to 
clear the earthy fordes from the flime or loobs, it may be trunk- 
ed, and after purified by the huddle, kieve, dilluer, &c. the 
fame as flime Tin, if it is worth the expence. It muft alfo be 
noted, that Copper Ore requires a coarfer plate or ^ate in 
ftamping, than Tin does, becaufe it is of a lighter nature and 
more fleaky. 

I have heard of a poor fandy Copper Ore fomewhere in 
Wales, of the appearance c^ verdigreafe, which is fo light, that 
the cupreous part of it will not bear even the leaft ftream of 
water : they drefs it by grinding, dry ftamping, or bucking ; 
then put it into tubs or kieves, and tofs and pack it the fame as 
I have obferved of Tin : now the real Ore in it being without 
any fulphur, or much Metal, is fpecifically lighter than the 
wafte or fand ; therefore the Ore Iwims uppermoft, and is 
ikinmied off in the manner of Tin fkimpings. But I fuppoie 
thofe extreme light Ores are fo very poor, that none would be 
concerned with them, only in hopes of their improvement. 

It is worth notice, that Copper Ore may be too curioufly or 
too rcmiffly drefted, fo that either way the' adventurers may in- 
cur a lofs ; the ground of which is fometimes not fo well confi- 
dered as it deferves* If too much time and coft are expended 
in drefling the Ore, every one will grant it infers a lofs ; but 
on the other hand, if too much foul Ore is left in it, that will 
alfo be to the prejudice of the concerned. Every ton of wafte 
Ore cofts as much to be finelted as a ton of clean ; at leaft, the 
bvfer fubftrads as much for a ton of die one, as the other. 

Suppofe 



ANfD SAMPLING COPPER ORES FOR SALE. 839 

Suppo(e the buyer allows three pounds fterling for his charges of 
fmelting and Svorking a ton of Ore, and confequently the fame 
fum for each ton of wafte in the Ore, which in reality the 
fmelting cofts the buyer or refiner 5 and therefore he muft de- 
duS: fo much from the produce of the Ore ^ ton. This is the 
cafe in Cornwall ; but in other places, more diftant from the 
furnaces, in Ireland for inftance, the deduftion muft amount to 
more money, in proportion to the duty there on Ore, and alfo 
an overplus of freight, and if there be any other furplufage of 
coft, more than in Cornwall, as a longer carriage by land, and 
the like, all will operate to leffen the value of the Ore : but 
where fuch incidents are lefs than common, as a very fhort 
freight, or little charge in land carriage, then inftead of a de- 
dudion, there is room to make a further advance of the price. 

To illuftrate this cafe, fuppofe one hundred tons of Copper 
Ore, to be worth ten pounds ^ ton, the amount of which will 
be one thoufand pounds ; fuppofe alfo it has fo much earth or 
wafte in it, that it may be reduced to fifty tons, with a mo- 
derate charge in drefling, and with an inconfiderable lofs of the 
Ore ; then each ton will contain nearly the Copper which two 
tons did before : and whereas the buyer would have taken out 
fix pounds for the charges of carriage, freight, and fmelting of 
two tons, he will now dedu<9: but three pounds for thofe charges 
upon the fame Ore in one ton : fo that inftead of dedu<Sb[ng 
three hundred pounds on the one hundred tons of Ore, he will 
now dedud but one hundred and fifty pounds on fifty tons, 
whereby the adventurers will fave fo much of the other one 
hundred and fifty pounds, by how much the parcel of Ore will 
coft lefs for dremng and taking out the wafte ; for the fifty tons 
of Ore will now be worth twenty-three pounds 4^* ton, which 
will amount to eleven hundred and fifty pounds inftead of one 
thoufand. Yet if the Ore be light or rich, there may be more 
of it loft, than the ufelefs wafte carried off may compenfate. 

Again, if one hundred tons of wafte were mixed with the 
one hundred tons of Ore worth ten pounds ^ ton, then the 
buyer would make an addidonal abatement of three hundred 
pounds more for his charges upon the one hundred tons of wafte; 
fo that the whole amount of the Ore, would be but ieven hun- 
dred pounds, inftead of one thoufand pounds 5 for the Ore 
would be only worth three pounds ten (hillings ^ ton ; accord- 
ing to which, it is plain, that Ore may be too curioufly or too 
carcleflly drefted. For Ore rich in nature^ nvac^ b^ \stwa.^ss.xa 



240. OF DRESSING COPPER AND LEAD ORES, 

a great rate, and produce a large profit to the adventurers ; 
otherwife it may be fold to a great difadvantage, and without 
any gain, for want of being well handled : there are, however, 
feveral poor Ores, fo dry and barren by nature, that they are 
not capable of being- fo well conditioned, as to bring a good 
price. 

The conclufion I would draw from hence, is, that if a ton 
of wafte can be taken out of the Ore, for lefs than the charge 
of fmelting a ton (which I call three pounds here) and without 
any confiderable lofs of Ore, the adventurers fave money by 
dreffing it thus : but if the charges of taking out a ton of wafte 
arife to more than three pounds, then they lofe as much as the 
excefs of coft amounts to, together with the Ore wafhed away ; 
hence, mediocrity (hould always be obferved. 

The dreflers of Copper Ore often work for monthly wages, 
but then they do not always make the difpatch they ought ; 
therefore they more commonly agree with the adventurers at a 
certain or fixed price for every ton of drefled Ore ; but this 
makes it the dreffers intereft, to make the greateft number of 
tons that he can, fo that the adventurers may fuffer a lofs, for 
want of a true cleanfing the Ore. To prevent this inconveni- 
ence, the beft method is to fet the Ore to drefs in proportion to 
the price it brings ^ ton ; or in other words, to allow the 
drefler fo much in the pound fterling, according to the price 
the Ore will bring ; for this makes it his intereft, as well as the 
adventurers, to make the Ore as merchantable as he poftibly 
can : however, he ftiould be ftinted from throwing away too 
much Ore in the halvans, or be obliged to ftamp the halvans, 
and return their contents in Ore. 

There can be no ftated rule given for fetting Ores to drefs at 
a price, becaufe the Ore is incompact, or lefs, as well as poorer 
in value, in fome Mines, more than in others ; but where Ore 
rifes with little wafte, it may be drefted at a much cheaper rate, 
efpecially if it be rich in quality. I have known Copper Ore 
in feveral Mines, where it might be fifted out at the Shaft fide, 
without any other trouble, to be drefled for one penny in the 
pound fterling ; on the other hand, five fliillings may not be a 
fufficient price for Ore that is hard and barren. 

It may be worth enquiry, whether very fulphureous Ores 
which abound with Mundick, may not be advanced in value 

by 



AND SAMPLING COPPER ORES FOR SALE. 241 

by a previous uftion. It is evident from the foregoing obferva- 
tions, that if Ores be made confidcrably lighter by being burnt 
and deprived of their fulphureous heavy wafte, with a fmall 
charge and no lofs of Metal, that then it muft be an advantage 
to the owners, by putting the charges of fmelting the evaporated 
Mundick into their own pockets. Suppoflng this fhould anfwer 
the end propofed, the moft proper time of .burning muft be 
after the Ore is drefled and fully cleanfed by water ; for if it 
were done before, the Ore would acquire fo great a levity and 
tendernefs that it muft unavoidably float away,, in a great 
meafure, with the water, though but a very fmall ftream, and 
be inevitably loft and confumed : it would likewife be fo much 
fmoked and difcoloured, that it might deceive the drefler in 
judging when it may be right clean. Neverthelefs, if a parcel 
of Ore be drefled clean and then burned, a great part of the 
Mundick muft evaporate, and the Metal or Ore will remain in 
the pile; therefore, for. every ton of Mundick, that would 
fublime from it, the parcel would be worth three pounds more 
on the entire quantity. For inftance ; if one hundred tons of 
very pyritous Ore were decreafed to eighty by this method, the 
adventurers would fave flxty pounds, from the diminution of its 
weight or lofs of Mundick ; as well as. gain, by its improved 
value, as much at leaft as would pay die charges of burning, 
which I prefume would be fmall, for the Ore may be burned in 
furnaces flmilar to thofe commonly ufed for the calcination of 
limeftone ; or by kindling piles, conflfting of ftrata of fuel and 
of Ore placed alternately upon one another, and by other pieces 
of ufelefs timber, which fliould reach from top to bottom of the 
piles. Thefe being burnt out, and the Ore fettling fteady, the 
vacancies of the burnt timber would ferve as flues or chimneys 
to carry oflF the vapours, and keep the fire from being extin^ 
guiflied too foon, efpecially if the fmall Ore was thrown on 
after the other Ore was well kindled and throughly burning. 

Otherwife, a fmaH arch or channel of loofe bricks may be 
placed on the ground, where part of the round Ore may firft 
be eafily kindled by a fire of charcoal or wood ; and as the fire 
increafes, the place maybe fed and fupplied with. more Ore, 
till the whole pile be fet on fire ; for Ores that are very ful- 
phureous, are fo combuftible, that they foon take fire, if well 
ordered, and will burn a long time, or till they are moftly 
deprived of their fiiperfluous fulphur, when the fire extitiguifhes 
of itfelf, for want of a Pabulum or feeder. Fig. 12 , plate VI, 
reprefents a quantity of Ore piled up to be burned : i.two'Cid^^ 



242 OF DRESSING COPPER AND LEAD ORES, 

Of fajces of 1 the pile : : all the fides of it are covered with fmall 
Ore : 2. the upper part of the pile where holes are feen, which 
forve as flues, bpth to help bum and evaporate the Mundick and 
fulphur : 3. an opening to fet fire to the pile, and in which the 
fulphur may drop pure when melted : 4. a plank to keep off too 
much wind. Fig. 1 2, is a fedioh of the above pile : i . the wood 
to make the fire : 2. fome charcoal for kindling the fire : 3. a 
channel formed by a wooden tube or pipe to begin a draught of 
air : 4. large lumps of Ore : 5. fmall Ore ; 6,7. finer Ore, or 
duft of Ore. 

When the Ore grows cold, it is fit for fmelting, but muft by 
no means be any more cleanfed in a ftream of water. By this 
management it will run much freer in the great furnaces for fuch a 
gentle deprivation of it& ilubboni brood of fulphur and arfenick ; 
and I am pretty clear will alfo- yield more Metal, than when it 
is mdted crude in the furnaces,' where the fulphur and arfenick 
being excited by a violent fire, may elevate or carry off. fome 
part of the Mfctal in their pafi^e.. The worft inconvenience 
that feems to attend this matter, is, that it requires to be done 
near the Mine, to prevent the charge of removing the -Ore ; in 
which cafe, the fmoke being blown by the wind, would be 
offenfivei to the workmen, vrithout a due precaution to prevent 
it. To my iaftonifhment, nei^ther this method nor any thing 
fimilar to it, takes in Cornwall, though it has been ufed with 
^oeeils in Germany, it feems even before the Ore is wafhed 
cieaiii; and tfaierefore it may much more reafonably be thought 
to turn to account, after the Ore is cleanfed. 

Iiudeed, the adventurers of BuUen-Garden Mine, fome few 
jc^rs paft, ttot only calcined their poor Copper Ore, but fmelted 
i^fiikewife into a regulus^ and that at an expence which was 
very eafjr.ta be borne for the improvement of the Ore in its 
value : J^ut this attempt was of no long duration, the Copper 
Of e b\a»s very honefUy confirming the fufpicions of the adven- 
turers^ dSat thqr did not, neither would they offer at fo high a 
fttfldardilbr, Copper Regule as they would for Copper Ore, be- 
Qftule an findouragemefit of this kind, would neceffarily deprive 
thetr^tdft of: fome part of the labour, which was very profitable 
to. thetn« liCiui: - ailment, backed by a more powerful one, 
iHls; not. «Ptng. half value for Re^le, obliged the adventurers 
tQdtclmayJi veiy uibful and ^profitable bufinefs and employ for 
this country; & .{for my part, I think the gentlemen concerned, 
Cbottld.havc advanced- their undertaking, in proportion to the 

; ' ba^kwardnefs^ 



AND SAMPLING CX)PPBR ORES FOR SALR 24;^ 

backvfardnefs of the Copper companies, by;ere<fting miore fiar- 
naces, and running the fame Regule inco fine Cbppei^ ; a cir-'> 
cumftance of great notoriety, which might be followed by many 
good confequences for them and their neighbourhood. 



■ "I 



Lead Ore, like that of Copper, as it comes, out of the Minej 
is very little of it 'merchantable, or fit for fale or fmelting ; tht^ 
fofnis and foil mixed with it, mufk firfl be feparated by br.eafci* 
ing and wafhing, according to the nature^ richnefs, or pov&fty 
of the Ore. . • . ' 

As for Lead Ore that does not rife very folid, it ought to bet 
bucked and jigged, and very ieldoM carried to the ftr^ke^ or* 
ftamps, except it be very fcarce and thm in the ftoiie ; bot' 
when it is fo poor as to make bucking and jigging inopropet' 
and coftly, then it is fcarce worth the trouble of ftamping and 
drefllng : however, when it is fo treated, the grate of the: 
ftamping-mill fhould be yet coarfer than for Copper Ore ; be- 
caufe Lead Ore breaks into Facets or ftakes, and is thence liable 
to float away and be loft, even with a very eafy ftream of wajt@f>. 
The method of jigging has been ufed a iong time in the Lead 
Mines in Cornwall, though but very lately in the; Copper Mines, 
and they find it to turn to ^od account both in' the ^ one and' 
the other. There can be i»o> doubt," that the Cornifti tyere 
almoft entirely obliged to the Derbyfhire and other Lead Miners, 
for the beft method of drefllng Copper Ores in thefbfl place ; 
which I fuggeft from the antiquiry of Lead ])ili]»e«'' in ' thei 
northern counties, and the much later difcbvery of Copptt- 0»e»' 
in Cornwall : to which we muft add, that the great umilarity 
in the nature and gravity of Copper and Lead Ores, would 
naturally incline* us to ufe one and the &me method for their 
purification. Neverthelefs, it muft be- allowed, that the gr<sat 
varieties of Copper Ores in Cornwall), £>me of which require a 
very nice mans^ment in dre0ing, have given her liraiiers a 
preeminent judgment in that matter, which is warraoiftd by 
continual obfervation and experience. 

But when Lead Ore rifesi rich, io^ large folid piec^S)^ it ik 
broke with a hammer into cubes, from half an inch to one inch ^ 
of a fide ; and this is called Bing in Derlnrfhire, bu«:iAComwalt< 
it is ftiled Cobbed Ore. Sucii part of the Op9 whidk i^s too- 
impure for bing, is furtfaev fabaten dowin wkh a broa^ headed 
hammer called a Buckery according to its diegree of mi^i^niFe 
witK foflUs, &c. wh(ich thi$'b«atiQg is iatende4 t!^ btisak <s^% 



244 OF DRESSING COPPER AND LEAD ORES, 

and prepare for reparation in water. This, with what was 
necefTarily broken to an under-ilze in making bing, they term 
Knock-bark, i. e. Bucked Ore ; which being put into a wire 
fieve, and waflied in a kieve or. vat filled with water, the Ore 
preponderates in the fieve according to its fpecifick gravity. 
Thus the finaller parts of the Ore go through the mefhes of the 
fieve into the vat, the larger parts reft on the bottom of the 
fieve, and the foffil part forms a ftratum above the Ore, which 
is taken off with a femi-circular flat board or hand (hovel called 
a Limp, and is thrown away ; and the Ore remaining in the 
fieve, thus feparated, is called Peafy. Thofe particles which 
paffed through the mefhes of the fieve, in feparating the peafy 
from the foflUs, with all fuch finall particles of Ore as have 
been pulverized in getting or drefling, together with thofe in 
the wafte hillocks, (halvans and henaways) is again wafiied over 
in the fieve and vat, once, twice, or three times, in order to fe- 
parate and cleanfe the Ore, which they call Smitham. In this 
manner are formed the three affortments of Lead Ore, viz. 
Bing, Peafy, and Smitham. Now in Cornwall thefe three forts 
are generally mixed together for fale ; before which, we call the 
Bing, Cobbed Ore ; and the Peafy and Smitham, Jigged Ore, 
the Peafy being firft Bucked. So much in general do the 
methods of drefling Copper and Lead Ores agree, that in the 
foregoing account they differ in nothing but terms of art. 

There is another method of drefling very tender Copper and 
Lead Ores, fpeedier than bucking, viz. in dry ftamps, where 
the Ore has no water to carry it through a grate, but it is 
ftamped dry or a little moiftened. In dry ftamping, it falls out 
of the mill, partly in grofs lumps ; and one attends who with 
a fliovel throws it on a proper fized hurdle, through which the 
fmaller pieces fall ; and the larger that run down to the foot of 
the hurdle, being pounded fmall enough to pafs through the 
hurdle likewife, the whole is dreffed and cleanfed by jigging 
as before. 

When the Ores of Copper or Lead are drefled and made fale- 
able in Cornwall (for Lead Ore. is difpofed of in a different 
manner in Derbyfliire, and the northern counties) the piles or 
heaps are either kept feparate for a market, if the quantities are 
large ; or elfe the different forts are well mixed together in one 
pile, very rarely exceeding one hundred and eighty or two 
hundred tons in one parcel, and fi-om thence, down to one 
hundred, eighty, fixty, fifty, forty, twenty, ten, five, or even 
-, . one 



AND SAMPLING COPPER ORES FOR SALE. 245 

one ton, if the feller pleafes, which is feldom the cafe, and 
never for his advantage. If. a Mine has four hundred tons of 
Copper Ore dreffed ready for fampling, the managers may di- 
vide one half of the quantity! for.inftance, in two parcels of 
one hundred tons each, and the other two hundred tons thus ; 
one parcel of eighty, another of fifty, another of forty-two, 
another of twenty-one, and the laft may be a fmall parcel of 
poor ftamped Ore computed feven torisi ^^ all, four hundred. 
But the reader is not to tinderftand, • that thefe different parcels 
were ever mixed with each i other : tbitym^y belong to feparate 
takers upon tribute each parcel, they ntay lie at feveral diftances 
fron\ each other, and be of very unequjal :value ; for the firft 
hundred tons may fell for four pounds ^ tori, the; .next for five 
pounds, ten fhillings, the ieighty for! fifteen pourida.!^ ton, the 
fifty for eight pounds five fhillings, and fo on of all the reft. 
It is very common, however, for tributors to mix their Ores. 
with the owners, or with each other of their fellow tributors, 
fo that the Ores of four or five different fets of people may be all 
mixed together to make one fample for conveniency of fale, 
purfuant to the directions of. the managers or captains of the 
Mine, previous to which, their feparate parcels muft be nicely 
weighed and private famples taken : but I have illuftrated this 
matter in book iii. chap, iv, 

A dreffed parcel of Ore, before the day of fampling, is very 
well mixed by feveral men, who turn it over again and again, a 
perfdn ftanding on the top of the pile or parcel, who fpreads 
every ihovelful circularly, and as equally as he pbfiibly can, fo 
that in fad, it is mixed with great exadnefs. This parcel, if 
lefs than ten tons, is divided into three Doles or piles ; if above 
ten, into four Doles ; and if ever fo many more than nineteen 
tons, it is divided into fix Doles ; and then it is ultimately 
ready to be fampled. 

Now when the famplers meet upon the fpot according to 
appointment, either of th^m, indifferently, fixes upon the 
one-fixthjji one-fourth, or one-third Dole of a parcel according 
as it is great or fmall, to take their famples from. The Miners 
then cut or part that Dole athwart and acrofs down to the 
ground, fo that is divided nearly into quarters, by thefe tranf- 
verfe channels which are cut thfough it. Then a fampler with 
a (hovel pares down a little of the Ore from all parts of the 
channels, to take as equal land regular a fample throughout the 
^hole, as he can, to the amount of .,two or three hundred 
i:. '.' R r r v«^v^^^ 



346 OF THE DRESSING OP GOLD, SILVER, 

weight, which is carried to a clean floor or laid on boards, and 
there well and regularly mixed in a finall heap by itfelf. Next, 
a Ampler cuts this alfo into quarters, ordering any two of the 
oppontc or adverfe quarters, to be returned to the great Dole 
from whence they were brought. The remaining half he ftill 
mixes and quarters, until it is brought to a fmall compafs or 
quantity, when it is fifted through a fmall coorie. wire iieve ; 
and the larger flones which cannot pafs through the iieve arc 
broken with a fledge or flat polled hammer till all will pafs 
through the mefhes. After this, he mixes it very curioufly 
three or four times over ; and fo qi;iarters and remixes it as 
before, until it is reduced to a fimall quantity. LaAly, he 
puts about a .pound or two of it in a fmall bag, which is a fam-^ 
pie of the whole parcel. Each of his brother famplers fills his 
bag likewiie, in order to afTay or prove its value by £re, as fhall 
be hereafter fhewn. 



CHAP. in. 

A Summary of the Drefling of Gold, Silver, Quickfilver, and 

Semi-Metals. 



TH E inhabitants of Africa, and of Brazil^ dreis their 
Gold-dufl in fmall bowls, after the manner that Gold- 
fmiths wafh their fweeps ; and I fufped, that the Spaniards in 
Mexico, and on the continent, drefs their Ore in the fame way : 
but the inhabitants of Brazil will fometimes find a kind of Gold- 
dufl, fo very weak and minute, that they cannot fave it well in 
bowls. This has obliged them to have recourfe to another, 
method of making the mofl of this very fmall Gold-duft, by 
laying an ox-hide on the ground, with the grain of the hair 
againfl the water, which pafles gently over it. On . this they 
ftir and mix the fand and Gold-dufl ; by which means, the 
fmall particles fink, and are intercepted in the hair o^the hide ; 
while the fand wafhes off. This method feems very rational 
and well contrived ; and Sir John Pettus, in his Fleta Minor, 
fays, ** The Gold-wafhers ufe flrong black and mflet woollen 
** cloth for the fame purpofe^ in like manner.*' 

From the feveral methods prefcribed for cieanfing Ores by 
water, it is eafy for one who> ha» 6 tolerable notion ghF drefling 

Tin 



QUICKSILVER, AND SEMI-METALS. 247 

Tin and Copper Ore, thence to conceive, what may be the beft 
way of dreiling Gold, or Silver Ore, conformable to the wafte 
or mixture which abounds in either. Yet there can be no 
certain rules prefcribed without teeing the iotiatter to be drefled, 
becaufe its plenty or fcarcity of Metal, the different fizes, the 
various quantities of its brood or wafte, may probably caufe 
great variety in the methods of drefllng it ; but as rich Ores, 
on account of their great ponderofity, are eafier cleanfed than 
any others ; fo alfo, in refpeft to their intrinfick value, they 
require a more curious and artiiiciai management amd operotiolu 
I have feen fome forts of pure Silver Ore, which contained near 
one half pure filver, the wafte being a light Quartz, fomewhat 
tranfparent : now to drefs a quantity of this, I fhould advife its 
being bucked fmall, and then I (hould ^nefcr jigging before ai^ 
other way of wa/hing it. I ihoiild chufe: this method of drefliiil; 
a quantity of Gold and Silver Ores, provided they were ric& in 
quality, or contained much Gold aixi Sliver in proportion XA 
the wafte in them ; but if there were licde Metal in the Ore^ ic^ 
that it would not well ^nCwer the charge of jigging^ m that onfe 
I fhould rather wafh it in a ftr^ke, otl which I would try aa 
experiment of fixing an ox-hide as above, or rather of coveriag 
the ftr^ke with a nannei cloth, or the like, to intercept oiid 
retain the fine particles of Metal t bur this is not td be imder-^ 
ftood of fuch Gold or Silver as is intermixed with bafe Metals or 
Minerals ; for then the methods of cleanfing Tih) Lead, ftttd 
Copper Ore muft be purfued, and afterwards the Gold or Silver 
may be extrafted by fire, S. A. 

As for the Ore of Quickfilver, it is generally poimderous, a&d 
therefore may be dreffed like other Ores. Iron Ore, 1 doubt, 
will fcarce defray the charge of cleanfing, and perhaps it needs 
wafhing but feldom, becaufe it often rifes rich with very little 
mixture. 

9 

Thus, according to one or other of the foregoing methods 
for drefjing of Ores, may the Semi*met(ds of Bifmuth^ Cobiilt, 
and Antimony, be cleanfed by water, and by comminutk^ 
them more or lefs in proportion to their richnefs and pondetofity. 
As for thofe Minerals which are foiuble in water, as Alum, 
Copperas, and all Mineral Salts, they muft be extraded ftcm 
their impure mixtures by means of water only, in whi^ they 
muft be further purified. 



-^ O Ci'^w 



BOOK V, 



C H A p. I. 

On the Art of Aflaying Ores and Minerals ; defcribing the 
Utenfils and Fluxes for AfTaying. 



IT is not here propofed, to teach the art of aflaying Ores, 
fo as to determine the quantities of Metal they contain with 
fuch accuracy, as is neccflary for thofe who buy Copper or Tin 
Ores, that being a peculiar trade : nothing but inflrudion by a 
gbod-iaflayer, and much pradice in the buiinefs, can make a 
man: a perfe6t adept in the art. What is intended here, is, 
only to give the principles of aflaying, with fuch an idea of the 
pradice.as may help a perfon to attain that degree of proficience 
which will enable him to form a pretty good judgment of 
Mineral fubjeds in regard to their contents. And if a man 
hath a genius for fuch fort of enquiries, with that degree of 
diligence and attention which ufually accompanies it, it is 
pofllble that what is here faid, may open the way for a more 
fcientifick and extenfive knowledge and pradice of aflaying, 
than is at prefent known or ufed in the county of Cornwall ; 
for whofe ufe this little eflay is chiefly calculated and recom- 
mended. . 

To the forming a comprehenfive idea of Ores, &c. a man ought 
to know the natural hiftory of thofe things which enter into their 
compofition, which are the Metals, as Gold, Silver, &c. and the 
Semi-metals, Bifmuth, Cobalt, Antimony, &c. Brimftone is alfo 
a.very common and almoft a conftant concomitant of the Metals 
acid Semi-metals in Ores, as well as ftones or earths, which in 
Cornwall are almofl always of the vitrifiable kind, that is, fuch 
.as run into glafs with fluxing materials; as the fixed fait of 
vegetables, pearl aflies, and fdt of tartar ; nitre, divefl:ed of its 
acid by means of any inflammable matter ; borax, and the 
calxes of Lead ; fluors, or the fufile fpars ; clays, and ftones, 
of the vitrifiable or flinty kind. By reference to book i. chap, 
iii. of this work, the reader will there find the natural hiftory 

of 



OF ASSAYING ORES AND MINERALS, &c. 24.^ 

of Ores and Minerals,, with that of the 'fluxes neccflary for their 
fufion and the feparation of the Metals and Semi-metals- they 
contain. I fhall only beg leave, in this place, to add a method 
of making the white flux for riefliiing .bf impure Metals ; and 
another method foy making the 'Fiuxps Niger, or black re- 
ducing flux. . ' . 

Black Flux w Reducing Flux. . Take ten ounces of white 
tartar, three ounces and fix drams of nitre, and three ounces 
and one dram of borax. Powder and fift theiii through a hair 
ficvc. When equally mixed, put this powder into a wide nibutfaed 
bottle, well corked for ufe. Though the colour of this is not 
black, yet it is a moft excellent reducing flux. * .' 

The White or Refining FliiXi Take • two parts of nitre, 
white tartar one part. Powder them, . and throw them by a 
large fpoonful at a time into a red' hbt crucible.. As foon as 1 
portion of the mixture: is thrown in, there will! be a .violent 
deflagration : when that is over throw in another quantity, and 
fo proceed till the whole ds. deflagrated. The operator muft be 
caceful to. prevent fire or fparks falling among thd powder,' as it 
wJiU' take fire. The matter muft bc= taken- out of the cruciblei^ 
powdered j and put up. as the former.- It ought to be ;. well 
jcorked, as it is apt to. run foon from ithe moifture of the air. 
There is yet aii eafier way of doing this, .which; iis^ to put the 
whole quantity of the powder into an iroa mortar ^ then to fet 
Gxe to. it with ,a red hot- poker, contjnnally ftirring it . till the 

deflagration is ioveii. Wheni cold, powder and fiftit, &c.: • > ^ 

. :'..: ..' .•.•..,' , •;,.,■ !i ■ ■• ■• . 

\ . ■ J 

-The common, wind furiiace vXtik in GornwaU, is a very good 
one in general for the purpofe of aflTaying Metals ; :and it might 
be made convenient for cuppellingi 'if it was contrived {b.as..t9 
have a fmall reverberatoryv built on:one:fide,. to? take the flame 
juft as it arifes from the furiiace. I hiavc'givert.a fe£tion. of, the 
furnace for melting, and: the reVierb^atory.iforxuppfeUmg,: in 
plateVI, fig. i,.. viz. Aj the melting furnace foe 'ttying. Copper 
and Tin Ores!; B,; the rcverberatory i i C^ a hole in its fide for 
introducing the cuppelii. The placci or opening at.C, muf( 
have a door of brick clay exa^aly t6 jfit it, with>:a;finall holeih 
the middle to infpeft the ftat^ofvthe.aflay, M^ch htole.muft.be 
flopped with a bit of clay, ' Dj the chimney into which; the 
£Ume paflcs from A over: the , cuppel i in the, reverberatory B. 
B> irdn barsior grate, of the, furnace. F» the aflics pity the 
whok length: of the huildjing. ftom'jQvto H.. A; furnace: Jthiu 

S f f c.^x&c5^^a«^^ 



9$Q OF ASSAXmG aR£S-AKI> MIN£RAL5v 

conftruAed, is> I thinly fufficient for qioA i^^not' all afla^ 
ia Metal. •: : 

I 0iaU fpeak qf fuel, and the condu£^ o£ the fire, when I 
come to the prpceflei ; and fhall likewife treat of the veflbis 
ufed in afiaying, and the materials of which the^ are ^nadex 
mean while I fhall firfl give the artift a procefs for difcovering the 
contents of a Mineral in the liquid way> or hy a menftruunu 

Proceia I. Calcine the powdered Mineral, or keep it red 
hot till it ceafes to yi^ any fulphureous flame ; ana if the 
white arfenical fumes arQ dij^harged, it may be the better. 
The Ore mufl be flirred during the calcination, to prevent its 
running into clots, in which cafe, it muft be powdered anew. 
Put thk calciqed Ore into a phial, and pour on it pure double 
aqua fortis, or fpirit of nitre, fuffieient jufl to cover it. Let 
thiei phial ftand. on warm ^d, or in hot water, for two hoort : 
if thexe ihould be a violent ehulHtion, and plenty of red fumes, 
remove and put the phial into cold water, in which it muft 
Hand till cold. Drop fbme of this fpirit of nitre into water, 
and if it letq &11 a very white fettlement, the Mineral coqitaisis 
Bifinuth. Pour about at miich water into the phial, a& fhall be 
equal to the qv>antity of aqua fbortis or fpirit of nitrQ that was 
ttfcd. Set it on the hot fand or water for an hour ; let the phial 
Dttnd till tlve Solution is quite clear ; then pour it off from the 
Ore, ami drop, a finall q>uantity of firong brino. into it ; if ft 
whitis matter precipitatesi, the Ore contains Silv^er, or Lead, or 
both :. continue to add brine till no more pvecipitates. > f^oiir 
the liquor from this precipitate, and wafli it with clean water, 
letting the wat^r fettle clear before it i& decanted off i add fi^efh 
w^ter, and repeat the wafhings till it is ^eet. ^^elt the preci-^ 
pitate with treble its weight; of bla^k fiux ; and, if there is 
Load in it, evaporate the Lead in a c^ippel, when the ^hrctf if 
any, will be kft hehind. The Bifmuth that faUsi, will be. 
candied off with the Ltad ;• but in order to free the fbludton as 
rn^qh a$ ppffible from Bi^iith, it may be proper to dilute it 
with more water b^of^o the. brine Is added ^ and if there is any 
precipitate, tp feparate it. 1*ry the £:^Dtion for Copper, b^f 
drc^pin^ a little df it ori a bric^^ pieoe of iron ; if it leaver a 
ftron^iuil Aain of Copper, this Metal may be Separated ^om it 
by powdered chi^h ; for by gradually adding the powdet;, ik 
&me tiaae^ om the ceafing qf tk&'iik)lence of efferve^enpe) tbi 
CSbpper will prcdipitate m'ft grMn jMwdeir, called Verditel^ 
Oautiftue to add the pbwdeted 0|m^, till no mor<:prec^>2taf« 
rv:- "v. ■.'''-"• 1-'^^ falls; 



AN1> ITS UTENaiLa AND FLUXBSi 451 

latii; vraik this as the €ovtB£t precipitate, melt it with black 
Uttx, and it will be revived inta Copper. The ibiutioti fhould - 
he kept in hot fand, or water, .^ring the whole time of the 
precipitation. 

Ii) the above procefs, the Tpirit of nitre being the propctf 
folvent of Silver, Copper, Lead, £uid Bifmuth, if any of theie 
matters are in the Ore they ^re difTc^ved ; that is, after the 
fulphur is burnt oiF, whieh would qtherwile guard them from 
being attacked by the fpirit. It is expedient, that there (houM 
be a larger quantity of fpirit than is juil neoeiTary to diilblve the 
Metals, otherwife they might precipitate one another; it ^ 
therefore right, to tafte the fblution ; and if it taftes very Iharp 
and acrid, the (Quantity of fpirit hath beqn fufficient. To make 
this experiment as accurate as poflible, in regard to quantity, 
the calx ought to be iinely levigated in a glafs mortar ; and th^ 
afiuiion of fpirit of nitre, and the digeftion, fisc. ccmtinued 
as often, and as long, as any thing metallick can be gotten, 
from the calx. 

« ' 

Procefs II. To affay Pyrites, Marcafites, or MWdicks, for 
Gold or Silver. <= ' 

Light a fire in the wind lurnace, with commmi coal ; taad ''■•''^'*^ i^isi 
when it is got up to a good white heat, place a cracible in it, 
which fhould be £rft dipped in water to prevent its cracking % 
iiirround it with coal almoft to the brim, and as foon as it is of 
a good ftrong heat inclining to whitenefs, put into jt the 
Mundick defigned to be v^iij^y which ought to be previo^fl^r 
weighed. Shut the opening of the furnace with the bricks ufed 
for that purpofe. Let it remain till it is perfedly fu(ed \ then - 
pour it into a cone, greafed; or rather fmoked by the flame c^ 
a candle ; when it is cold, knqpk it out of the cone, and fepa- 
rate the reguline or metailick part frO(n the fcoria, if any oh 
the furface of it. A cone is^a ^llow vefiel zna^s e^ cad: Iron. 
See figr a, plate VI. 

Procefs III. The method of /eorifyiag ^6 Mundick, or 
converting all the parts which compofe it (except the noble , 
Metals) into Glafs. / 

. Place a crucible of the largeft fisf, dn t piece of brick Ie»n 
able to k, in the mkM\t c^this wiitd lurpace. M^ke a fire 
round it with ohaircoal dll it is^ red hot,, wlieft €Qn£nA>tw'^\HQ»d^ 



1\' 



»iZ OF ASSAYING- ORES AND MINERALS, 

may. be nM: Then put in the Regulus of the Pyrites or Mtm^ 
diet, with one half its weight of Lead revived from lithargi, 
And as much Glafs of any .kind, with as much litharge, as Gla&^ 
previoufly mixed together. Raife the fire till all is melted, and 
the fulphur and arfenick appear to rife through the Glafs a-top, 
and fly off in a flame. Continue the fire for fonie hoiirs, till 
this appearance ceafes, and the Glafs melts fmooth like oil, 
when it may be fuppofed the fulphur and arfenick are confumed 
and the fcorification pretty far advanced. In this part of the 
operation, it will be neceflary, from time to time, to make 
frefh additions of litharge to thin the Glafs, which is apt to 
grow thick and tenacious by the Iron (which is continually 
fcorifying) mixing with it. When the litharge is thrown in, it 
ought to be mixed up with, the Glafs a-top, by means of an 
Iron rod. The Glajfs ought to be very thin before the whole Js 
poured out ; when this is the cafe, pour it out into the greafed 
or fmoked cone ; and when cool, knock it out, and feparate 
the fcoria from the Le^d at bottom. If the Lead is quite foft 
and malleable, and the fcoria very thin, fo that if a wire was 
dipped in them, they would have dropped off it like oil, 
leaving [ojiljr.^a varniihed like ^appearance on the wire; the 
operation is well done : but if the Metal is brittle, and hard, 
the operation muft be continued till it is rendered quite loft 
and mali/^able. Sometimes it is neceflary to make an addition 
of frefli iQfefs, in ordet to a complete vitrification of thie Iron, 
Wt then litharge muft be added at the fame time. 

When, the Lead is reduced to perfed foftnefs, it is: fit for 
cuppellation. To carry this procefs to perfeftion, it is neceflary 
tp bring the (coria, to a complete vitrification, when they will 
be yery thjji and ihining. They are. then to be powdered, and 
jgiixed with their wieight of black flux, a little powdered char- 
coal, and one quarter their weight of fea fait decriptated : the 
whole is tQ be perfectly fufed, till it flows like oil, when it h 
.to be poured into the cone ; and,, when cold,, the. Lead in the 
bottom, which is like to be in confiderable .quantity.,- muft be 
alfo cuppellated, but feparately from the other, in order to de- 
termine if the firft aflfty Was per/eft or not. . . 

The intention of the above procefs, is to feparate the fulphur 

and the arfenick from the Mundick ; and to convert the Iron, 

which mikies up a ^reat part of. this compound, . into fcoria ; 

;^d finally .to yitrify it fo, that the Gold and Silver it may con- 

^^^/ball.be. ajbfwbed hy andijrftjnithe Leads which I think i$ 

perfedlly 



AND ITS UTENSILS AND FLUXES. 253 

perfedly well done by this procefs. The fulphur and arfenick, 
are continually flying off through the Glafs, which is likely to 
detain any of the nobler Metals, which the arfenick might 
otherwife volatilize; at the fame time, the Iron which was 
mineralized by them, bums to fcoria, and rifing. a- top of . the 
metallick part mixes with the Glafs, and is vitrified with it ; 
the Mundick at bottom grows more and more metallick, and,, as 
I apprehend, the Lead, if not entirely, is at leaft greatly 
mineralized by the fulphur and arfenick. The Iron and Lead, 
in this Mineral flate, are mixed ; but the Iron parting from 
thefe matters eafier, as well as attrading them ftronger, than 
the Lead, difcharges them up through the Glafs, alnd is gradu- 
ally turned into fcoria, till the whole of it is feparated firom the 
Lead, leaving with it the nobler Metals it contained. 

The only hazard of mifling in this procefs, is from the veflels 
being corroded by the Glafs of Lead, which is very penetrating, 
when brought to that thinnefs by the litharge which is neceffary; 
but this may be effeiftualty prevented, by the ufe of a porcelain 
or china-ware crucible, which as it is a new invention, and 
may be of great ufe to the curious in Metallurgy, without re- 
marking on what others have done, I fhall here give it to the 
publick in few W(9ds. 

Procefs IV. Whoever hath been converfant in Mineral chy- 
fidftry, mufl know, that veffels which will hold Glafs of Lead, 
prove a great defideratum. Now the micofe clay, which is 
one part of china ware, is known to be abfolutely unvitriable ; 
for tnough mixed with an equal part of vitriable flone, it flands 
the greateft heat that art knows, without being vitrified.* I. 
believe all the grouan clays would anfwer to make the vefTels in 
queftion ; and, I know that the porcelain clay at St. Stephen's 
will. The compofition I would recommend, is two parts of 
the wafhed clay, and one part of the gravel it contains, ground 
to a very fine powder, mixed and made into a pafte. Let 
a potter form them into the fhape of coffee difhes of a moderate 
thicknefs, and of different fizes, according to the purpofes they 
are defigned for. They muft be burned in a crucible, or with 
crucibles, or porcelain, if you are in the neighbourhood of a 
fadory of either kind. The fire muft be full as fbong as it 
neceffary to bum china ware or crucibles ; but if one hath not 
the advantage of a neighbouring pottery, the higheft heat that 

* See book i. chap. iii. upon Steatiti^ or Soi^rack. 

T t t «a. 



254 OF ASSAYmC ORES AND MINER ALS» 

can be given in a fmart wind furnace, k faffidsat. When 
burned, they are a true ungia^ed. porcelain as it is po^le;; the 
St. Stephen's clay without mixture, may make the ftretogeft 
veiiels ; it might be tried : but I know commost poredacuao 
anfwer extremely well. 

As. thefe veiiels will by no means; bear aa open £re, the^ 
mtifl be guarded : the beil way of doing which, is to pkcc 
them in crucibles made roundy and about two-thirds of an incky 
or an inch wider. . Lay in the bottom of' the large crucible the 
thisknefs of half an inch of flint fand ;. if this cannot be had. 
Quartz, or (as, it is improperly caJiied in Cornwall) Spar, may 
hi powdered and fifted tfarougib. a hadi fieve : ftU up the vacancy 
between the two crucibles with die fand or powder, and let the 
outfide crucible have a cover made to it exaftly like that of a 
teapot, and the apparatus id finifhed. See plate VI, flg. 3. 
Tins apparatus muft be £xcd on a conicat bafe made of two 
partsi pipe clay-y and one part fand ^ the ihape of it is to be &en 
plate Vi| fig. 4y a little excavated at top, *to let in the crucible 
that it may fiahd fteady. 

I have thought proper to give this process on Pyrites, as there 
has been much contention about the matter ; people will now 
have it in their power to know whether or not they are o£ any 
valtic 

Any Ore that is fiippoied to contain Silver, or Gold» mixed 
with a proper quantity of litharge, with revived Lead at bottom, 
and a mixture of Glafs, if the Ore has no vitrifiable flone in it, 
may be tried the fame way. The want of vitrifiable ftone or 
earthy may be known by. the fcoria, which will be tough and 
mctallick, not glafTy. 

Litharge is eafily revived, by mixing it with a proper quantity 
of black flux, and a little charcoal duft, and melting the whole 
in a ftrong fire, till the furface melts fmooth and equal, with- 
oat bubbling. . 

Procefs V. CuppeUatibn ^ and the feparation of Silver and 
Gold by Aqua Fortis* 

- ■- . . • '• • .■■■:■•.;"•• 

:.' The v*effeh uied in this proccis^ arc called Cuppels, and are 

formed ordinarily of bones burned white and powdered, or of 

the aflies of vegetables from which the lalts have, been thoroughly 

j/^-y • feparatea 



AND ITS UTENSILS. Al^f:© .PluV/XI|§> «|5 

feparatcd by water. But, for thfi ionnt^im Q^ ?*?l^^ 1 Iffer | i i 
to Cramer's Art of Aflayio^, or- Maqiior*?, Cbygjiftf ji, wWfe.lhrt ' 
manner of doing it is very rightly djre(^ed;^ S[9|ji^ q£ t^^ 
cuppels are made ia moulds, and others in Ironiclikg^. Tkls 
former are inverted frufkuios of a coste, isoiuck abp^ t;W ift?!i%.'i|^ 
fig. 5, plate VI, which is a fefiioa of sk cuppfi,- TW i9^!»«ip 
are formed in Iron rings, larger or lefs at pleafure. The method 
of forming them, is to fill the ring ^i^ tilfce bone .<Jr/ot;h«? ai%es, 
or a mixture of both. The aihes are hroijgKt rouph tjgi ^ ^^ 
temper of moifture with water, as fand is for cafting Metals : 
the fand is then beat down as clofe a« ^^h\t^..'m^ a hollow 
place is formed in the cuppcl, for holdupig tke Me.tali. Tfeiefe 
cuppels are made either round or oblong. ; The {ijit^ of %» 4i» 
plate VI, may be ufed, four or fiivc inches wide > which wiU 
work oiF four or five pounds of load.. 

As the cuppelling furnace will hold fevefal teds, when ma 
wants to cuppel, it is right to put tlwee or four dry ouppdU 
into the reverberatory with their bottomt upward* Light a fire 
in the wind furnace, and raife it gradually till the quppeU ara 
red hot j then fet one or more of them with their hollows Mfn 
ward, and with a fmall Iron ladle put the Lead to be tried tato 
one of the cuppel& : the Lead is ufually beat fiat, snd cut into 
pieces, which will melt immediately and contraA a fcum, and 
if the fire is fufficiently ftrong, in fome little time the fcum will 
feparate, and difcover the melted furface of the Metal, as bright 
as Quickfilven If the procefs goes on well and right, there 
will be little particles or drops refembUng oil, continually rifing 
on the furface of the Metal, which will be thrpwn oiF to the 
fides, and abforbed by the cuppel. The fire is to he P^onlUntly 
and uniformly, kept up, fo as to keep the affay in this way of 
working, pll the Lead is all converted into lith^ger^^od. the 
Silver or Gold fets on the cuppeL Eacpcrtoefi in thi^ procfiTc h 
only attained by pradice. Cramer's de&Hption pf it, is i%ry 
exad j but as the furnace here direfisd^ is di^erent from his, 
it is necefiary to obferve, that if the iirft) Wants to be fuddfinly 
quickened, frefh lumps of c^al, or fsiiaU pieces of dry woqd, 
are to he thrown into the wind &fnace» by. juft opening one of 
the bricks that cover it. When. the afiay is too hot^ a povering 
brick or two may be taken off, or eyen the ftopper in the isr 
verberatory left open, till the heat is fiink to. ^ proper tempeit 
The marks of too great or too fmall a degree of heac', are ^ccur 
rately defcribed by Cramer. 



as6 OF ASSAYING ORES AND MINERALS, 

Weigh the grain left on the cuppel, and fee -what proportion 
it bears to the Mundick aflayed ; from whence it is eafy to cal- 
culate the quantity of noble Metals, in any given quantity of 
the Mundick. Lead reduced from litharge is ufed in this 
i^ration, as it contains no Silver, at leaft fo incohfidcrable a 
quantity, as is not worth attending to. 

Procefs VI, To difcover, whether the produd of the aflay 
contains Gold, and the quantity it contains. 

Pour on the grain, four or five times its weight of proof 
aqua fortis ; place the phial on warm fand, and if the Silver 
entirely diffolves without any black fediment, it contains no 
Gold ; but if there is any black fediment, this is Gold. Pour 
the folution of Silver from it, and pour water on it, fhaking 
the whole ; let this water fettle, and then decant it off into the 
(blution of Silver ; repeat this till the water has no bitter tafte. 
Wa{h out the black powder into a fmall tea difh ; and when it 
is iettled, pour off the water from it, and dry this powder of 
Gold by placing the difh on hot fand. Weigh the powder, and 
make the calculation. If the Gold is in fo finall a quantity, 
that you have no fcales or weights nice enough to weigh it, the 
Lead muft be enriched by the operation of fcorification, being 
repeated with the fame Lead, oh three or four more parcels of 
frefh Mundick. 

If the grain or bead of Metal contains much Gold, fay as 
much, or more, or even one-third of Gold, the aqua fortis will 
not diflblve it ; in which cafe, three or four times its weight of 
Silver (which contains no Gold) may be melted with it, or fo 
much as will render it dilTolvable in the aqua fortis. The Silver 
may be precipitated from the folution, by evaporating the water 
from it in a fuitable china-ware vcflel fet in hot fand, till the 
quantity is properly reduced ; that is, till the water ufed in 
waihing the Gold is moftly evaporated from it ; when by put- 
ting clean bits of Copper into it, the attradion between the 
aqua fortis and the Copper, being ftronger than with the Silver, 
this latter will be precipitated in the form of a white (hining 
powder, to be feparated from the bits of Copper. If clean 
bright pieces of Iron are put into the folution, the Copper will 
be precipitated ; and alkali ^t will precipitate the Iron. Waih 
this precipitate till the water is no longer ^ine ; evaporate the 
whole, and what is lefr will be a true good nitre, .tormed by 

the 



AND ITS UTENSILS AND FLUXES. 257 

the fpirit of nitre, and the pot-afh ; the vegetable alkali being 
the bails of nitre. 

Proccfs VII. Proof Aqua Fortis. 

Take any quantity of good aqua fortis, which will diitblve 
Silver ; drop into it a few drops of a faturated folution of Silver : 
if there appears to be any precipitate or cloud of a white colour, 
as there will if the aqua fortis has fpirit of fait in it, which I 
believe is always the cafe 5 if this precipitate falls foon to the 
bottom, it is proof the aqua fortis contains much fpirit of 
(alt, and one may be bolder in dropping in the folution of 
Silver j but if it is thin and light, it is neceflary to piroceed 
with more caution. Let this miikinefs fettle ; and to a fmall 
quantity of the aqua fortis in a phial, add a drop of the folution 
of Silver ; and if there ftill appears a miikinefs, more of the 
fplution may dropped in, always aiming to add no more of the 
Silver folution, than is neceflary to feparate the whole of the 
fpirit of fait from the aqua fortis, which may be known by 
adding a drop of the folution to a little of the aqua fortis in 
a phial ; for if the aqua fortis is proof, it will continue quite 
clear without the leaft miikinefs. 

There is an eafier way of preparing proof aqua fortis, which 
is by putting a bit of Silver into it, and fhaking it feveral times 
in a few hours ; and if, the next morning, it is fettled quite 
clear, and any of the Silver is left, it is proof. The only 
queftion is, whether it doth not contain Silver ; , to determine 
this, drop a few drops of it into filtered brine, and if there 
. arifes no cloudinefs in the mixture, the aqua fortis contains na 
Silver. 

. - Spirit of fait will not diflblve Silver ; but being diflblved in 
aqua fortis, there is a flronger attradion between the fpirit of 
fait and the diffolved Silver, than between it and the aqua fortis, 
as it diflodges the fpiritus nitri, and unites with the Silver into 
a fait that is not diflblvable in water, and fo finks to the bottom 
in a white curd called Luna Cornea, which may be reduced 
into Silver with pot-afh, by being melted with it ; and if the 
pot-afh is not in too great a quantity, it will be converted into 
a. fea fait, with a vegetable alkali bafis ; by which it appears, 
that the fea fait was decompofed, or feparated from its mineral 
alkaline bafis, in the operation of precipitating the Silver. 
What is called the Mineral Alkali, or Bafis of Sea Salt^ U o€ ^^ 



25a OF ASSAYmC ORE8 AND MINERALS, 

fyaic nature with the Baiilla or Soda, ufed in the preparation of 
French and Spanifh foaps. 

I have been thus particular in defcribing the procefs of pre-' 
paring proof aqua fortis, as it is a very neceflary menftruum in 
metallurgical experiments. 

As it is pofiible the Mundick tried, may contain Copper in 
fb large a quantity as not to ht entirely fcorihed by the above 
operation, but may poillbly remain on the cuppel in a coniider- 
able quantity ; in this cafe, the bead muft be diiTolvcd in 
proof aqua fortis containing no Silver, or that yields no cloud 
dropt into clean brine. If this bead contains Gold, it will 
cemain uodiiBblved in a Hack powder as is faid above ; waih it, 
and add the water to the iolutiosi, into which, drop brine as 
long as any white precipitates : this is the Silver in the fhape of 
the Luna Cornea, and when waiked and dried may be weighed^ 
I think four parts of it contain three of Silver, or thereabouts 

Procefs VIII. To affay Tin for Gold. 

To eight ounces of melted Antimony, put two ounces of the 
Tin to be tried ; keep them together in a moderate fire, till 
they melt together and flow like oil, without the Icaft bubbling 
or elFerveicence, which operation may take an hour. If the 
xnctxture grows thick, fre^i Antimony is to be added, till it 
melcs perfectly thin or fluid ; then pour it out into the Iron 
cone, and when cold feparate the bright antimonial regulus at 
bottiim, from the fcoria at top : fet by thcfe fcoria. Heat a 
cuppel made of crucible clay, or the bottom of a crucible, 
reduced to the fhape of a cuppel (thefe vefTels are called Tefls) 
in the reverberatory, till it is of a flrong red heat inclining to 
white; place the rc^lus of Antimony in it, which will in- 
ibmtly melL Dired the nofe of a kitchen bellows on this tefl, 
aad keep up a continual blail on the regulus (which will eva- 
porate in thick white fumes) till it is reduced to one quarter 
cnrls^ of its ort^nal wdght. Take out the teft and let it cool ; 
ff^»rate th^ remaining regulus from it, and melt it in a crucible. 
TPbroifv on it twice its quantity of nitre ; and when the defla- 
gration and fumentatioa are over, pour it out into the cone. 
|f there is any Gold left, and chift Gold is fine, the operation is 
tempkte ). but if thore- is nothing left at the bottom of the 
yell^ gkffyfcDriaj the Tin contains no Gold. If there is a 
iojuiii biittohdf htitdeMdtal^ giriMhtal not ifviBoeocly malleable, 
r^-fii ^, add 



AN0 ITS UTEKSltS. AMD FLUXE^v 2^^ 

add equal parts q£ nitre an4 borax, and £^)eat the ^pefation, 
till the Gold is quite £ne ; when it u to he weighed, and the 
proportion it bears, to the Tin ailayed, determined. 

In this operation, the fulphur which mineralizes the Anti- 
mony, having a greater ajttra<ftion with the Tin, thaa with (she 
regulus of Antimony, defcrts the regulus, and. lays hold of^ 
and mineralizes the Tin, with which it afcends among the 
melted Antimony ; whilft the regulus feparatcd from the Anti- 
mony, defcends, and mixes with the Tin at bottom. Xhi% 
procefs goes on till the whole of the Titt is. mineralissed by the" 
fulphur, and fomewhat a greater quantity of the regulus fepa- 
rated and precipitated ; if the Tin contains any Gold» it will 
be mixt with this regulus, as fulphur cannot mineralize it. If 
there is any Silver, dbis will be mineiali2ed> and laifed among 
the (o^ia, wbicih coniift of the Antimony in its Mineral ftate^ 
and the Tin reduced to this ftate ; the regulus containing the 
Gold, being volatile, is evaporated in white fumes, by the 
fecond operation, whilft the Gold is left : but as it is difficult 
to bring it to perfed 6iienefs this way, nitre is vfed in the 
finifhing operation, which immediately calcines the regulus. 
In this operation, the fpirit of nitre evaporates along with the 
phlogifton.of the reguKts, and the alkaline part of this, together 
with the reguline calx, melts into glafly fqoria of «a amber 
colour, leaving tke Gold iintouchcd by the nitre, which cajtknot 
diflblve it. 

Procefs IX^ To try the firft fcoria for Silver. 

Melt the firi): fcoria, eoniiiling of the mineralized Tin and 
Antimony, in a crucible ; throw powder of nitre on them) and 
there will then be a con^deraUe deikgration ; coatinud to 
throw in more nitre till the deflagration eeaies^ 4nd when the 
matter in the crucible melts like oil, pour it into the cone, 
knocking it gently that it may fettle. When it i& cold and 
ftruck out of the cone, cacefuUy dcjuaean^ th4 dpex of the 
melted fcoria, where the Silver will be found if (he Tin coiif 
tained any. ' 

In this procefs, the phlogifton of the fulfhuir is carried qS bf. 
the fpirit of nitre ; and the other part 6f it, vi^. the vitiioltfik 
acid, is attraded by, and luuted with>: the aU&alin^ bafis of the 
nitre, forming with it a triie. fal polyerefton, that.fwiml ^ ihp 
txiip of the melted Icona, winch by.' this pf(K:eCiv ASi&.^!^'wt«i9^t^ 



26o OF ASSAYING ORES AND MINERALS, 

into a compound crocus metallorum, confifting of the calcined 
Antimony and Tin. The Silver hot being calcinable, when 
the fulphur which mineralized it is feparated by the nitre, it 
regains its metallick form, and falls to the bottom of the cone. 

The compound crocus metallorum, and the amber fcoria, 
may be reduced into a metallick form, by being mixed with a 
proper quantity of black flux, and melted in a crucible ; but 
not without great lofs of the regule. This procefs for the 
feparating Gold from Tin by Antimony, may be applied to 
Copper, or any other Metal. 

Procefs X. To affay Copper Ore. 

Powder the Ore and fift it through a hair fieve ; ihake and 
njiix it together, that every part of the powder may be alike, in 
regard to its metallick contents : form this powder on a piece of 
paper into a bed of half an inch thick ; then weigh off a troy 
ounce, or ounce and quarter of it, from different parts of the 
bed or heap : and in order to af&y it, the Ore is firfl to be 
calcined, in the following manner : 

The wind furnace having been before well heated, is to be 
filled with fea coal, reduced to the ilate of charcoal, or as it is 
ufually called, coakt or charkt. A criicible of the largeft fize 
for afiaying, is then placed in the furnace, fo that the top of it 
fhall be a little beneath the top of the furnace. It is very proper 
to place one layer, or a few pieces of raw coal, round the top 
of the crucible, to keep down the flame and heat, which would 
dtherwife incommode the operator in the calcination. The Ore 
may now be put into the crucible, and fome of the covering 
bricks put on the mouth of the furnace to raife the fire ; hut 
this muft be done gently. As foon as the Ore is obferved to be 
of a dufky red, it is time to begin to ftir it, to prevent its melt- 
ing and running into lumps, which mufl by all means be pre- 
vented, both by flirring, and a proper regulation of the fire. 
The Iron rod ufed in flirring, fhould be about two feet and a 
half long, and as thick as the end of the little finger, the one 
extremity of it flattened and formed like the toes of a pair of 
tongs, fo as to fuit the bottom of the crucible. With this rod 
the Ore is to be flirred brifkly from time to time, fb as to pre- 
vttit its melting, or running into lumps ; and if it fhould appear 
difpofed to do this, it muft be ftirred very brifkly, till the 
appearance cesiksy and the Ore is again reduced into a powdery 

Cotm. 



AND ITS UTENSILS AND FLVXESi 26, 

form. It will, riot be neceffary to ftir the Ore CQntinually ; but 
when you ceafe to ftir, the rod muft not be t^ken out of the 
crucible but left in it, the upper end refting on the bricks of 
the chimney. 

In the beginning of the calcination, a large quantity of 
fulphureous and arfenical fumes will be difcharged from the 
Ore ; and moft Ores, at this time, emit alfo mpre or lefs of a 
fulphureous flame. As the Ore parts with thefe volatile matters., 
it grows lefs fufible, fo that the fire may be fufFered to encreafe 
a Uttle, in proportion as the Ore is lefs liable to melt. The 
operation muft be thus continued, till the Ore emits no longer 
aiiy yifible fumes. When the crucible is taken out of the fire 
and fmelt at, if it yields no fmell of fulphur, even when it 
hath been expofed to a ftrong red heat, a little inclining to 
white, then it is fufficiently calcined. This procefs generally 
takes three quarters of an hour, and the fire muft be often 
renewed by adding frefh charks, and raw coal. 

In' this procefs, the Ore is freed from the fulphur and arfenick 
which mineralized it, and is now reduced to the Metals and 
ftony fubftances ; but as the Metals cannot be coUeded by 
fufion into a body,, as the ftony parts are infufible,. this makes 
it neceffary to ufe fuch things as will turn thefe ftony matters 
into Glafs, by the following procefs of Scorification. 

Procefs XI. Suppofing. the quantity of Copper Ore made 
ufe of, to be one ounce, ipix with it one ounce and a quarter, 
good weight, . of black flux, and half a thimble full of powdered 
culm ; put thefe into the crucible the Ore w:as calcined in, and 
cover them with nearly half an ounce of fea fait. Fill the 
furnace with charks, and place the crucible in the furnace, 
furrounding it with charks to the brim. After you have covered 
it with a cover, made of the fame compofition with the crucible, 
put on the covering bricks on the mouth of the furnace, when 
the fire will rife, and the matters in the crucible will be heard 
to melt and boil. When thefe appearances have ceafed for fome 
time, remove the bricks, and infped the matters -in the cruci- 
ble ; if the furface is agitated, arid the boiling and/ermentatioa 
continue, the fcorification is not complete. If the fire wants 
mending, mend it; place the. crucible fecurely, clofe the fiir^ 
nace, and. continue the fire,; till the cpntents of the crucible 
flow like oil.. Take.it out of the furnape^: and fuffer it to.cool ; 
when cold, break the crucible, and feparate the;M^tal at.bottom^, 



fi6s OP ASSAYING ORSS AND MINERALS, 

from the fc<yrk. If thefe Appeai" to be quite glaiTy, lucid, and 
bkck, and if they contain no grains of Copper, the fcorification 
is well done. 

In the above procefs, the nitre and tartar are converted into 
an alkaline fait, vi^hich being rendered ftill more vitrefcent by 
the borax, convert the ftony matters contained in the calcined 
Ore, together with a part of the Iron in it, into a true glafs, to 
which the blacknefs is given by the Iron* As this glafs is very 
fuflble and fluid, the grains of Copper now reduced to Metal, 
eafily find their way through it, and unite at the bottom into 
one piece of Metal. The fait is added as it contributes to 
•vitrification, and prevents the matter from rifing in the pot, 
and leaving grains of Metal on its (ides, which would famfy 
the aflay. The powder of eulm is put in, to fupply phlogiflon, 
after what the tartar contained is burned off } and if the opera- 
tion is continued after this, there is danger of the Coppers being 
burned, and deprived of iu phlogiflon ; in which cafe, the 
afTay will be covered with a red fhining heavy friable fubflance, 
which is the calcined Copper melted : to guard againfl this, 
the powdered culm is added. 

The quantity of flux may be varied, according to the richnefs 
of the Ohre. Very rich ones will require much lefs than what is 
ordered ; nothing, however, but pradice and experience, can 
enable a perfon to fix the quantity of flux requiflte. The fur- 
nace for fcoriflcation ought to have a fmart draught ; for if the 
operation takes up much time, the aflay is apt to burn ; about 
fifteen or twenty minutes is fuflicierft for the moft part, if the 
furnace is a good one. 

The lump of Metal from the firfl melting is fcarcely ever fine, 
lieing mixed with Iron, Lead, Tin, or poffibly with all thefe 
Metals ; therefore to feparate them, it muft be refined, for 
which die following is tht procefs : 

Procefs XII. Refining the impure Copper. 

Fill the furnace with charkt, and place a crucible of the 
fecond fize in it. Let the fire rife till the bottom of the crucible 
is white hot) when the button of Copper is to be put into it, 
by means of a fmail pair of forceps or tongs purpofely contrived 
(gt it. As fbon as the Copper is feen to melt, throw on it, by 
mtms of a Imali Copper fcoop, about as much white flux as 

will 



AND ITS UTENSILS AND FLUXES. 263 

will lie on a half crown ; there theft Will be d. getAt bdliilg and 
fermentation in the erticible: when thii ceafe», pour it into 
the ingot flrft fmoked or greafed ; and when the whole is fet, 
plunge it in water to cool it ; feparate the fcoria, and (et them 
by in a ladle. If the button of Copper is not fine, this opera- 
tion mufl be repeated until it is, which ii known by the bright- 
nefs of the colour, it» malleability, and breaking with a fine 
grain. This operation is generally repeated three or four timed, 
or more, before the Copper is quite nne. 

As the white flux contains a large quantity of nitre,, and the 
aqua fortis in it corrodes Iron and Tin more readily than it does 
Copper, thofe Metals are turned into ealx by it, and feparate in 
the form of fcoria along with the flux : fome of the Copper, 
however, is always corroded, and turned into fcoria ; therefore, 
to render the allay perfect, this muft be recovered and brought 
to Copper. In order to this, the next operation or procefs is 
necefiary, which is 

Procefs XIIL The redudion of the fcoria ; and alfo the 
refining the prill. 

Dry all the fcoria of the former procefs which were fet by in 
the Iftdle ; beat them to a powder in the fmall Iron mortar, and 
mix with them about their own weight of tartar powdered, and 
a little powdered culm s cover them with a kyer of fait, and 
melt them as in the procefs of fcorification. When the whole 
is melted perfedly, and flows like oilj pour it into the fmoked 
ingot. The reduced Copper, or as it is more ufually called by 
the Cornifli aflayers, the Prill, will be found beneath the flagg. 
This, too, is always impure Metal, fome part of the other 
Metals being reduced along with the Copper ; the prill muft 
therefore be carefully refined as above, with the white flux, 
adding fome fait immediately after the flux it thrown in. The 
refined prill is then to be added to the button of Copper, and 
both weighed, to determine the quantity of fine Copper, which 
the Ore contained *, from whence a calculation may be made, 
of the contents and value of a ton of Copper Ore. 

The refining the prill is a very nice operation, which the 
Comifh aflayers perform with Angular expertne(s» Thcv judge 
the effed of their fluxes vety nicely, and help them by keeping 
the aflay in the fire for Come time before they pour it ; for fire 
has the lame efleds with nitre in reducing the smper^ Mctids 



^» 



264 OF ASSAYING ORES AND MINERALS, 

to a calx, only it does it flower : the Iron,, Tin, and Leadj 
calcining quicker than Copper, the cffed of fire in refining is 
very evident. Neverthelels, the fuccefsful management of it, 
can only be attained by attention and experience. 

In Copper aflays, the cone is not ufed, but an ingot of a 
peculiar kind. Hollows of a fpheroidal form, are made in a 
piece of Iron or Steel about an. inch thick. Thefe excavations 
are poliflied very fmooth, and the utenfil hath a handle formed 
out of it, fee fig. 7, plate VI. The hollows contain about half 
an ounce of water, and are nearly an inch and quarter diameter. 
Some fmoke thefe hollows with the flame of a candle, and others 
rub them with greafe, or a rag inclofiiig fome tallow, rofin, 
or wax. . 

Procefs XIV. To aflay Copper Ore the regule way. 

Pulverize, fift, and mix the Copper Ore, as in the tenth pro- 
cefs 'y then take the the fame quantity of Ore, with an equal 
part of common powdered black glafs, about a fourth or a fifth 
part of nitre, and half as much borax : mix and put them all 
together in the crucible, covered with one quarter of an inch 
thick of common fait. Melt thefe in the flrongeft fire .you can 
raife in the. wind furnace till they flow fi-ecly, which will take 
fome time longer than a fample of calcined Ore.. When cool, 
break the crucible, feparate the regulus from the fcoria, pulve- 
rize it, and then proceed exadly in the fame manner as with a 
Qalcinable Ore, ut fupra. 

Now, in order to calculate the value of a ton of Copper Ore 
by the produce of an afTayed troy ounce, you are to remember, 
that if one ounce of Ore makes one pennyweight of fine Copper, 
it will be one part in twenty, five pennyweights will be five 
parts in twenty, and fo on : therefore, a perfon who. is familiar 
in the bufinefs, may know the value of a ton of Copper Ore off 
hand, by only afking, how many parts in twenty fuch a fample 
has produced. But this valuation of an aSky depends entirely 
upon a given ftandard price for the ton of fine Copper, be it 
either ninety, ninety-fix, one hundred, or one hundred and five 
pounds flerling. Of courfe, every pound or twenty {hillings 
that the dandard rifes or falls, will make a difference in the 
alTay of one fhilling or a twentieth in every pennyweight, and a 
halfpenny in , every grain : as for inftance, one pennyweight, 
one grain, at ninety-five the flandard, will make the produce 

equal 



AND ITS UTENSILS AND FLUXES. 565 

tqual to four pounds fifteen {hillings the pennyweight, and 
three fhillings and eleven pence halfpenny the grain ; but if the 
ftandard is ninety-fix, the produce muft be valued at four 
pounds fixteen fhillings the pennyweight, and four fhillings the 
grain. Three pennyweights and three grains at ninety-five the 
flandard, will amount to fixteen pounds fixteen fhillings and 
tenpence halfpenny, and at ninety-fix will rife to feventeen 
pounds. 

This mode of calculation being apprehended by the reader, I 
will proceed to a few examples by the rule of pradice, which 
will fet the matter in fo clear and eafy a light, that any perfon 
may calculate an afTay of Copper Ore without the leafl difficulty, 

Suppofe one troy ounce of Copper Ore pro-' t)wts. Gr. 

duces an afTay of fine Copper that weighs — 3 19 

at ninety pounds the flandard value of one ton of X4 '^ 

fine Copper, I firfl multiply the three penny- ■ ' 

weights by four pounds ten fhillings the flandard ', £13 10 

for ten times three fhillings are thirty fhillings, 2 5 * 

and four times three pounds are twelve pounds, i 26 

and with the twenty fhillings from the place of 3 g 

fhillings make one pound more, equal to thir- — - — " ' ■ 

teen pounds ten fhillings : fo that three penny- jTi 713 

weights of fine Copper at ninety, is worth thir- 3 
teen pounds ten fhillings the ton : but here are 



nineteen grains unaccounted for in that price; £14- t 3 
therefore, I fay, twelve grains are one half of 
a pennyweight, equal to two pounds five fhillings ; fix 
grains, the half of that, are equal to one pound two fhillings 
and fixpence : and the one grain remaining, is equal to 
ninety halfpennies ; for, as I have faid before, one grain is 
valued at fo many halfpennies, as the flandard is pounds ; 
therefore one grain is equal to three fhillings and ninepence. 
By adding the whole together ; I fin4 the aflay of three penn^-I 
weights nineteen grains, at ninety, is worth feventeen pounds 
one fhilling and threepence ^ ton o£ Copper Ore. Thefe are 
the grofs proceeds ; but -a^ there is an expence upon the bring- 
ing this ton of Ore into fine Copper, fuch as carriage of the Ore 
to the coal by land or fea, or both, furnaces, labour, coal to 
fmelt it, &c. it mufl be dedufted before we can fix the nett 
value thereof. Thefe returning charges are commonly rated at 
three pounds ^ ton one with another ; fo that, of confequence, 

Y y y <saR, 



^6^ OF ASSAYING OKES AND MINERALS, 

QOe hundred tons of Copper Ore will require three hundred 
pounds expence to bring them into £ne Copper ; and the above 
{byenteen pounds one fhilling and threepence will be reduced to 
9. nett value of fourteen pounds one fhilling and iixpence ; ft 
being cuftomary to reckon no pence below fix. 

Neverthelefs, in fome Ores, thefe returning charges at three 
pounds are over much ; for if it requires but that money to 
imelt Ore of fifty (hillings nett value ^ ton, it certainly cannot 
take the fame to fmelt Ore of thirty or forty pounds ; as many 
of our rich gray Ores (which are naturally regulized) and native 
Copper demand but two or three flowings to be thoroughly 
refined. All thefe things are properly judged and confidered 
by the purchafers, who may add or diminifh their eftimates of 
returning charges as they chu£e, the feller being generally as 
ignorant of the whole as any perfon unconcerned in the anair. 
I fhall fubjoin two or three si&yt at different ftandards, which 
may be calculated by the foregoing rule ; premifing, that if the 
reader would know the quantity of Copper Metal in one ton, 
or any given number of tons of Copper Ore, he mufl divide 
four hundred and eighty by the produce of the aflky, and the 
remainder by twenty, ^d that will fhew what quantity of Ore 
will make a ton of fine Copper. 



Dwt. Gr. 

An afTay of fine Copper weighs i 19 at 95 the ilandard. 



A IS 

276 

139 
3 "* 

£S 10 2k 
£^du^ for returning charges ^3 fuch as fmelting, &c. 

Nett value /" 5 10 6 ^ ton. 



An 



AND ITS UTENSILS AND FLUXES. 26^ 

ft 

Dwts. Gr. 

An aflay of £ne Copper weighs 4 13 at 96 the ftandard. 



>Ci6 
2 

^ I 
2 



4 
8 



/'21 16 
Dedud fot returning charges £% 

Nett value /"iS 16 ^ ton. 



Dwts. Gr. 

An ailay of fine Copper weighs 2 7 at 100 the ftandard. 

I 5 

4 2 



/•ii 9 2 

Dedua 3 



Nett value £B 9 6 ^ ton. 



Procefs XV. To aflay Lead. 

If this Ore is pure, that iS) free from Mundick or the like, 
the procefs is Very eaiy. With ah ounce of the powdered Ore 
mix about eight or nine pentiyweights of frefli Iron filihg^i 
Melt the whole together in a pretty ftrong fire till it flows per- 
fedlly thin ; then pour it into a greafed cohe or ingot j kad; 
when cold, feparate it from the icoria at top. If the feparatidh 
fliould be diflicult, put the whole into an Iron ladle,- and VrhtH 
the ladle is red hot, the Lead will melt, and run from the fcoria, 
and will pour out perfedly fine Metal. 

As through the violence of the heat in the firft melfihgj 'thi 
Lead will take into it fome of the Iron ufed in fl.\WL\sv^^s.\ SxS& 



368 OF A^SSAYUiJG ORES Ai^D MINERALS, 

therefore neceffary to remelt it in "an Iron ladle, when the Iron 
will immediately rife at top, i^ fornk of fcoria, when the Lead 
may be eafily poured ofF, and tliie. fcoria will he left in the ladle. 
A little tallow may be added before the Lead is poured off, 
which will reduce fome of the, Lead that was burned, and in- 
creafe the produce. 

In this operation, the Iron- having a ftronger attradion to 
iulphur than Lead, frees the Lead from it, which by this means 
is reduced to its metallick form. _ The Iron is alfo mineralized 
by the Lead, which is evident, by its melting the Mundick 
fhine, which thofe fcoria exhibit when broke ; but efpecially by 
falling abroad when expofed to the air, and being convertible 
into copperas, juft in the fame manner as the fulphureous 
Marcafites are. 

If Lead Ores have arfenical pyrites mixed with them, the 
affay is more difficult ; for in this, cafe, they muft be calcined 
like Copper Ores, and all the arfenick muft be evaporated. By 
adding powdered charcoal in proportion to one quarter the 
weight of the Ore, it will expedite the calcination, and prevent 
it from running into lumps, which it is very apt to do. 

When it is calcined, itmuft be mixed with its own weight, 
or more, of black flux, and about a quarter or fifth part of 
Iron filings ; put on them a layer, of fait, and melt down, till 
it flows thin ; then pour it out, and treat the Lead as was done 
in the former procefs, to, free it from the Iron. 

The ufe of the calcination in this laft procefs, is to difcharge 
the arfenick, which renders the Iron eafily ftifibje ; and- if the 
Ore was not calcined, would fall down, in a reguline form, 
together with the Lead, and render it impure. Befides, it 
would cdujfe an imperfed feparation of the fcoria, and keep up 
a great deal of the Lead amongft them; for, as this affenical 
regulus would incorporate; with. the Lead, the mixture would 
be much lighter than Lead. The Iron filings are added, to 
abforb the vitriolick acid that ipay be left in the Ore after 
calcination. 

Lead is aflTayed for Silver or Gold on the cuppel, as diredled 
before ; and all the Silver it contains above twelve troy ounces 
in the ton, is profit. 

Procefs 



AND ITS UTENSILS AND FLUXES. 269 
Procefs XVI. To affay Tin Ore, called Black-Tin. 

The method of aflaying Tin Ore is very eafy ; for in its form 
and fize of Black-Tin (which is the Ore dreffed by ftamping, 
fcveral wafhings, and calcination, if mineralized with vitriolick, 
arfenical, or fulphureous pyrites) great part of the work is done 
to the aflayer's hand ; fo that little more remains, than to pro- 
ceed to immediate fufion, which is prefently accomplifhed by 
a red heat, in the following procefs. 

Take four or five ounces of Black-Tin as emptied from the 
facks ; mix it well with about one-fifth part of its weight of 
powdered culm ; put the mixture in a Black-Lead crucible on 
the wind furnace, and in twenty minutes (more or lefs, accord- 
ing to the ftrength of the fire, and the greater or lefs fufibility 
of the Ore) you will find the Metal precipitated as far as may 
be to the bottom of the crucible, the culm and fcoria floating 
on the Tin, not in a vitrified, but loofe unconnected ftate. 
Ybu will generally fee globules of Tin lying on the furface of 
this matter ; you fhould therefore with an Iron rod ftir the 
mixture, by which means riloft of thofe globules will fall 
through it into the Tin at the bottom. Clofe the furnace, and 
let the whole remain in fufion from three to five minutes. 
Keep by you an Iron or Brafs mortar, and an ingot mould of 
about fix inches in length, fig. R, plate VI. Pour the Tin 
into the ingot, and empty the culm and fcoria into the mortar, 
icraping off what remains in and about the crucible (which 
ihould always be of the Black-Lead kind) with a fharp ironJ 
As foon as cold, put them into another mortar and pulverize 
them, firft in a fmall degree, fo as to feparate the fcoria from 
the largeft of the globules of Tin, fome of which will always 
remain therein after pouring out the ingot as before diredted. 
Select the larger globules, and pulverize the remainder a fecond 
time ; then put' this fluff fo twice powdered on a fhovel, and 
paffing it often through water, in the fame manner as the lighter ^ 
parts are walhed from Ore in vanning, you will have the fmaller ''^ 
globules remaining on the. (hovel ; and thefe with the larger W 
(both together generally called Pillion-Tin) being added to^ 
and weighed with the ingot, (hew the produce in Metal of the 
four or five ounces affayed. 

Procefs XVII. To aflay. Cobalt. 

Z z z Takft 



£70 OF ASSAYING OKBB AND MINERALS, 

Take a bit of the Mineral fuppofed to be Cobalt, with its 
"weight of borax ; put both into a broken china cup, and blow 
<m them with 9. blow-pipp till they axe perfcdly melted and 
vitrified. Jf the china-ware is tinged blue in the fpot where 
the Ore was placed, it contains Cobalt. But as fome Ores 
contain Cobalt and Mundick together, in which cafe the Iron 
would render the Glafs black, the beft way is regularly to affay 
the Ore which is fuppofed to contain Cobalt, as follows : 

Calcine an ounce of the Ore in the fame manner as Copper 
Ore is directed to be calcined, only the calcination need not be 
carried fo far ; for as foon as the fulphureous flame evidently 
difeppears, it is fufficiently calcined. Melt the calx with black 
flux, as dire<Sted in the fcorification of Copper Orp . Pour it 
out in the ingot, and melt a little of the regule with five or fix 
times its weight of flint glafs, and a little borax, for half an 
hour in a fmall crucible. If the glafs is of a fine blue colour^ 
the regulus is pure ; but if the glafs is black, it contains Iron» 
and muft be refined with the white flux, in the fame way as is 
dire<^ed in refining the Copper aflfay. As long as the fcoria are 
black or brown, the regule cantains Iron ; 'but as foon as the 
fboria, and fides of the crucible, are tinged blue, it is fine : and 
if thisi does not happen, when the whole of the regule is con- 
fumed, Uie Mineral contained no Cobalt. The goodnefs and 
value of the Mineral is eftimated by the quantity of pure regulus 
it c^ontained. If there is any Silver or Bifinuth mixed with, 
the Cobalt, they will neither of them mix mtit the cobalttne 
regulus ', but, on breaking the pot, will be foimid quite 
di^in^ from it : and it is the hms if the mateer is poured 
into an ingot. 

This regulus ia not to be made malleahlfe, but fi-om this 
proce& is evidently that which flrikes the colour : fer a. further 
proof,) take two ouneea of fmalt or powder blue, mix it witk 
i%% weight of argol or tartar,, and it will: depofit in fufioa the 
regulus^ that gave the cplowr. Maj it not be Susly concluded 
ff^^ hence, that aU the Semi^aMtak which flxike any colour,. 
^:kU depofit a reguhis. wdtkk is the eflicicott cau£e of it ? But; 
^ knowkdgo of this loahiable htai^ucli of Mineralogy^ i& yet in. 
its infancy with us. 

Procefs XVIII. To aflay Bflbuth. 

Bifmuth 



AND ITS UT£NS:i5LS ANB l?iA^XfiS. 471 

Bifisftuth is eafily fepar^le (edm k% Ote-y tifid May be proctired 
pure by melting the Ore in a tnaic^le in a ^dAttotc fire, with- 
out any fl«x; but if.it i« very ii)S)pui-e, aii ^Mitioh of the black 
flux will foon fufe it : however, the fife ttitift ttot be too fierce, 
for if it be, the Bifmuth will be loft. 

To difcover Silver in Goflolis <Mr vety pbdr Ores. 

Any Goflatis or Very poor Ores which are fu^^ofed to contain 
Silver, being calcined and mixed with three times their Weight 
of litharge, may be aflayed as direifted in the pfbcefs fot iffayirig 
Mundick ; only there will be lio heed of Gkfs^ as the Ores arfe 
fuppofed to be ftony. Care muft be taken, that the fcoria are 
thin at the laft, either by the continuance of the fire (by which 
Htharge will be formed from the Lfead at bottohi) or by the 
addition of litharge, as direded in the afbrefaid |)r6cefs. Th^ 
china-ware crucible is alfo beft hett. 



CHAP. II. 

Of Smelting of Copper Ores in the great Furnaces called 

Copper Works. 



TO form a juft and general idea of the conftru^ioli of 
furnaces, and of the difpofition of the feveral apertures in 
them, with a view to increafe or diminifh the activity of the 
fire, it will be proper to lay down, as our ground-Work, certain 
principles of natural philofophy founded on experience. 

Firft, Every one kmrns that combu^Me matters will not 
bum or confume unlefs they have a fi^ CMttrittimcation with 
the air, inibmuch that if they be deprived thereof, eVCA when 
burning moll rapidly, they will be tt^hpiiOtM M. 6nce ; that, 
confequently, combuftion is greHtlf pi*omoted by tftte irec^neiit 
acceflion of frefh air ; and that a ftream of air, direded fo as to 
pds with impetuofity throttgh btirMftg fuel, eiteites the fii^ to 
the greatclil pofiible a^ivity. 

» 

Secondly, k is ceita^ tim th6 air Whieh toiithes or conies 
near igi^ed bodvs^ k &e&t«d, r^ffed^ and retidettd Vb^<e^ 



372 OF SMELTING OP COPPER ORES 

thiin the aif about it, that is further diftant from the center of 
the heat, and confequently that this air fo heated and become 
lighter, is neceffarily determined thereby to afcend in order to 
make room for that which is lefs heated and not fo light, which 
by its weight and elafticity tends to occupy the place quitted by 
the other : another confequence hereof is, that if fire be kindled 
in a place enclofed every where but above and below, a current 
of air will be formed in that place, running in a diredion from 
the bottom to the top ; fo that if any light bodies be applied to 
the opening below, they will be carried up towards the fire ; 
but, on the contrary, if they be held at the opening above, 
they will be impelled by a force which will drive them up, and 
carry them away from the fire. 

Laftly, It is a demonftrated truth in hydraulicks, that the 
velocity of a given quantity of any fluid determined to flow in 
any diredion whatever, is fo much the greater the narrower the 
channel is to which that fluid is connned, and confequently 
that the velocity of a fluid will be increafed by making it run 
from a wider through a narrower paflage. Thefe principles 
being eftabliflied, it is eafy to apply them to the conftru£tioa 
of furnaces. 

' The materials fitteft for building furnaces are, bricks joined 
together with potter's clay mixed with fand, and moiftened 
with water ; potter's clay mixed with potfherds, moiftened with 
water, and baked in a violent fire : alfo Stourbridge clay, and 
many of our tal'cy clays to be had in great plenty in the Comifh 
foft grouan flrata, mixed and baked in the fame manner. 

The only kind of furnace for fmelting Ores where bellows 
are not employed, is what is called a Reverberatory Furnace. 
The Germans call it a Wind Furnace. It is alfo diftinguiflied 
by the name of Englifh Furnace, becaufe the invention of it is 
attributed to an Englifh phyfician. The Copper furnaces bear 
four names, viz. the Calciner, which is the largeft ; the Ope- 
ration, Roafler, and Refiner, which are all of one gauge or 
nearly fo both in fhape and fize. 

The hearth or bed of the calciner fhould be eighteen feet 
long and thirteen feet wide within, by two feet ten inches at a 
medium from its concave back to the bottom, which muft be 
fl.af. The fire .place three feet four inches long, by two feet 
^ri^c and two feet deep, fo £^ to have two feet of flame to pafs 

over 



IN 'fHE GREAT F^trtR N ACE S. ' 2.7s 

over the Ore in calcination. The length arid breadth of the 
mafonry of this furnace fhould be -in proportion from out to 
out as they exprefs it, viz. twenty-four feet long, by eighteen 
wide. 

Fig. 14, plate VI, reprefents a longitudinal fedion of a- te^- 
verberatory furnace ufed in the fmelting of Coppec Ores : i. the 
mafonry ; 2. the afh-hole 5 3. a channel for the evaporation of 
the moifture ; 4. the grate.; 5. the fire place ; 6. the inner part 
of the furnace ; 7. a bafoh formed of land j 8. the cavity where 
the melted Metal is ; (that is, in the refinery, becaufe the Metal 
there is not tapped but laded out by an Iron ladle, therefore the 
bottom is concave, but thofe of the operation and roafter are 
flat) 9. a hole through which the fcoria are to be raked or re- 
moved ; 10. the pafiage for the flame and fmoke^ or the lower 
part of the chimney which is to be tarried up to a height of 
about thirty feet ; 1 1 . a hole in the roof, arch, or crown of the 
furnace,' where the Ore is put in — ^This furnace is eighteen feet 
Idiig, comprehending all -the mafonry ; twelve feet broad, and 
nine and a half feet high — The hearth or bottom is raifed three 
feet above the level 6( the foundery : on one fide is the fire 
place j under which is an afh-hole hollowed in the earth ; -on 
the other fide is a bafon made, which is kept covered with fire 
when there is occafion : on the anterior fide of this furiiace 
there is a chimney, which receives the flame after it has pafled 
over the Ore that is laid -upon the hearth. This hearth, which 
is in the interior part of the furnace, is made of a clay capable 
of fuftaining the fire. This furnace has a hole in its front 
through which the fcoria are drawn out ; and a bafon, as we 
have faid, on one fide, made with fand, in which are oblong traces 
for the reception of the regulus, matt, or black Copper, when 
the furnace is tapped. 

The infide of this furnace is commonly an elliptick curve j 
becaufe it is demonflrated by mathematicians, that fur^ces 
having that curvature reflect the rays of the fun, or of fire, in 
fuch a manner, that, meeting in a point or line, the^ produce 
there a violent heat. The moft advantageous fize of the melt- 
ing area of tjhiis furnace is feven feet ten inches long, four feet 
eight inches broad, and two feet high at a medium. The fire 
place two feet eight inches long, by two feet wide, fb as to form 
one foot nine inches fire : the refining furnace has alfo two fide 
doors, one for raking or ikinmiing, the other for lading* 

A a a a ^'^%- 



5^74 OF SMELTIKO OF COPPER ORES 

Fig. i5» plate VI. repcefents the upper pUn pf the fiirn^z;^ 
of. which fig. 14 is a fc^on : i. the outer wall j 2. the draughty 
hok commuiucating with the aih-hole ; 3. the doo« througk 
which foflil coal is thrown into the fire place ; 4. the pbcei 
where an opening is made to let the melted Metal flow out of 
the furnace ; 5. an opening through which the fcoria aie raked 
and drawn offy 6. the bafon made of fand where the MetM lie* ;. 
7. the fire place with an Iron grate ^ 8. a fmall pertitioa ooe^ 
brick thick between the fire pilace and the area of the furnace, 
over which the flame pafe— ^This is called the Bridge. 

Copper is generally mineralized, not only by fulphiir and 
arfenick, but alfo by Semi-metals and pyritous matters, and ist 
fi^uently mixed with other Metajs. As this Metal has great 
affinity with (ulphur and arfenick, it is almoil impoffiUe t^ 
difcngage it fi:om them eatirdy by roafting : hence in the fmelt- 
ing in great, nothing is obtained by the firil operation but aa 
impure' Copper, which contains all the principles of the Of e> 
excepting the earthy and ftony p«rt$, particvikrly when the. 0«j 
is finelted crude and unroafted. However^ the Copper Ore whea 
brought to the works in fome few places is refined by vepeate^ 
iineltings and roaftings without calcination } but a» I prop^fe 
to dcfcribc all the procefles for its ultimate refineiy^ I dM 
begin with that of calcination, which in moil pliuces is nearl}^ 
thus. 

A certain quantity of the Ores, called a charge, from ten, .to 
thirty, or forty hundred weight, is put into the caleiner> where 
it is frequently ftirred in fuch a heat as will not melt it, during 
a tide or twelve hours, more or Icfs as the nature or nxixture of 
the Ores require: two, three, four, or five hundred weight of 
this Ore is then put with five, four, three, or two hundred 
weight of raw Ore into an operation furnace. The fire is made 
very intenfe, and the whole becoming fluid and thin at the end 
of four hours the flag is fkimmed or drawn off through the hole 
of the furnace no. 5, fig. 15, plate VI, by an Iron rake called 
a. Rabble, Another like quantity of Ore is put in, and the 
fame manoeuvres being thrice repeated, the greater part of the 
remainder, being thus ikimmed, in a flate of ^uidity, and 
under a great heat, it at the end of twelve hours let out by a 
tapf^hole in the fide of the furnace no. 4, fig. 15, plate VI, into 
a bed of land where it forma itfelf into pegs or pigs, and is now 
a regulus. Thcfe pegs arc taken before they are cold, and on 
Iron wheel barrows are conveyed and plunged into a trough or 

- ■' ciftern 



IN THE GREAT FURNACES. 275 

dftcfn of cold w^ter. From thence the regulus is carried to a 
horie mill, and there reduced almoil to. a powder. In fome 
places this is done by women, girls, and hoys, for the fake of 
employii^ them,, which they teem buckioig the regulys, and is 
performed the fame as bucking defcribed in. our chapter upon 
drefling Copper Ores. In this condition it is carried to a fur- 
nace, called a Metal Calciner, where a quantity from fifteen to 
forty hundred weight (according to. the capacity of the furnace) 
is fpread over the bottom^ awlj by fvch a fire as, will not juft, 
melt it, again calcined for abput two tides ojc twenty-four hours; 
From thence it is drawn • out, cooled by water, and carried t» 
the Met$4 furnac^^ where it is fufed, fkimmed, and tapped out 
at the end of twelve hours in pegs,, mwh in the manner of the 
operation, furnace before defcrihed.. The! rpafting furnace next 
takes this Metal (as the workmen call it, though it is very far 
from being in a flatf of malleability] whole iA the pegs, where 
they are roafted fixteen or eighteen hoi4r^, and when the fire is 
ri^n, they are melted, ikimmcd, .aa.d tapped as before. This 
operation of roafting and flowing, &c. is repeated three or four 
times ; fome Copper Afetal evidently appearing in it, it; JA carried 
to the coarfe refining furiwP^,^ from I'ifhenc.e when mi?lted», fkim- 
med, and ready fp^ its exit;) it is not tapped^ lpu.t ^ken Qi|t. in 
Ir9n ladles and thrown into .oblong IrQa pots or mQulds by a 
ladle full at a time, each mould containing about one hundred 
and a half. A quantity of this fine Copper from fixteen to 
twenty-five hundred weight according to the capacity of the 
fuirnace and iii^e of the works* i^ p,nt iato the refiner,, pr refi- 
ning furnace, where being again melted by an intenfe heat^ 
fkimmed, and otherwife rendered proper for the pjwpofe, it; is 
again laded out in {vich fhapes; and qiiuntities, as the mafiber or 
diredor of the works requires^ and may befl fuit the rolling 
mill, the battery mill, or the other demands of the m^u- 
fadurers. 

I fhall make no mentloa of extcSi^bing the fmll quantities of 
Copper and heterogeneous Metals which remain in the flags or 
fc9ria fkimmed off in the feveraj operations, Vfhitjl aftejc extrac>- 
tion is often mixed with fome others to make thofe inferior 
Metals called Pot-m^tal, Mapi^lions, 8w. nor gf th^ jfevw^l 
kinds o{ fluxes which aie.few.iind diff€rQitlv,ii{e4 hj diferf^t 
Qpcrators, neither can it be of fervice to any but an adept in the 
bi)finefs.r My intention is only to give a general idea of the 
pincefles ia.fiudting as far as they have fallen under my obfer- 
vation, and not meddle with the private manufactory or cecono- 



276 OF SMELTING OF COPPER ORES 

mical applications of thofe objects of trade and commerce. The 
reader may obferve how much more tedious, difficult, and cx- 
pcnfive the refinery of Copper is, compared to that of Tin, and 
therefore may be lefs furprifed at the difference which fometimes 
happens to be between the buying price of Ores, and the felling 
price of Copper. That we may illuftrate the labour, expence, 
and complicated calcinations, roaftings, fmeltings, and melt- 
ings, for the refinery of Copper, which do not amount to lels 
than twelve or fourteen operations, we fubjoin an eftimate of 
the confumption of coal in working one hundred tons of 
Copper Ore. 

Weys Ch. Bufh. 
To calcining fifty tons of Ore, one chaldron 

of coal to four tons — i—-— — 6 o 18 

To reduce ditto with fifty tons of raw Ore to 
a regulus, each two tons of Ore requiring 
one chaldron of coal — — — —— 2C' o o 

Tb calcining forty-two tons of ditto, each ton 
holding thirty parts of Copper in one hun- 
dred of regulus, one chaldron of coal to 
two tons of Ore — ^ — — «.— «— jo i o 

To melting thirty-eight tons of ditto, the 
other four being evaporated in thc^calci-^ 

nation — — — '—— — •— — »' 9 10 

1 ■'■ 

To bring forward in the roafters fifteen tons, • 

thirteen hundred of Metal from the rcgule, 
holding eighty parts of fine Copper in one 
hundred, divided into ten loads, each re- . 
quiring three roaftings to bring it to coarfe 
Copper, each roafting confuming eighteen 
bumels of coal —.«-,-, — — — y j o 

To refining the fame, being twice laded — 6 10 

To reduce the flags of the whole fuppofing 
them thirty tons — i««-».— •— ■— 7 i o 

72 I 18 

i 

Thus 



IN THE GREAT FURNACES. 277 

Thus we fee that the Copper of pyritous Ores cannot be ob- 
tained without feveral operations, which vary according to the 
nature of the Ores. Thefe operations are chiefly by roaftings 
and fulions ; and by the interference of calcinations in fome 
portion of the fame Ores likewife. By the firft fufion a matt or 
reguhis is produced, which is afterwards to be roafted ; and 
thus the fufions and roaftings are to be alternately applied, till 
by the laft fufion Copper is obtained. 

Thefe methods of treating pyritous Ores depend on the two 
following fadls : i . Sulphur is more difpofed to unite with Iron 
than with Copper. 2. The Iron of thefe Ores is deftruftible 
by the burning fulphur during the roafting or fufion of the Ores, 
while the Copper is not injured. This fad: appears from the 
daily praftice of fmelting cupreous Ores highly impregnated 
with Mundick that is either fulphureous or arfenical. 

From thefe fadts we learn, that fulphur may be employed to 
feparate and deftroy Iron mixed with Copper ; and that on the 
other hand. Iron, or Gal, or GofTany Ores, may be ufed to fe- 
parate the fulphur from Copper ; fo that by adjufting the pro- 
portion of fulphureous -mundicky, arfenical -mundicky, and 
Goffany Copper Ores, to each other in the fmelting, thofe 
fubftances may be made to deftroy each other, and procure a 
feparation of the Copper, in which the greateft art and myftery 
of the fmelting bufinefs conflfts. (Scheffer, Schlutter, Margraaf, 
Macquer.) 

The firft Cornifli Copper Ores (in order I fuppofe to avoid 
having the procefs of fmelting divulged) were carried to Briftol. 
A palpable miftake was committed in this cafe, as it was necef- 
fary to fuftain a double expence of carriage. This was, how- 
ever, foon reftified ; and moft of the different companies ereded 
their Copper works in fome fpot of Wales, convenient for the 
carriage of the coals from a neighbouring colliery ; and likewife 
with the advantages of a little harbour. It is a circumftance of 
fome importance, while we confider this affair, to obferve, 
that, as the numerous fire engines employ a large fleet of 
colliers to fupply their demands, fo the back carriage of the 
Ore is by no means fo confiderable as it would otherwife be. 
But let us turn our eyes to the flourifhing ftate of Swanfey, 
Neath, and thofe other parts of Wales, which have been fo 
very fortunate, as to become the fadories of the different Copper 
companies j and let us confider thofe populous towns as owin^ 

B b b b ^€\s. 



278 OF SMEI.TING QF COPPER ORES 

thdr exiftence and wealth to o\ir indolence and inattention. . 
The evil hitherto has feemed irremediable to t;he fpiritlefs inha- 
bitants of our county, from the vaft opulence of the different 
companies, whofe intcreft it mufl be to fupport the prefent 
fyftem, the channel of their wealth. They know> that it would 
require a greater purfe than any one or two private gentlemen 
are able to furnifh. It was however attempted, about fe- 
venty years fince, by Mr. Scobell, at Polruddan in St. Auftle, 
with whom Sir Talbot Clark and Mr. Vincent joined, where 
the firft piece of Copper ev^? made fo in this county, was 
fmelted, refined, and brought to perfection. After this John 
Pollard, Efq; of Redruth, and Mr. Thpmas Worth, of St. Ives, 
made a fecond trial ; but both thefe attempts failed of fuccefs, 
more through ill management, rpguery of the workmen, and the 
improper fituation of their works, than any extraordinary charge 
of the fuel. After thefe, o^e Gideon Cofier, of Piran Zabuloe, 
ereded an houfe for the like purpofe at Pen-pol in the parifli 
of Phillack, but being foon taken off by a Fever, when he had 
nude a fair progrefs in it, the fame was carried on by Sir William, 
Pendarves and Robert -Corker, Efq; who have both afTured the 
writer (Thomas Tonkin, Efq;) that they cpvW fmelt their Ore 
a$ cheap (all hazards eonfidered) as the cpmp^i^s opuld pr^tend^ 
to do at their wprks in Wales. They did fp accordingly for 
fome years ; but being fince dead, and their affairs falling intp 
fuch hands as had other interefts to mind> this .projcd too funk 
with them. A fmall beginning was ajifo made to the fame pur- 
pofe at Lenobrey in St. Agnes, where they fmelted fome Copper 
with good fuccefs ; but were obliged to give it over for want of 
a, fu&ient flock to go o^i with it. 

From all thefe infant eflays and fome obfcrvations made and 
gathered from workmen abroad, but chiefly from the late Mr. 
Cofier, largely concerned in the White Rock Wprks at Swacnfey, 
who owned to Mr. T. that mofl of o^r Oyes might be {melted 
^arly as cheap here as abroad ; I am convinced (if we allow 
for the gr«at falaries the faid companies are obliged to give to 
their agents here and elfewhere ; the hazard of Ore on fhip- 
board in time of war, and double freight to pafs and repafs our 
QWn inhofpitable coaft, with the ififk of being cafl on their na- 
tive diore) nay, I believe it wou)d anv)\int to a de^ionflration, 
that it might be done much cheaper and more advantageoufly ii^ 
iome convenient places in this QO^iity than in Wales, ^otwith-r 
jUndiiig this, it has been the refinetacot pf Cprni(h policy to fu^er 

thq 



IN THE ORE AT F VHN AQES. 279^ 

the exportation of their raw ftaple, in order to, g^v^ ott^ejf 
countries the benefit of its nianufadu^pe I 

To remedy this intolerable grievance, a propofal was made 
to fome of the principal gentlemen of ijh^ cov^nty, to join in a 
petition to her Majefty Queen A^ne (and h^4 PiQ^ ^er fUjd/fen 
death prevented it, it might have been efeded} th^t he;* M?,- 
jefty would be pleafed to lay it before her p^^Jiap^en^, tq ha,Y9 
our Copper Mines fubjed to the ft^^nary \^\^.s in a]|l ttiing? 
(except being under bounds) and have the Copper coined at the 
neighbouring coinage towns, as th^ Tin \^, under a du^y 9^ one 
fhilling ^ hundred of fine (Copper Xo be paid to. tl?\e Du^;e ^ 
Cornwall ; which, as it wo\ild be an addition to the di^c^ 
revenue, and inanaged without any furcharge by the f^ipe cd^r 
age pfficers, fq would it e^e^u^iy fec^re X^p, fmelting aQ^ 
refining all the Copper Ores wi^l^if) ^^^ PP^^^y, by degrees ^et 
us into the trv\e valvje of qyr comniodity, and the pianagen^ei^t: 
of it, as e^fy as that pf Tw i ^^^4 f^V^herrnqre cqi^fine t^^^ 
labouT and prpfit^ iu the n;i^nufa<^Qry thereof ^mqng ou^f^lvf ^, 
Tl^is fmaU fliepiofial of t^^p abqye de%n,. Mf. T. ^ys, 1^9 hs^ 
left behind hm %o bf digefte4 in t»e^tey of4?r by vifey He^d&, 
whenever they fef conyeniei^^ feafqn tQ put it in e^jeputioi^. 
(A^onyn^. ^ddrefs, TP^I^ins M33*) 

Thus far had been attempted the fmelting of Copper Ore in 
Cornwall, whipb it mul^ be pwpe4 J\ad bepn frvjftr^ted ^hfQVgh 
the confederacy qf oppoiite interefted cofrip^ifis, ancj the w^ftt 
of fufficient in%ht intp the ^rt of fufiqn n^ore thian ftoni \he 
attributed extraordinary expence of fuel ;, ^ill abotut the yeqr 
1754, %yhen one S^mpfp^ Swaine, in ponj^n<^jqn ^yitt fpipe, 
gentlemen of Camborne, ere<9;ed furnape^ at ^ntraj in %h^.% 
parifli ; but: thpiy fituation J>ping top r^inoite frpp^ coatj tl^gy 
removed their works to Hayle. The author very well remem- 
bers the combinations which were formed to overthrow this 
laudable effort. The companies left no method unfought to 
traduce the credit, and f^ab the vitals of this undertaking. 
Threats and remonftrances were equally ufed to oblige or cajole 
the owners of the Mines to abandon or fupprefs the new company 
at Hayle. The opponents of this affociation ufing every expe- 
dient to mortify the fpirit of this arduous undertaking, alter- 
nately raifed the price of Copper Ores, and lowered the value 
pf fine Copper, to the great lofs of the contending pities ; 
which will ever be the cafe where monopolies are difturbed, and 
the almighty power of opulence can prevail. But happening to 



28o OF SMELTING OF COPPER ORES. 

Have men of fortune and capatity at their head, they were 
founded in prudence, and withftood the fhocks of power and 
artifice. 

That it will anfwer to fmelt Copper Ores on this fide the 
channel, is undeniably demonflrable by the thriving fituation of 
this Cornifh Copper Company, who would not foVaflly increafe 
the number of their furnaces without having experienced the 
benefit of their undertaking. 

Similar to that, another company erected works at North- 
Downs in Redruth a few years back. Perhaps their fmall be- 
ginning did not excite the notice of the other companies : how- 
ever, their induflry and oeconomy have been fuccefsful ; and 
after having enlarged their works in that unfit place, at a great 
expence, they have now removed the fame to Tregew, on a 
branch of Falmouth harbour, for the more profitable conducing 
the concern. I have further to add, from the befl authority, 
that they are thriving under this removal and many other difad- 
vantages. It is much to be wifhed, that fome fjiirited gentlemen 
would imitate their example ; and as fuch a ftep would be of 
great advantage to themfelves and the community, I will fup- 
pofe they will, e'er long, fee with their own eyes and judge for 
themfelves. 

In thi& little hiflory of fmelting Copper, no notice hath been 
taken of thofe who attempted the praAice of boiling and roafling 
at the fame fire. In faft, nothing could profper in fuch hands. 
Neither can we commend the temerity and improvidency of 
thofe who built their furnaces like churches, upon the fame 
plan ; not well confidering, that a heat for the fufion of flub- 
born Ores, can fcarcely be too focal or concentrated. 



CHAP. 






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C H.A P. III. , 

~ '- ■• - ...■; . ..• . . 

Of Smelting Tin Ore, or Black Tin, in, the great Furnaces at, 

the Smelting-Houfe. . .- 



S Tin was the fole metallick produce of the earlier ages,> 

fo it is more than probable-, the raw Mineral was never; 

exported. It would be hard to fuppofe the Phenicians, who- 
carried the arts to fo great perfedionj would be at the pains ofc 
tranfporting the ufelefs fcoria to fo great a diilance ; efpecially,: 
when the woods, with which the country in thofe days was. 
over-run, afforded fo eafy a method of reducing it by fufion. 
into a fmaller compafs. Some late difcoveries, where the char- 
coal and drofs of the Metal have been found mixed together,: 
liave given us an idea of their procefs, which was to dig a holcj 
in the ground, and throw the Tin Ore on a charcoal fire, which 
probably was excited by a bellows. Agreeably to the iimplicity. 
of the times, no notion was entertained, of confining the fiie,. 
to make it a£t more forcibly on the fubftance to befmelted 5 na 
furnace cither fimple or- reverberatory had ever been made ufe 
of. The natural confequences of this were an undue confump-* 
tion of fuel, and a. great lof* in the produce of the^ Ores ; as the 
more ftubborn parts would not give way to that degree of heat, 
which by this method they were able to. apply to them- 

' ■' - ■•• • ■■ . • ■ ■ • '•'■• • "'■ 

• The little int^reourfe that fubfifted in former dmts, between 
this county and its oppofite fhore, has beea attended with a fatal 
and laft4ng inconvenience : I mean the devaftatioa of its woods* 
Nature feems to have difcovered her reludance . in ' depriving 
herfelf of the ornament and protedion her woods afibrd hcrf;:.by 
fubftituting a foHil which poffefies all* the advant^es of [a. cheap 
and durable fire. Though this fubterraneous fuel hath not y^ 
been, nor perhaps ever will be difcovered. to be a natiye-;tf 
-Cornwall, yet fuch is its portablenefs,[that we: are enabled tp 
procure it from Wales, at a cheaper rate than . coiiunon'; fire 
wood, including the expences of felling and carriage. So long, 
indeed, as an undue quantity of wood land rendsered its; <on- 
(umption necefTary for the purpofe of purifying -the. dir, :and,tp 
-make room for more ufeful piodudion& (and £ich,. undoubtedly 
was the fituation of this'^county.on the £rfl difcof ery of Britain) 
-ib long was it>a- piadicechighly^coQUQendable .to.emploY.the 
■ • ^- C c c c W^^i 



282 OF SMELTING TIN ORE, OR BLACK 

fuper abundant fuel to fo beneficial a purpofe. But when we 
behold a wide and barren wafte, extending itfelf throughout the 
whole Mining diftrid of this county, without a tree to intercept 
the fury of the wind, we have no reafon to commend the pru- 
dence of our anccftors, in thus dsftivrng their demefiie of its. 
neceflary fhelter. 

It is ftill a pleafing refledion to confider, that one of the moft 
efiential maxims of ftate hats bocn conAantly adhered to, I metn 
that of manu&during their Tin at home. The pradice at £rft 
was obrious : the wood probably grew on the margin of the 
fliaft from whence the Ore was raifed, and it muft have been 
neceilary. to clear large fpots of it, to give the Miner room to 
place his Tin*ftu£F and ered his engines. The great demand 
for this article which no known part of the world at that time 
produced, occaiioned a fcarcity of fuel to be very early felt, and 
the heavy expence of fetching wood from diftant parts naturally 
enhanced the price of Tin. The difcovery, or, rather, the 
introdudion of fea coal, made a great alteration in the Mining 
{y&em : this valuable fubilitute came into general ufe, and put 
a Aop to that rarage of coppice which was travelling infeniibly 
to the eaftward ; and though the obfervation may be new, yet 
it appears clearly to me, that we ftand indebted to our neigh"> 
hours the Welch for even the imall quantity of wood land that 
fiiU temains in the eaftera part of the country. 

Neceffity at lail fuggefted the introdudion of pit-coal for the 
fmelting of Tin Ore ; and among others, to Sir Bevil Granville, 
of Stow, in this county. Temp. Car. I. who made (everal ex- 
periments, though without fuccefs : neither did the efiedual 
belting of Tin Ore with pit-coal take place, till the iecond 
year of queen Anne, when a Mr. Liddell, with whom Mr. Moult, 
a noted Chytnift, was concerned, obtained her Majefty's patent 
ioi fmelting Black Tin with fofiil-coal in Iron furnaces. The 
invention of reverberatory furnaces built with brick, ftone, fand, 
Ikne, and clay, foon fc^owed this difcovery ; the form of 
■which, being fimple, has admitted little improvement to the 
prefent time. 

The Tin fmelting furnace diiFers little from that made ufe of for 

iinelting Cc^per, only it is not quite £o deep, as it is tapped at 

erery charge. The charge for one of thefe furnaces is from five 

to fix hundred weight of Black Tin, well mixed with a tenth 

^ra twelfth ks weight of culm* Thisiiiniace it charged through 



TIN, IN THE GREAT FURNACES. ^83 

A hole in the fide (diredly oppo£te to the tap>hole} through 
which it is thrown into the fuxnaee with a {hovels and levelled 
over the bottom with an Iron rake or paddle from the mouth. 
This done the apertures are immediately cloied, and the £r& 
raifed to a very great ftrength) in wldch ftate it is left between 
four and five hours, when the door is taken off, and the whole 
charge is well ftirred together. The foreman of the work at 
this time examines the fiate of the Metal, &c. ^nd if he thinks 
it convenient, orders an additional quantity of culm, at his 
difcr^tion, to be put into the furnace, which is clofed again 
and left in this condition, the fire all the time being kept fully, 
up, till the end of about fix hours from its receiving the charge;, 
at which time it is again examined by the foreman, and, if he 
finds it proper, is then tapped, and the Metal let out into a 
fixed baion made of day, and of a capacity to hold fome^hing 
more than the Metal of the charge : as in fome forts of Tin the 
icoria being vitrified to a confiderable degree, part thereof will 
flow out with the Metal ; hut this is not commonly the cafe in 
any large quantity. The fcoria remaining in the bottom of the 
furnace is raked out at the mouth, and falls Into a fmall pit 
imder it made for the purpofe, and has generally adhefion 
enough to form into a cake. A^ ibon as it is cold, it is carried 
to the Hamping mill in order to Separate the globules of melted 
Tin dHIeminated through the icoria or flag. The fcoria being 
broke by hammers to ue fize of goofe eggs, are put into the 
firft ftamping mill, and pafTed through finall Iron bars, (inftead 
of a holed Iron plate) none pafijng through thofe bars above the 
fize of a horfe bean. By this means the pillion (for fo all Tin. 
recovered out of the flags is called) of the larger fize is taken 
out, and thereby prevented from wafte by too much ftamping. 
The jefufe of this firft flamping is put into other ftamping mills 
of a iecond, a third, and even fbme part thereof into thole of a 
fourth £ize. The pillion in the firft and fecond of the dampings 
is feparoted firom tl^e fcoria in the &me xnanner as Copper Ore 
from its wafte, and ihaX of tjhj^ flitnes of thefe, together with the 
third and fourth ftamping, in the fame method as Tin Ore at 
the ftamping mills. Of the pillion fo ieparated, all the rousli 
or grainy parts are confiidered as Metal, and refined accordingly 
by being fmelted without any i^ux^ and the produce of tnis 
&ielting refined with the; Tin firf^ tapped. The fandy and 
flimy parts of the pillion refembling ftamped Tin Ores, are 
treated as iuch» and are mij^edand faulted with them. 

ttiavc 



284 OF SMELTINO-TIN ORE^ OR BLACK 

I now return to the Tin in the bafon, or float, as it is called ;> 
ttrhich, as fbon as it is come down to a moderate heat, is laded 
out into the moulds, in flabs or pigs, of about three quarters of 
an hundred weight ; not larger, becaufe they would be too un- 
twildy to heave into the iurnace for refining, to which I now 
proceed. 

' The furnace haWng, by the fide of the fmall float juft now" 
defcribed, a larger one capable of holding twenty or more blocks, 
is for this purpofe fuffered to cool to a certain degree, and then' 
charged full with the flobs juft mentioned, the tap-hole being^ 
kept open, fo that as the Tin melts in this moderate fire, it 
makes its exit through it into the float, where while running 
out it is frequently ftirred and tofled by a ladleful at a time 
held arm high, letting it fall in a ftream into the mafs of Metal, 
when the fcum which arifes is taken off. While the Metal al- ' 
reiady put into the furnace is nielting, more is added, fo as to 
be juft enough to fill the float with good Tin : and this after 
being tofled and fkimmed as before, and fuffered to cool to a 
proper temper, is carried in Iron ladles to moulds holding gene- 
rally fomewhat above three hundred weight, (then denominated 
Block-Tin) where they are marked as the fmelters choofe, with' 
their houle mark, which may be a pelican, a pliime of leathers, 
a ftag, or a horfe, by laying Brafs or Iron ftamps on the face of 
the blocks while the Tin is in a fluid ftate, yet cool enough to 
ftiftain the ftatmpirig iron. The blocks are then ready to be 
weighed, numbered, and fent to the ncareft coinage town to 

be coined. 

••'■ ' . , ■ ■ ■ • 

There yet remains in the furnace the drofly part with' which 
the Tin wa? contaminated, and which, not melting with the 
flow fire made ufe of,/ holds with it a confiderable portion of 
^ood Tin. The fire i^'i therefore, .now encreafed, fo as to melt 
the whole ;. which is ' then tapped" out altogether into the fmall 
float, where the Tin fiibfiding, 'and the drofs rifing to the top, 
'the latter, fooh coolihg, is taken ofF and fet by, and the Tin 
laded into fmall flabs as at firft to be again refined. The fur- 
nace is now charged ^gain as before ; and after cleanfing again^ 
generally employed to fmelt Tin Ore as ufual. The Tin that 
remains in and abbut thfe fcoria' and drbfsrof the laft tappings^ 
"Sfc. 4s recovered by repeated fmeltingsj' till at laft being almoft 
entirely drained of that' Metal, they become 'what the workmen 
generally call Hard-heads, confining of fuch heterogeneous 

Metals 



TIN, IN THE GREAT FURNACES. 285 

Metals as were included in the firft mixture, and efleemed of 
no further value. 

The qualifications of a good Tin fmelter are a thorough 
knowledge of the different kinds of Tin Ore, and of the natiu*e ^ 
and principles of the different Metals and Minerals mixed there- 
with ; as on this knowledge, not only the making good Metal, 
but alfo getting the full produce of the Ore, muft entirely depend ; 
and for the want thereof, nothing, not even great care and long 
experience, can compenfate. It is to the want of this infight 
in the fmelting bufinefs, or at leaft to an inattention thereto, that 
we are to afcribe the great quantity of bad Tin which is paffed 
the coinage every quarter ; much to the fhame of the Tin 
fmelters, and ftill more to the reproach of Stannary government, 
for fuffering a place of great truft and profit to become a fine- 
cure to fome mercenary borough man ! Yea, even worfe, a cloak 
for ill proceedings. Were thefe matters properly attended to, 
and the duty of the affay-mafter ftridly enforced, it would 
operate more towards preventing foreign importations of Tin. 
into Europe, and extending the fale of our own, than any, 
or all other regulations that can be made refpeding the Tin 
trade I 

Four fupervifors of the Tin in Cornwall and Devon, were* 
firft appointed by king Charles the fecohd. Their office is to 
infped the blowing and fmelting houfes, to fee that no cheat or 
fraud be committed in the blowing or fmelting of Tin, and for 
fundry other beneficial purpofes relative to the common-weal 
of the Stannaries. But bf all ofiices belonging to the Tin, this, 
though inftituted on a very good principle, is* now the leaft 
regarded. If the fupervifors, who now receive each of them 
eighty pounds ^ annum for doing nothing, were obliged to 
vifit thefe houfes twice a week, their trouble would not be 
great, and their diligence might anfwer the end, and make 
their places ferviceable to their country. (Anon. Addrefs ; 
Tonkins MSS.) 



D d d d CHAP. 



CHAP. IV. 



Of the Sale of Ck>pper Ores ; and of Black Tin at the Smelting- 
Houfe, and after it is fmelted and coined in Blocks. 



THOUGH the richnefs of our Copper works is not a 
late difcovery ; yet it is not a hundred years that the 
knowledge of working them to good effed hath been underftood. 
The moft obvious reafon is, that it was the intereft of the Hrfl 
difcoverers to keep the natives in profound ignorance. Mr. 
Carew, in the reign of Elizabeth, hints at the little profits 
made in Cornwall from Copper : " It is found,*' lays he, ** in 
'* fundry places, but to what gain to the fearchers I have not 
'* been curious to enquire, nor they hafty to reveal : for of one 
** Mine, of which I took view, the Ore was (hipped to be 
'' refined in Wales, either to fave coil in the fuel, or to con- 
** ceal the profit." Mr. Nordcn, one hundred and ieventy 
years fince, feems to have had full information that the Cornim 
Copper Mines were rich, and, therefore, in his letter to king 
Tames the firft (fee his Surv. of Cornwall) like a faithful fervant, 
intimates the expediency of a better infpedion into the ftate of 
thofe Mines, aiid furmiles the arts by wl^ch the value of them 
was concealed : " So rich are the works," (ays he, " efpecially 
** fome lately found, as by the opinion of the ikilful in the 
** myftery, the like have not been elfewhere found, though the 
** worth hath been formerly extenuated by private pryers into 
" the fecret, and covertly followed for their own gain." Not- 
withflanding thefe hints, we do not find any thing material 
going on here as to the improvement of the Copper Mines, till, 
about eighty years fince, fome gentlemen of Briuol made it their 
bufinefs to infped our Mines more narrowly, and bought the 
Copper Ores for two pounds ten (hillings to four pounds^ ton. 
The gains were anfwerable to their fagacity and diligence, and 
fo great, that they could not long be kept fecret, which en- 
couraged other gentlemen of Briflol about fixty years fince to 
covenant with fome of the principal Miners in Cornwall to buy 
all their Copper Ores for a term of years at a ftated low price, 
particularly with Mr. Beauchamp, the grandfather of the prelent 
John Beauchamp, Efq; to buy all the Copper Ore which fhould 
rife out of a Mine well flocked, for twenty years, at five pounds 

^ ton ; 



OF THE SALE OF COPPER ORES; &c aSy 

^ ton ; and the Ore at Reliftian in Gwinear was covenanted for 
at two pounds ten fhillings ^ ton. 

About £fty years back great quantities o£ Copper Ore wete 
rifen from three principal Mines in this county ; viz. Huel-* 
Fortune in Ludgvan, Rofkear in Camborne, and Pool^Adit in 
lUugan ; the produce of which Mines were fold to the few 
buyers at their own price. The four Copper Companies, viz* 
the Brafs-Wire Company, the Englifli Copper Company, Wayn 
and Company, and Chambers and Company, being then united 
and confederated, there can be no doubt of their beholding with 
a fingle eye their joint intereft and purfuit ; till they were in-f 
termpted by a gentleman from Wales, who viiited this county 
in order to improve his own branch of bufinefs in the fame way« 
Let his motives be ever fo felfifh, the gentlemen Miners at that 
time, if not their pofterity, were manifefily benefited by hit 
vifit ; for juft then, fourteen hundred tons of Copper Ore, 
which had been lying unfold fome years at Rofkear and Huel- 
Kitty, were offered to this gentleman, and for which the confe- 
derated buyers would give only four pounds five fhillings ^ ton* 
But fo cbntra^d were the principles of the Miners in thofe days 
of unremediable oppreflion, that they obliged this friend to 
their country to depofit a fum of money equivalent to the fup- 
pofed amount of their Ores before they would confent to we^h 
them off at the advanced price they had agreed to take for their 
commodity. Thefe confined notions will ever prevail where the 
trade of a country is fubje6fc to the domination of rapacious and 
difhonefl combinations. However, this gentleman bought the - 
fourteen hundred tons of Ore at the advanced price of £l£ poimds 
five fhillings ^ ton, which he paid for with ready mon6y, and 
gained much above thirty ^ cent, as the writer is well informed 
from the mofl indubitable authority I What mufl have been the 
profits of companies confederated to ferve their own interefU 
without limitation or controiil ? This new comer bought nine 
hundred tons more at Rofkear at feven pounds ^ ton ; and in 
lefs than fix months before he left Cornwall he purchafed three 
thoufand tons, upon which he defervedly made, very little, if 
at all, fhort of forty ^ cent, profit. 

Soon after this, the buyers and fellers mutually^ agreed, to 
ticket for all Copper Ores which fhould be ready for fale at ftatod 
times, and the highefl bidder or ticket fhould b^ the purchaferj 
On the very onfet of this compad, three hundred tons of Ore 
belonging to the lame Mine were to be ticketed Qx. kso^ ^ 4ac) 



388 OF THE SALE OF COPPER. ORES; 

appointed, in Redruth, when the agent of the Mine having 
abfented himfelf fome time beyond the limited hour of fale, a 
certain gentleman of great addrefs, power, and fortune, de- 
clared himfelf the purchafer by private contra^ at eight pounds 
fcventeen fhillings ^ ton, when one of the ticketers prefent 
produced his ticket before all the company, whofe offer was 
nine pounds feventeen fhillings ^ ton, to the fliame and confu- 
fion of all the adventurers. 

It is to this nefarious tranfadion that we owe the prefent 
mode of ticketing for Copper Ores. The proprietors and ad- 
venturers in Mines of thofe times, found themfelves in a predi- 
cament ilngularly ridiculous and diflrefling: they poffeffed a 
conunodity whofe value they could not tell how to afcertain ; 
and the buyers, who were acquainted with every requifite for 
their own advantage, had formed themfelves into a confederacy 
the moft pernicious and definitive to the whole Copper Mine 
iritercfl of this county. It was impofllble that fiich a flate of 
affairs fhould long continue. The fecret at length tranfpiring, 
other companies were gradually formed ; and from an oppofition 
and rivalfhip in trade, the adventurer received a better price for 
his Copper Ore, though far beneath its jufl value. 

In the beginning of my acquaintance with Mining affairs, 
about twenty-feven years paft, there were fix companies efla- 
blifhed for buying of Copper Ores. At prefent I think there 
are thirteen companies, which attend by their agents, and throw 
in their tickets on the day of fale. It will be neceflary to premife 
that a day of fampling is fixed (fee book iv. chap. ii. p. 245) 
with a fortnight's interval between it and the ticketing day for 
trying the famples of Ore and receiving anfwers from their prin- 
cipals. On this ticketing day a dinner almofl equal to a city 
feafl is provided at the expence of the Mines, in proportion to 
the quantities of Ores each Mine has to fell ; and the adventurers, 
with the companies agents, aflemble together. Soon after the 
cloth is removed, the tickets containing the different offers of 
the different companies are prcxluced and regiflered by the agents 
of both buyers and fellers, the originals being delivered to the 
proprietors of the Mines ; and the highefl bidders are of courfe 
the buyers. In order to evidence the concise and eafy method 
of ticketing for Copper Ores, I have jubjoined a duplicate of a 
ticketing paper, by which the reader may apprehend, at one 
glance, that ten thoufand pounds worth of Ores may be fold and 
appropriated; to. the lefpedive buyers in half an hour's time. 
I... Bjr 



he loth of July 1777% at R e d r u t ». 



*0»0»0t0*0to*0»0*0t0*0»0t9»0t0tot0»0t0t0t0*0t0t0*0*0*0t0«0 t 



N 



M E 



Ennis 


Dickcnfon 


Stq)hens 


Carkcet 


Warren 


Papps 


:. s. d. 


c- 


/. ^. 


c- 


s. d. 


c 


s.d. 


£' 


s.d. 


>C- -f- ^' 


5 9 6 


s 





5 


IS 6 


5 


14 


6 


4 


600 


246 


II 
9 


2 6 
I o" 


12 
9 


2 6 
I 6 


II 
9 


18 
3 


12 
9 


36 
14 


II 19 6 


B 18 6 


9 3 6 


I 56 


II 

6 


3 
17 


10 
6 


18 

19 6 


[0 

6 


19 
16 6 


II 
6 


5 
19 


II 00 


7 3 6 


6 15 


3 19 6 


13 
6 


16 6 
19 


13 
6 


18 

19 6 


13 
6 


19 
18 


H 


5 


13 18 6 


7 I 


7 


4 


6 17 


3 i6 6 


3 


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II 6 


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56 


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3 J3 6 


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3 H 


I 16 


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13 


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1 17 


8 3 


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800 


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156 


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5 16 


5 


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5 12 6 


796 


17 





16 


19 


16 


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96 


17 14 


2 18 


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176 


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300 


200 


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16 




2 


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15 



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17 



I 19 


D 


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000 


000 








I 


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000 


84 








fio 








19 





t, both offering jC^^ 4 ^* 



AND OF BLACK TIN AND WHITE TIN/ 2S9 

By this method, which. has fubjGlfted .£nce its firfl eftabliflifi'.> 
ment to this time, fixteen thoufand pounds worth of Ore are 
monthly difpofed of in entire dependence upon the honour of 
the purchafer, and which I believe is, not to be parallelled in 
any part of Great-Britain. Sed humanitas et gratior et tutior. 
Permit me, for argument's fake, to fuppofe thefe gentlemen 
ading on the mofl honourable principle ; yet flill there is an: 
unavoidable inconvenience, which may be of the mod deftruc- 
tive confequence to the feller. What I mean is this : whenwer^ 
a purchafer does not want a particular parcel of Ores, or perhaps 
does not mean to purchafe at all, it is ufual for the- agent of 
that company to affix a price to his ticket much below his com- 
puted value of thofe Ores. On the fuppofition of non-commu- 
nication between the buyers (which is the only foot on which 
the favourers of the prcfent fyftem reft their caufe) it muft frer 
quently happen, that all companies muft be in the fame predi^. 
cament with refped to fome parcels of Ores ; the confequence, 
is, thofe Ores go off at a low value, and become the property:: 
of perfons who did not mean to buy them. This is putting the 
cafe in the faireft light ; and, to conceive the mifchief which, 
follows, we are to obferve, that thofe parcels amount to very 
capital fums of money, and that the lofs fuftained by the pro- 
prietors is proportionably large. 

I have mentioned, above, the emulation natural to rival 
companies ; but it is to be feared that principle has long .ceaied 
to operate : and as there is Copper Ore railed in the county, 
fufficient for them all, they do not wifh to pufh one another. 
On the contrary, the utmoft harmony feems to fubfift between 
them ; and the talk of eftablifhing a new company is fure to 
be followed by an aftbciation of the old ones, in order to 
defeat it. 

I know it has been urged, that large quantities of Copper 
Ores lie at the feveral furnaces unfmelted, that much Copper 
remains unfold, and thefe to the amount of a conftderablefum. 
Admitting this argument, let us for a moment conftder the 
benefit of thefe pretenfions to the purchafer. He thereby pre- 
tends, that he is buying Copper which muft remain on his 
hands ; and by way 01 allowing himfelf intereft for his money 
thus lying dead, he has the modefly to fink the raw commodity 
from twelve ^ cent, which is a very handfome profit upon a 
merchandize unperifhable, to thirty, and more frequently to 
forty, ^ cent. It is a great pity that the amazing monthly 

£ e e e ^r^rsskr. 



^90 OF THE SALE OF COPPER ORES; 

expence of dibep Mines^ jaioBd to t&e narrovir cittinnftaiices of 
nany of thoSt concerned in them, fhotild make it neoe^ry for 
thofe Mines to fell their Oies immediately for tike price they can 
get ; as the withholding thofe Ores^ at a profit of twenty y oc 
even fnppofing ten, ^ cent, would make a great di£Feicnce in. 
their favotu* on the balance of their accompcs. But I forbear ta 
dwell longer on this difagreeable fobbed, as Lam conrioced that 
moft of the people concerned in Mining have long beheld with, 
indignation the treatment they meet with, and only- want a kader 
to.-ftand forth in their caufe. (Anonym. Addrefs.) 

; I proceed to dbferve, in jufHce to the buyers of Copper Orcy 
that no payment for any commodity can be more punctual than 
dkat which is made by them. I cannot recolle6b oneinftanice of 
tardinefs in all their tranfaftions refpeding their payments 4. £or 
at the month's end, dfcdr the Ores are weighed qff, cafh or bills 
of exchange, almoft equal in credit to bank notes, are ready for 
the feller's dfe. This cuftom makes Copper Ore a ready money 
article, which is of the grieatcft confequcnce to the neceffities 
of the Miners, and in truth cannot be difpenfed with, unJeift 
the fyftem of Mining be -quite changed. However, it muft be 
confefled that the purchafer receives Tome gratification to coun-* 
terbalance his politenefs : fpr every ton of Ore (prefuming on a. 
fuppofition of wafte) mull weigh twenty-one hundred weight to 
the ton^ moreover. Ore that is vf^t by rain i& allowed for 'by 
a further over* weight accc^rding to reafon and confcience. Ac 
Pol-dyfe Mine the managers will not allow more than four 
pounds upon every three hundred weight be it wet or dry.. 
The famplers demur to this regulation, and contend for (av^ 
pounds upon dry Ore, and as much more as they can have, for 
wet. Whoever approves this rapacity mufl be an enemy to the 
county of Cornwall ; for thefe allowances of one hundred 
weight upon twenty, and four pounds upon every three hundred 
weight, which is one quarter upon the ton (all together equal 
to ux per cent, on thie fralcgoing profits) are more than ten 
times equivalent for all the wet and wafle they can ferioufly 
pretend to fuiier. Such iS' the ptiefenc oppreiToi ftate df the 
Copper trade in Cornwall j iqioti which reptefentadon I (hall 
reft at this time, hm. with an iiifjeiAion on a iiiture day tp hj 
open the federal artifices ufed in that branch of bufinefs in a 
fmall pamphlet, lor the mature confederation of the pn^rietors 
of Copper Mmes in thi» copnty. 



j: .• 



Preparatory 



AND OF BLACK) TIN AND WHITE TIN; 291 

Preparatory to the final difpofali ^bf Tin, it muft pa& an 
esDctange of Black Tin or Ore for White Tin ih blocks, by die 
way of barter between the Tinner and the Smclttr, becaufe the 
latter is not paid in money for fmelting the Tin, but by deduc- 
tion of a certain fhare in twenty to himfelf out of the quantity 
brought to be exchanged. Herein confifls a necelTary ikill in 
the fmelter ; for the Metal of the affay of drflfereht kinds of Tin 
Ore beii^ extremely variabl'C, and not properly refinable in fuch 
finall quantities, and the manner of agreeing for or buying the 
Tin Ore of all forts being to give Tin bills or pcxDmxfTory notes to 
the owxiers thereof, engaging^ to deliver them at the next coih^ 
age fo many hundreds of refined Tin for every tw^enty hundred 
weight of the Ore or Black Tin ; if the manager in this matter 
is not a judge how much pure Tin his impure sffiy will produ<de, 
it will .become a matter of mecr chance whether the Tinner hai 
the real value for. his Black T'in, or. whether he oi* the buyer 
fuifers moft by the exchange. The fmelter' s judgment nmft h6 
exercifed alfo on another fcore befides that of the finenefs of his 
aflay, a& he muft' deduct from the quantity of Tin the feller's 
Ore will produce, oas much as he thinks will pay for the fmelting 
and other incidental charges, together with the profit he prd^ 
pofes to allow himfelf thereupon. 

The aflay being made, weighed, and calculated, and a 
judgment formed what proportion thereof is to be allowed the 
imeltet for his charges and profit, the bufinefs is reduced to a 
ihdrt treaty, : A Jiat brought to B twenty, hundred wdght of 
Black Tin (Tin Ore). Suppofe the produce of this Tin ttvclve 
hundred weight ; B offers to deliver A, for this, eleven hundred 
weight at the next coinage; which if A agrees to take, a 
promifTory note, commonly called a Tin Bill, is givdn him in 
the following terms, or nearly fo i 

.N° 133. . 

Carvedras, the 8th day of. April 1777, 

Received of' Mr<« Anthony Aihley, > twenty hundred weight 
two quarters and fourteen pounds of Bktk Tin Ivhich at eleven 
for twenty in White Tin is eleven hundred weight one quarter 
and nine pounds. Whidi^I ptottiife tor deliver to hini or befiirer 
^his Truro coinage. r H . 

f ^^iX^ijft For H;^iFl^i Efq; and Co. 

White Tin itJi'^-T-^rf ■: kIi" '/;;f{V/ :••!: . ,-..d 

JONAsMlLFORD. 



392 OF THE SALE OF COPPER ORES; 

This bill being negotiable and payable by an indorfemeht, 
the fame as a bill of exchange, the owner thereof may fell it to 
any one, or at the fmelting-houfe, as moft frequently is the 
cafe, for fome certain value per hundred weight ; otherwife he 
may coin the Tin thereof upon his own account. Thefe bills 
are frequently bought at a nominal value ; the buyer and feller 
covenanting with each other, that if the real value, when fixed, 
be diiferent from the nominal, whatever it may be above, the 
former is to pay to the latter, except one fhilling per hundred 
weight, the premium for laying out his money ; ir under, the 
feller is to return the difference, and one (hilling per hundred 
weight, for the reafon juft given. This method of purchafing 
is called Buying on Difcount ; and the moft ufual way of 
fettling the real price for fuch Tin has been to &x it at that of 
the firft hundred blocks bought or fold by any one perfon, of 
the Tin belonging to that coinage (or quarter) in which fuch 
bills were bought. 

This makes what they call the Tin bill trade fo noted in this 
county ; for if the Tinner is not of ability to wait the time of 
the coinage, and perhaps fome time after, till the merchant 
wants it, upon which alfo two or three months credit muft be 
added ; he fells the bill for ready cafh to the monied man, who 
defrays all future charges upon the Tin. The buyer has a fur> 
ther profit upon this Tin of two pounds over- weight upon every 
hundred weight of White Tin, which the fmelter is obligated 
to render the bill-holder ; fo that the buyer of the bill has 
about two {hillings per hundred weight clear profit by this 
trafHck ; and if he can return his money quarterly, which was 
formerly the cafe, he makes twelve per cent, pront per annum 
of his cafh. The Tin bill trade was anciently in the hands of 
the mercantile part of the county, but it now principally refls 
with the fmelters of the Tin, who take care to operate on the 
* credulity of the Tinner by infinuating that he has a larger ex- 
change of White Tin for his Black when he parts with the 
former to the fmelter ; and that, in complaifance for his 
obliging difpofition towards the proprietor of the houfe — This 
may be true ; but, Fallax vulgi judicium. 

V There is one confideration that is conneded with this fubjed^ 
that deferves much more attention than it has ever yet met with. 
Thefe perfons who fland between the real and original proprie- 
tors of theTin-iluff and the exporters, though they have ufually 
the greateil fhare of the White Tin in their pof&fiioo> are not 
,' -• ■■■.,■ : ■•! .'■. to 



AND OF SaiAGK TIN AND WHITE Ttt^ J193 

to be looked on 'Sls. the real fufierers b^ die lowfirice it bears, or 
even by a li:ag'aatio{i of tiie Tin ttade, uniefs vt is unfoveieen. 
Thefe gentlemen take care ito nuike aU ptaper dedu^iioiis bn. 
that account when the Tin is brought to them to be fampled ; 
and the dikount on Tin bills, ^-as I hav« yaH obfenred, is an 
additional douceur. I would n<)t be j&ppofed evbn to hint at a 
combination between the Cmelter of the Tin and the manufac-- 
turer or exporter : the credit and fortune of many of the former 
If^ace diem above a bare infinitation of this kind. I only mean 
to aiSart, that however they may join the general cry on account 
of the low wice of Tin, no thinking perfon will ever fet them 
down as funerers thereby. There is a known fkd I fhall men- 
tion by way of illuftration, viz. That the retailo* of any^ex- 
cifeable commodity ftands in the faitie predicament, with th6 
merchant who buys to fell again, and has as much reafon to be 
a lofer on an additional duty laid on that commodity ; whereas^ 
on the contrary^ he is too frequently -a gainer. 

• Till the reign of Hen. VIIL there were but two coinages a 
y«ar for Tin, 'tii. at Midfummer and Michaelmas, when the 
Tinners by petition and proving the inconveniency arifing from 
the long vacitixtti betw^een the latter and the former, obtained 
the liberty to coin their Tin quarterly by adding Chriftmas and 
Lady->day to the foregoing coinages -, for which they pay to thd 
duke of Cornwall an acknowledgment (called Poft-Groats) of 
fburpence extra £br every hundred of White Tin coined in thofe 
i[uarter«. The privileged towns for coinage of Tin were anci- 
ently Liflteard, Loftwithiel, Truro, and Helfton. For the 
cbttVeniency of the weftern Tinners, foon after the reftoration 
Penzance was alfo made a coinage town ; in which laft place, 
there is every quarter abundantly more Tin coined than in all 
tint towns of Liikeard> Loftwithiel, and Helfton put together, 
for a -whole year. 

When die Tin is brought to be coined, it is carried into the 
eoinoge hall built oA purpofe to receive it, where the af&y 
ftkiAtt'i def&ty afiitys it by catting off with a chiiTel and 
hflftimierla' piece of one of the bottom corners of the block about 
A'lpiMilid weight, partly by cutting and partly by breaking, in 
dmefi^ -^rove the toughndfs and finenefs of the Metal. It it is 
pQK; good Tin» the face of the block is ftaikped with th^ 
dd^hy feal, tvhich ftamp i« a pentatt for the b^ner to fell, and 
vkthc fame time an a^uranoe that ^he Tin fo marked has been 
mirpofdy ^^tomined ktid found 4Eiiefchaiit&ble. Tht 'fibnaxi^ut^ 

f f £ £ ^v^ 



294 OF THE SALE OF COPPER ORES; 

this iinpreflion by a hammer, in like manner as was anciently 
done to render money current, is coining the Tin, and the man 
who does it is called the Hanmier Man. 

The arms of Condorus, laft earl of Cornwall of BritifK blood, 
(Temp. W. I.) were Sable 1 5: Bezants (5,4,3,2,1) in. pale Or. 
Richard, king of the Romans, earl of Cornwall, fon to king 
John, threw thcfe Bezants into a border round the bearing of 
the earl of Poidou : he bore therefore argent, a Lion Rampant 
Gules, crowned Or within a bordure garniflied with Bezants : 
and this ftill continues the duchy feal. Befides this impreflion, 
the Tin bears that alfo of the particular houfe where it was 
fm^ted, which I have mentioned in my laft chapter, in order 
that if there be any deceit ufed in the Tin by any foul mixture 
(making a pye as they call it, by putting hard heads, &c. in 
the middle, and lading the Tin to cover the cheat, that it may 
efcape the afTayers notice, which has formerly happened) their 
roguery may be the more eafily detedled. The credulous be- 
lieve, that by the old Stannary laws, the perfoii convidred of 
fuch adulteration and fraudulency was to have three fpoonfulJs 
of melted Tin poured down his throat ; a punifhment that 
would effectually fecure him from a repetition of the fame ad. 
Befides the foregoing ojfficers of the coinage, there are numera- 
tors to,fet down the number of blocks coined every quarter^ 
together with the fmelting-houfe numbers, and the weight of 
each block, all which are carefully regiftered, that no miftake 
fhall happen, or difpute arife between the revenue officers and 
the owners of the Tin, or between the latter and the purchafers j 
the initials of the original proprietors names being likewife 
ftamped on every block. 

If we extend our examination to the exportation of Tin, we 
fhall find that the ancient inhabitants had greatly the advantage 
of us in this particular. The induftrious republicans of Africa 
fought our Tin with an ardour equal to what we difcover in 
fetching gold duft from the fhorcs of that continent ; and the 
coafting voyage they were obliged to perform from their igno-' 
ranee of the loadftone, was attended with more delays and 
hazard than has been experienced fince in the circumnavtgatioa 
of the world. But let us turn our eyes to the reverie of this 
pidure : poffefTed of a numerous and, frequently, ftarving vootf 
with the advantage of a harbour, the fecond in point of iiae 
^nd fafety in the whole ifland, yet where is there a iingle 
m^nufadory of Tin ware among us ? The inftances have been 



AND OF BLACK TIN AND WHITE TIN. 295 

very rare alfo, of a dire<9: exportion of Block or Bar Tin to 
Holland, Turkey, or even to America : on the contrary it is' 
(hipped for the port of Lpndon, and double commifHon and 
iniurance is the necelTary cortfeq'uence ; at the fame time that 
thofe cargoes which are conflgned to the Mediterranean or 
American markets muft repafs our coafts, and rim a riik of 
being cafl on their native fhore. There is one confideration 
more, that Ifhall beg leave to mention ; and the inattention is 
fo great, that, were it not for the poor labourer whofe bread 
depends on the price of his Tin, it would make me diveft 
myfelf of compaiHon for every other perfon concerned either as 
land-holder or adventurer. The confignments of Tin on com- 
mifllon for foreign markets have fallen, by I know not what 
infatuation, into the hands of the pcwterer in London. His 
intereft in keeping down the price ofBlock Tin, muft infinitely 
exceed any degree of percentage he could exped on his com- 
miflion for exportation. By this means he is enabled to didate 
to his principals ; and fix the price of the commodity to his 
own ftandard. It woiiild be wafting time to dwell on this 
fubjed. I.fhotild gladly have drawn a veil over it, to fpare th^ 
difgraceful inference that muft naturally arife on the bare men- 
tion of it : but as all things have an end, fo there muft be fome 
period to the ftrongeft degree of lethargy ; and fome efforts a 
few years back made me hope, the gentlemen of the Mining 
diftrids would not have wanted any ftiaking to awaken them. 
But thefe efforts, from the little attention paid to the real ftate 
of the Tin trade, will hardly be fufficient to convince the 
imprejudiced, that they were fully awake. 



T A B L £ 8, 



B 



E 



«, 



dewing what Quantity of White Tin muft be delivered by the 
Smelter for any Quaatity of Black Tin, from 4 & of White, 
^r 2aft of Black, to 13! 1^ of White for 20 lb of Black. 





At 4 


for 20 








Bl. 




BL 




rin 


VfUte Tin 


Tin 


White Tin 


--^ 




C. , 






fb 


ft:. 


10 


C. 


a 


ft 


20 


1 





4 


I 






22 


8 


2 


-^) 


: t 


a 




1 


16 


16 


3 




1:2 


3 


— 


■■'» 


II 


4 


4 


— 


16 


4 


— 


3 


5 


12 


5 


'1 


«Jte 


5 




^ — 




-.*• 


6 




■4 


6 






at 


8 


7 




8 

f2 


7 




1 


16 


16 


t 


- 


8 




2 


11 


4 


9 


I : 


t« 


9 




3 


5 


12 


10 


2 


■•— ■ 


10 


2 





— 


— 


II 


2 


4 


20 


4 




— 




It 


2 


■«• 


"8*> 


6 









IS 


SL 


■'i-a , 


40 


S 









H 


2 


16 


lo 

70 


10 
12 
14 




— 




ft« 


'SI 


12 1 


— ^ 


^— 


^^m 


ir 


II 

16 


4 
1? 


80 

9«> 


16 
18 

1 r*i 





' — ' 






)aoo 1 


40 ^ 


— j 





, At 44 far 10 


^fij. 




Bl 




Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


While Tin 


ft 


ft 


20 


C. 


a 


It 


20 


I 





4l 


I 




— 


23 


16 


2 





Si 


2 




I 


19 


12 


3 





I2i 


3 




2 


^5 


8 


4 





17 


4 




3 


II 


4 


5 




li 


5 






7 




6 




5^ 


6 




I 


2 


16 


7 




9i 


7 




I 


26 


12 


8 




H 


8 




2 


22 


H 


9 




18J 


9 




3 


18 


4 


10 


2 


2| 


10 


2 


-~ 


14 




II 


2 


61 


20 


4 


I 


— 


— 


12 


2 


II 


30 


6 


I 


14 


-^ 


13 


2 


i5i 


40 


8 


2 


— 




14 


2 


^9i 


50 


10 


2 


"4 


-^ 


• 






60 


12 


3 


— 


— 


28 


5 


»9 


70 


14 


3 


H 




56 


II 


18 


80 


«7 




— 


^- 


ti4: 


I7J 


^7. 


^ 96. 


19 


— 


^4 


— 








100 


21 


I 


— 










200 


42, 


2 


— 


— 





At 4l 


tfor 










Bl. 




Bl. 




Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 


White Tin 


ft 


ft 


20 


C. 


|C-' 


Q. 


ft 


20 


I 





4? 


I 






25 


4 


2 


^ ' 


9 


2 




I 


22 


8 


3 





i3i 


3 




2 


19 


12 


4 





iB 


4 


— 1 


3 


16 


16 


5 




af 


5 


1 


— 


«4 




6 




7 


6 


1 


I 


1 1 


4 


i 


Y 


16 


7 
S 


I 

I 


2 

3 


8 

5 


8 

13 


S 




i 


9 


2i 


^** 


2 


16 


10 


2 


5 


10 


a 


1 


— 




II 


2 


91 


20 


4 


2 


— 


—» 


12 


1 


>4 


30 


6 


3 


— 


^^ 


M 


2 


I8| 


40 


9 








14 


3 


3 


50 
60 


II 


I 




— 




■ 




t,S 


2 


fc^-i. 


""•"" 


38 


6 


6 


70 


•5' 


S 


,-**' 


— 


1: 


•12 : 


12 


So . 


.i8; 







». 


18 


18 


90 
100 

300 


20 




^ 






1 




Z2 

45 


~^^ 


— 



At 4f far CO 



Bl. 
Tin 

"ft" 

I 

2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 
14 

28 
56 
84 



WJkke Tin 



ft 



I 
I 
I 
I 

2 

2 
2 
2 
3 

3 



6 
»9 



20 



4i 
9f 

Hi 

19 
31 
8J 

i3i 
18 

2* 

7^ 

I2J 

17 

U 
6f 



13 
6 

19 



Bk 
Tin 



C. 



I 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

20 

30 
40 

50 
60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

2O0 



WUfeTin 



C. 



a 


ft 




26 


I 


25 


2 


23 


3 


22 


— 


21 


1 


19 


2 


]8 


3 


16 


— 


15 


I 


14 


3 


— 


'— 


14, 


2 


— 


3 
1 


14 


2 


»4 




— 


I 


14, 


3 




2 





20 

12 

4 

16 

8 

12 

4 
16 

8 



I 
t 

I 
I 
2 
2 

4 3 

y 

9 
II 

16 
»9 

21 
23 

+7 



B 



8. 



297 



At 5 for 20 



At si for 20 




I 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 



9 
lo 

II 

12 

13 
14 

28 
56 
84 



White Tin 



lb 20 



I 
I 
I 
I 
2 
2 
2 
2 

3 
3 
3 



7 

14 
21 



5 
10 

15 

5 
10 

15 

5 
10 

15 

5 
10 



Bl. 

Tin White Tin 



c. 


C 


a 


It 


I 




I 


■ — ' 


2 




2 


— 


3 


— 


3 


— 


4 


I 


— 


■ — 


5 


1 


I 


— 


6 


I 


2 


■ — 


7 


I 


3 


I — 


8 


2 


— 


— 


9 


2 


I 




10 


2 


2 




20 


5 


— 


— 


30 


7 


2 


— 


40 


10 


— 




50 


12 


2 


— 


60 


15 


— 


' — 


70 


17 


2 


— 


80 


20 






90 


22 


2 


— 


100 


25 


— 


— 


200 


50 


— 


— 



Bl. 




1 


Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 


lb 


lb 


20 


C. 


I 


-r~ 


51 


I 


2 


. .— 


II 


2 


3 





i6k 


3 


4 


I . 


2 


4 


5 
6 


I 
I 


7i 
13 


5. 
6 


• 7 
8 


I 

* 2 


4 


7 
8 


9 


2 


91 


9 


10 


2 


15 


10 


II 


3 


i 


20 


.12 


3 


6 


,30 


13 


3 


iii 


40 


14 


3 


17 


50 
60 ' 

70 
80 


28 
56 


7 
15 


8 


84 


^3 


2 


90 
ipo 

200 









White Tin 



c. 


a 


— 


I 


— ^ 


2 


I 


3 


I 


i' 


I 


2 


I 


3 


2 


— 


2 


I 


2 


3 


5 


2 


8 


I 


11 


— 


13 


3 


lb 


2 


19 


I 


22 


— 


24 


3 


27 
55 


2 



lb 

2 
5 

8 
It 

14 
16 

19 
22 

25 



20 

16 
12 

4 
16 

t2 

8 

4 



At 5 J for 20 



At si for 20 



Bl. 






Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


lb 


ib 


20 


I 





Si 


I 


2 





lOi 


2 


3 


/ 


15J 


3 


4 


I 


I 


4 


5 


I 


6i 


5 


6 


I 


Hi 


6 


7 


I 


i6i 


7 


8 


2 


2 


8 


9 


2 


7J 


9 


10 


2 


lal 


10 


II 


2 


»7i 


20 


12 


3 


3 


30 


13 


3 


8J 


40 


14 


3 


i3f 


50 
60 


28 


7 


7 


70 


56 


H 


H 


80 


84 


22 


I 


90 
100 
200 



White Tin 



I 

I 

1 

I 

2 

2 

2 

5 

7 
10 

13 
J5 
18 
21 

23 
26 

54 



Q. 


1 


I 


I 


2 


2 


3 


4 





5 


I 

2 


7 

8 


3 


9 


— 


II 


1 


12 


2 


»4 


I 




3 


14 


2 




— 


14 


3 





I 


H 


2 


H 


I 

2i 


.^ . 



20 

8 
16 

4 

12 

8 
16 

4 
12 



White Tin 




G g g g 



298 



fi 



£ 



S. 



At 6 for 20 



At 6i for 20 



Bl. 






Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin^ 


Tin 


16 


ft 


20 


C. 


I 


_ 


6 


I 


2 


— 


12 


2 


3 


— 


18 


3 


4 


I 


4 


4 


5 
6 


I 
I 


10 
16 


5 
6 


7 
8 


2 
2 


2 
8 


i 


9 


2 


H 


9 


lO 


3 


— 


10 


II 


3 


6 


20 


12 


3 


12 


30 


J3 


3 


18 


40 


14 


4 


4 


.50 
.60 


28 

56 


8 
16 


8 
16 


70 
80 


84 


25 


4 


=90 
100 




. 


. ■ '- 


4oo 



White Tin 



c. 


a 


ft 


t 


I 

3 


5' 

HI 

16 

22 


I 


2 




2 
2 


3 
1 


5' 
11 

16 


2 


2 


22' 


i 




*__ 


9 

12 






15 
18 






21 






24 
27 






30 
60 


■ ^ 





20 

12 

4 
16 

8 

12 

4 
16 



Bl. 




1 


iBl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


ft 


ft 


20 


I 


— ■ 


6f 


I 


a 





^9 


2 : 


3 


# 


19I 


3 ' 


4 


I 


6 


4 


5 


I 


I2i 


5 


6 


I 


19 


6 


7 


2 


5J 


7 


JS 


2 


12 


8 


9 


2 


i8i 


9 


10 


3 


5 


10 


II 


3 


m 


20 


12 


3 


18 


30 


13 


4 


4l 


40 


14 


4 


11 


50 
60 
70 


28 


9 


2 


56 


18 


4 


80 


84 


27 


6 


90 








1 00 








200 



White Tin 



I 
1 
I 

2 
2 
2 

3 
6 

9 

13 
16 

>9 
22 
26 
29 
32 
65 



<l 


ft 


I 


8 


2 


16 


3 


25 


I 


5 


2 


14 


3 


22 


1 


2 


2 


11 


3 
I 


»9 


2 




3 


^_ 


2 




3 


'^^^ 


I 
2 


.^_ 




— 



20 

8 

16 

4 
12 

8 

4 
iz 



At 6-i for ^o 



At €1 for 20 



Bl. 




■ '' • 


;B1. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


^& 


ft ; 


20 


••. ^ 




6| 


I 


'■ b 


■ ^^ 


12* 


2 


3 


. ■ 


i8i 


3 


• •* 


I 


5 


4 


I5 ■ 


I 


n^ 


5 


b 


I 


i7r 


6 


-t 


2 


3i 


7 


2 


10 


8 


•'9 


2i 


:i6| 


9 


10 


.? 


ii 


10 


11 


3 


8| 


20 


t2 


3 


15 


3d 


'S 


4 


li 


40 


14 

f- <■ 


4 1 


. 7f 

_1 


50 
60 


~^B 


8 


'15 


70 


f-f, 


*7 


10 


80 


u- 


26 


5 


9^ 


1 






too 


' 






200 



WKftiTih 



c. 


a 


ft 


ao 




I 


7 






2 


14 




— ■ 


3 


21 




t 


1 


_.■ 




I 


2 


7 


~ 


I 


3 


14 


— 


2 




21 


— 


2 


2 




— 


2 


3 


'■7 


— 


3 


^ 


>H 




6 


I 


— 




9 


I 


1+ 


— ■ 


12 


2 




— 


'5 


2 


14 


— 


18 


3 


> 




21 


3 


H 


!,.— 


2<; 




^_ 


..^ 


28 




14 


^- 


31 


1 


— 


— 


62 


2 


! 


— 



Bl. 




1 


Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


ft 


ft 

• 1 1 , 


20 


I 




6i 


I 


2 


— " 


i3i 


2 


3 


I 


i 


3 


4 


I 


7 


4 


5 


1 


i3i 


5 


6 


a 


f 


6 


7 


4 


i 7J 


7 


8 


ai 


14 


8 


9 


3 


J 


9 


10 


3 


7f 


10 


II 


3 


I4{ 


20 


" 11 


4 


1 


3<» 


t3 


4 ' 


7* 


40 


14 


4 


14I 


50 








•60 


28 


9 


9, 


,70 


■^6 


18 


18 


80 


-«4 


28 

! 


, 7 


90 




^~f 




100 


.... . ^ , , 


I ^ 


.• » 


200 



White Tin 



I 
I 

I 
2 
2 
2 

3 

3 
6 

10 

*3 
16 

20 

2.i 
27 

33 
&7 



Q, 


& 


1 


9 


2 


19 


— 


I 


I 


ti 


2 


21 




1 


J 


12 


2 


22 


_ 


4 


I 


14 


3 




**— 


14 


2 




3| 
1 


14 


2 


14 


I 


14 


3 




2 


<— 



20 

16 

8 

4 

16 

12 

8 

4 



:> 



B 



£ 



S. 



299 



At 7 for 20 



At jl for 20 



Bl. 




1 


!B1. 


Tin 


WRite Tin 


Tin 
C. 


lb 


lb 


20 


I 


— « 


7 


I 


2 


— ^ 


14 


. 2 


3 


I 


I 


, 3 


4 


I 


8 


4 


5 


I 


15 


5 


6 


2 


2 


6 


7 


2 


9 


7 


8 


2 


. 16 


8 


9 


3 


3 


9 


10 


3 


10 


10 


II 


3 


17 


20 


12 


4 


' 4 


30 


13 


4 


II 


40 


14 


4 


18 


50 








60 


a8 


9 


16 


70 


S6 


19 


12 


80 


M- 


29 


8 


90 

100 






' - 


200 



White Tin 



C. Q^ 



1 
I 
I 

2 

2 
2 

3 
3 
7 
10 

14 

17 
21 

14 
28 

31 

35 
70 



lb 

II 

22 

5 
16 

n 

22 

5 
16 



20 

4 

8 

12 

16 

4 
8 

12 
16 



Bl. 




; 1 


Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C 


lb 


lb 


ao 


I 


—^ ■ 


in 


I 


i 


— 


15 


. 2 


3 


1 


2| 


3 


4 


I '• 


10 


. 4 


5 


I 


171 


5 


6 


2 


5 


6 


7 


a 


;i2i 


7 


8 


3 


i— 


8 


9 


3 


:7i 


9 


10 


3 


.15 


10 


II 


4 


. 2| 


.20 


12 


4 


iio 


30 


13 


4 


:i7§ 


40 


«4 


^ 


; 5 


50 
60 

70 


28 


10 


10 


56 


21 


— 


80 


84 


31 


.10 


90 
100 
200 









White Tin 



I 

1 
I 
2 

2 

3 
3 
3 
7 
II 

15 
18 
22 
26 

30 

33 

37 
75 



QJ 


m 




^-.^ 


I 


H 


3 


— 


z 




3 


14 


2 


14 


I 


j.H 


3 




2 
I 




3 


' 1 


1 




3 




2 









20 



At 7i for 20 



At 7f for 20 



Bl. 




1 


Bl. 


Tin 


White Ttn- 


Tin 
C. 


& 


lb 


20 


I 


— - 


7i 


I 


2 


— * 


I4i 


2 


3 


I 


li 


3 


4 


I 


9 


4 


5 


I 


i6i 


5 


6 


2 


3f 


6 


7 


2 


lOi 


7 


8 


2 


18 


8 


9 


3 


5i 


9 


10 


3 


i2i 


10 


II 


3 


i9i 


20 


12 


4 


7 


30 


13 


4 


Hi 


40 


H 


5 


If 


50 








,60 


18 


10 


3 


70 


.5^ 


20 


6 


80 


84 


30 


9 


90 








100 
200 



White Tin 
CIQ^ ft 20 



t 
I 
I 

2 
2 

2 
2 
3 

7 

lO 

14 
1 8 
21 

25 
29 

32 
36 
72 



12 

25 

9 

22 

7 
19 

4 

16 

I 

•4 

H 

2 - 

14 
14 



I 



12 

4 

16 

8 

12 

4 

16 

8 



Bl. 




1 


Bl. 


Tin 


White Tift 


Tin 
C. 


lb 


m 


29 


I 


— . ' 


7i 


I 


2 


— 


i5i 


2 


3 


I 


3J 


3 


4 


I 


II 


4 


5 


I 


iH 


5 


6 


2 


6i 


6 


7 


2 


i4i 


7 


8 


3 


t 


8 


- 9 


3 


9i 


9 


10 


3 


m 


10 


II 


4 


5i 


20 


12 


4 


13 


30 


13 


5 


f 


40 


M 


5 


8f 


50 
60 
70 


28 


10 


17 


36 


21 


14 


80 


84 


3^ 


II 


90 




■' 


"*""^ 


100 
200 



White Tin 

C. Q^ lb 20 



I 
I 
I 

2 
2 

3 
3 

3 

7 
II 

15 

'9 

*3 
27 

3 J 

34 
38 
77 



15 
2 

18 

5 
21 

8 

23 
1 1 

26 
14 

H 

14 

14 



8 
16 

4 
12 

8 
16 

4 
12 



300 



B 



E 



S. 







At 8 for 20 








Bl. 






fil. 




Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


White Tin 


lb 


lb 


20 


C. 


Q. 


lb 


20 


I 




8 


1 


^^^ 


1 1 


t6 


16 


2 


— 


16 


2 





3 


5 


12 


3 


I 


4 


3 


I 




22 


8 


4 


I 


12 


4 


I 


2 


ti 


4 


5 


2 


— 


5 


2 








- 6 


2 


8 


6 


2 


1 


16 


16 


7 


2 


16 


7 


2 


3 


5 


12 


8 


3 


4 


8 


3 




22 


8 


9 


3 


12 


9 


3 


2 


1 1 


4 


lO 


4 


— 


10 


4 


— 






II 


4 


8 


20 


8 








12 


4 


16 


30 


12 






— 


• ^3 


; 5 


4 . 


40 


i6 








1*4 


5 


12 


50 
60 

70 


20 




— 


— - 


28 


11 


4 


24 
28 


— 




^-_ 


56 


22 


8 


80 


3^ 




— 


_. 


- 84. 


33 


12 


90 
100 

200 


36 
40 
80, 




— 














— 






At Si 


: for J 


10 


Bl. 






Bl. 




Tin 


Whit( 


eTin 


Tin 
C. 


White Tin 


ft 


lb 


20 


C. 


^ 


ft 


20 


I 


__ 


8i 


I 




I 


18 


4 


2 


— 


i6l 


2 




3 


8 


8 


3 


I 


41 


3 


I 




26 


12 


4 


I 


»3 


4 


1 


2 


16 


16 


5 


2 


iJ 


5 


2 


— 


7 


— 


6 


2 


9f 


6 


2 


J 


25 


4 


7 


2 


m 


7 


2 


3 


15 


8 


8 


3 


6 


8 


3 


1 


5 


12 


9 


3 


i4i 


9 


3 


2 


23 


16 


10 


4 


2i 


10 


4 




14 


— 


II 


4 


lOi 


20 


8 


I 


— 


— 


12 


4 


'9 


30 


12 


1 


H 


— 


>3 


5 ; 


71 


40 


16 


2 


— 


— 


»4 


5 


i5i 


50 


20 


2 


Hi 


— 








60 


24 


3 


■ - 


— 


28 


II 


II 


70 


28 


3 


14 


— 


56 


23 


2 


80 


33 




• - 


— 


H 


34 


13 


90 


37 


— 


14 


— 








100 


41 


1 


■ - 


— 








200 


82 


2 


■-| 


— 



At 8i for 20 



Bl. 






Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 


ft 


ft 


20 


C. 


.1 


— 


8f 


I 


2 


— 


»7 


2 


3 


I 


'5i 


3 


4 


I 


14 


4 


5 


2 


21 


5 


6 


2 


II 


6 


7 


2 


>9i 


7 1 


8 


3 


8 


8 


9 


3 


i6| 


9 


10 


4 


5 


10 


II 


4 


i3f 


20 


12 


5 


2 


30 


*3 


5 


lOi 


40 


'4 


5 


»9 


50 
60 
70 


28 


II 


18 


S6 


23 


16 


80 


84 


35 


14 


90 
100 

200 i 









White Tin 



I 
1 

2 
2 
2 

3 
3 
4 
8 
12 

17 
21 

25 
29 

3+ 
3S1 1 

42 2 

85I- 



ft 

19 
II 

2 

22 

H 

5 

25 
16 

8 



20 

12 

4 

16 

8 

12 

4 

16 

8 



At 8J for 20 




White Tin 



c. 


a 


ft 


— 


I 


21 


— 


3 


14 


1 


I 


7 


1 


3 


— 


2 


— 


21 


2 


2 


14 


3 




7 


3 


2 


— 


3 


3 


21 


4 


J 


H, 


a 


3 




13 




14 


»7 


2 




21 


3 


14 


26 


I 


— ■ 


30 


2 


14 


35 


' — 




39 


I 


H 


*3 


3 




87I 


2 


; 1 



20 



B 



301 



At 9 for 20 



At 9 1 for 20 



Bl. 




1 


Bl. 










Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


White Tin 


lb 


m 


20 


C. 


CL 


ft 


20 


I 


._• 


9 


I 





I 


22 


8 


2 


— 


18 


2 


— 


3 


16 


16 


3 


I 


7 


3 


1 


I 


It 


4 


4 


I 


16 


' 4 


I 


3 


5 


12 


5 


2 


5 


5 


2 


I 




— 


6 


2 


H 


6 


2 


2 


22 


8 


7 


3 


' 3 


7 


3 


— .. 


16 


16 


8 


3 


12 


8 


3 


2 


II 


4 


9 


4 


I 


9 


4 


— 


5 


12 


10 


4 


10 


IP 


4 


2 




— 


II 


4 


19 


20 


9 


— 




— ■ 


12 


5 


8 


30 


13 


2 




— 


13 


5 


17 


40 


18 


— 




^— 


14. 


6 


6 


50 


22 


2 




— 




1 


60 
70 


27 
3' 








.28 


12 


12 


2 




^— 


56 


25 


4 


80 


36 


— 




— 


84 


37 


16 


90 


40 

J jT 


2 








' • 




100 1^3 














200 


|yo 


— 




— 



Bl. 




1 


Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 


lb 


lb 


20 


C. 


I 


9^ 


1 


2 


— 


19 


2 


3 


I 


81 


3 


4 


I 


18 


4 


5 
6 


2 
2 


17 


5 
6 


i 


3 
3 


61 
16 


7 
8 


9 


4 


5f 


9 


10 


4 


15 


ID 


II 


5 


4f 


20 


12 


5 


14 


30 


13 


6 


3i 


40 


14 


6 


»3 


50 
60 

80 


28 
56 


13 
26 


6 
12 


84 


39 


18 


90 
100 

200 









White Tin 



lb 1 20 



I 
I 

2 
2 

3 
4 
4 
9 

H 
»9 
^3 
28 

?>% 
38 
42 
47 
95 



i5 
22 

'9 
16 

1+ 

XI 

8 

5 
2 



4 
8 

12 
16 

4 
8 

12 
16 



At 9I for 20 



At 9I for 20 



Bl. 






Bl. 


Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 


ib 


m 


20 


C. 


X 


— 


9i 


I 


" * 1 


-=- 


iSi 


2 


3 


I 


n 


3 


4 


I 


'7 


4 


S 


2 


6J 


5 


6 


2 


i5i 


6 


7 


3 


4i 


7 


8 


3 


14 


8 


9 


4 


3i 


. 9 


10 


4 


12J 


10 


II 


5 1 


H 


20 


12 


5 


II 


30 


13 


6 


\ 


40 


14 


6 


9i 


50 
60 


28 


12 


*9 


70 


56 


25 


18 


80 


84 


38 


17 


90 
100 
200 



White Tin 

20 

16 

12 

8 

4 

16 
12 

8 
— i« 4 



c. 


^ 


ft 


— 


I 


n 


— 


3 


19 


t 


I 


^5 


1 


3 


ti 


2 


I 


7 


2 


3 


2 


•3 




26 


3 


2 


22 


4 


— 


i8 


4 


2 


14 


9 


I 


— 


13 


3 


14 


18 


2 


— 


23 


— 


14 


27 


3 


— 


32 


1 


H 


Z1 


— 


-^ 


41 


2 


14 


46 


I 


— ■ 


92 


— 


— 



Bl. 






Bl. 




Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 
C. 


w 


lb 


lb 


20 


C. 


I 


— 


9i 


I 


— 


2 


— 


19* 


2 




3 


I 


9i 


3 


I 


4 


I 


19 


4 


I 


5 


2 


8i 


5 


2 


6 


2 


i8i 


6 


2 


: 7 


3 


8i 


:7 


3i 


8 


3 


18 


8 


3 


9 


4 


n 


9 


4 


10 


4 


m 


10 


4 


II 


5 


n 


20 


9 


12 


5 


17 


JO 


14 


»3 


6 


6i 


40 


»9 


14 


6 


i6i 


50 
60 


^4 
29 


28 


13 


13 


70 


34 


56 


27 


6 


80 


39 


84 


40 


19 


90 


43 






jioo 1 


48 






- , 


ZOO i 


<i1 



White Tin 



lb 20 



26 

25 

23 

22 
21 

'9 

18 

16 

*5 
14 

14 

H 

14 

H 



12 

4 

16 

8 

12 

4 

16 

8 



H h h h 



3^a 



B 



£ 



S. 







At 10 for 


20 








Bl. 




1 


Bl. 




Tin 


Whke Tin 


Tin 


White Tin 


m 


It 


ao 


C. 


a 


ft. 


20 


I 




10 


I 




2 


— * 


— 


2 


I 


— 


2 


1' 






^ 


3 


1 


10 


3 


I 


2 


— . 


— ' 


4 


2 


— 


4 


2i 


— 




— 




2 


>o 


5 


2 


2 




— 


6 


3 


— 


6 


3 


— 


■ — 


— 


7 


3 


10 


7 


3 


2 


'* 


■ — 


? 


4 




8 


4 


— 




■ — 


9 


4 


JO 


9 


4 


a 


— 


- — 


IP 


5 


*-^ 


10 


5 


— 




— 


II 


5 


10 


20 


10 


— 




— 


n 


6 


— 


$0 


15 




— 


— ■ 


*3 


6 


10 


40 


to 


— 


,^^^ 


— 


14 


-7 




^ 


25 


— 


— 


— 








30 


— 


— 


— 


23 


14 


— 


70 


35 


— 






56 


28 


— 


?o 


40, 


— 






84 


42 


' — • 


^0 


45, 


— 


— . 


— 


— 1 — 


■ 1 ■ 




100 


50 


■ — 




— 


- .-i ■ 




200 


100 






~ 




At ic 


>{ ^r 20 


Bl. 






Pl. 


• • 


Tin 


Whie 


: Tin! 


*^in 

• — f ' 


White Tin 


a 


th 


?o 


c. 


Q.: 


iti 


20 


— i — 
1 1 


j. 


toi 


"T" 
1 


1 — 1 


2 


I 


8 


% 


I 


I 

— s 


l» ' 


I 


: 


2 


16 


3 


I 


toi 


is- 


I 


2! 


4 


4 


^ 


2 


I 


i4 


2 




5 


12 


• 1 


2 


m 


, fi- 


2 


2 


7' 


■ — 


t ■ 


3' 


ii 


le- 


3 




8 


8 


:( 


3m 


Mi 


;7 


3 


2 


9 


16 


u 


..4 


2 


l« 


4 




11 


4 


9 


:" + 


|2i 


;9 


•4 


2 


1% 


12 


iq 


5: 


2j 


19 


•5 




14 


■ — 


-n 


5 


I2J 


20 


10 


I 




— 


-H 


6 


■ 3 


5° 


15 


1 


14 




13- 


.; 6 


I3J 


40 


%o 


2 


~^i 


—• 


H 


■ 7 


3^ 


5P 


^5 


2 


14 


— 




T^T^ ^1 




<>o 


?o 


3 




— 


48 


1 + 


7 


K 


F5 


3 


14 


— 


5^ 


28 


»4 


P 


^^ 




— 


84 


43 


I 


90 


46 


'-' 


14 




- II ' 


r 


— T. 


100 


f* 


I 






! 






2pO 


IP2 


2 


— 


— 



At loi for -20 



Bl. 




1 


Bl 










Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 

a 


White ITin 


m 


lb 


20 


C. 


Q. 


tb 


20 


I 


-^ 


lOi 


I 




2 


'2, 


16 


2 


I 


I 


% 


I 


.— 


;5: 


12 


3 


I 


iif; 


1 


1 


2 


S 


S 


4 


2 


2 


4 


2 


— 


ti 


4 


5 


3 


i»i 


1 


2 


2 


14 


— 


6 


3 


3 


e 


3 




16 


16 


7 


3 


ij{f 


I 


3 


2 


191 


12 


a 


4 


4 


4 


— 


?2 


H 


9 


4 


Hi 


9 


4 


2 


^5 


4 


10 


5 


5 


10 


5 


I 


' — 


— 


II 


5 


»5x^ 


2P 


10 





*— 


— 


12 


6 


6 


3P 


>5 


3 


^j 


^— 


13 


6 


«6i 


40 


21 




' — , 


— 


14 


7 


7 


50 


26 


I 


* — 










60 


3' 


2 


, — 


^ 


28 


14 


14 


70 • 


36 


3 




,*-. 


56 ^ 


29 


8 , 


80. 


42, 


' — , 




84^ 


44 


2 


90 


47 


I 


■ — 1 


,^- 








100 


52 


2 




^^- 






. 


200 


105 






^ 



At loi for ao 



Bl. 






Bl. 




Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 


W 


^ i 


ft 


2p 


C. 


I 


-.- 


ipi 


I 


.«. 


2 


I 


If 


e 


I 


3 


I 


I2i 


3 


I 


^4 


2 


3 ' 


4 


2 


5 


2 


131 


5 


2 


£:i 


3 


4i- 


6 


3 


1i 


3 
4 


•6i 
p 


7 


3 
4 


9 


4 


i6i 


9 


4 


-10, 


5 , 


M 


10 


^ 


11 


S 


20 


10 


12. 


6 


^ 


30 


l^ 


^3 


6 


m 


40 


2| 


<4 


7 


— 1 — ' 


50 
60 


2^ 

3* 


28 < 


»5 


I 


70 


3? 


56 1 


30 ' 


» 


80 


:i; 


84 


45 


S 


90 


f 






«oO 5|| 


i 




■ J 


200 


io;rl 



White Tin 



|ib< 


eo 


8' 


4 
8 


12 


12 


(6 


16 


21 




?5 
' I 


4 
8 


■5 
;9 


IZ 

16 


K 


**" 


u 




^, 


-f— 


1+ 




|4 


— - 


-1 — 


«^. 


14 




->— 


^ 


-hI 


^ 



3 



S. 



303 



At II for 2o 



At ir^ fbr ao 



Bl. 




1 


BJ. 




Tin 


White Tin 


Tin 


W] 


fb : 


^ 


20 


C. 


c. 


I ■! 


__ ' 


la '• 


I 




« 


I 


fc 


2 


1 


3 


I 


»3 


3 


1 


4 


2. 


4 


4 


2 


5 • 
6 


2 
3 


'i 


5 
6 


2 

3 


7 
8 


3 
4 


*7 : 

6 


7 
8 


3 
4 


9 


4 


»9 


9 


4 


10 


5 


10 


lO 


5 


11 


6 


J 


20 


II 


12 


6 i 


12 ) 


30 


16 


13 


7 


■3 


4x3 


22 


H 


7 


14 


50 
60 

80 
90 


27 

33 
38 
44 
49 
55 


28 
«4 


»5 
46 


8 
16 

4 
















2Gp 


no 



Q. 


lb 


2 


5 


*— 1 


1 1 


2 


16 




22 


3 




I 


5 


3 


II 


I 


16 


3 


22 


2 




2 




2 




2 


— : 


2 


— 


— 





20 

12 ■ 

'4 

16 

8 

12 

4 

16 

8 



Bl. 




■ 1 


Bl. 






1 ♦ 




Tin 


WJiiic Tin 


Tin 


White, Tia 

j 


ffi 


& 


2P 


c. 


C 


CL 


lb 


20 


I '^ 




m 


I 




^ 


s 


8 


% 


I 


3 


a 


I 




;i6. 


16 


3 


V 


Mi 


3 


i' 


2 


25. 


4 


4' 


2 


6 


4 


2 


I 


5 


12 


5 


2 


i7t 


5 


•2 


.? 


H. 


— 


6 


3 


9 


6 


3 


1 


22 


8 


7 ! 


4 


I1 

1 


7 


4 




2' 


16 


8 


4 


12 


8 


4 


. 2! 


11" 


4 


9 


5 


3i 


9 


5 




'9 


12 


10 


5 ' 


15 


10 


5 


H 




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At 13 for 20 



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m 


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60 


32 
39 


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100 
200 


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At 13 J for 20 



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28 
56 
84 



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20 

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40 

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70 
80 
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•i- for 


20 ' 








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56 


14 


90 


60' 


3 


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100 


67 


2j 




— 








200 


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~ 




MMM 






At 131 for 


20 


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C. 


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ft 


ft 


20 


C. 


Q. 


ft 


20 


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100 


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68 





14 


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200 


137 


2 







T • • • 

I 1 1 1 



APPENDIX. 



AMONG the variety of impfovements that may be fug- 
gefted for the intereft of Mining, thofe certainly are ittoft 
beneficial, which tend to the perfedlion of mechanicks and 
hydraulicks ; for had there not been great progrefs made in 
thofe branches of philofophy within the laft improved ages of 
fcience, Mining would ftill confift of merely digging a (tW 
fathoms deep, and raifing the fluff and water, by dint of 
human labour. 

About four-fcore years back, fmall wheels of twelve or fifteen 
feet diameter, were thought the beft machinery for draining 
the Mines ; and if one or two were infufficient, more wefe 
often applied to that purpofe, all worked by the fame ftream of 
water. I have heard of feven in one Mine, worked over each 
other. This power muft have been attended with a complica- 
tion of accidents and delays. However, foon after the above 
date, Mr. John Coftar, of Briftol, came into this county, and 
taught the natives an improvement in this machinery, by de- 
molifiiing thofe petit engines, and fubftituting one large wheel 
of between thirty and forty feet diameter in their (lead. 

Hitherto we are all affured, that a large water wheel engine, 
if water is plenty and cheap, is moft effeftual and fteady for 
the purpofe of draining Our Mines ; but this power is limited ; 
and beyond a certain gauge we dare not undertake. We know, 
that if we add to our power, we experience a lofs in time or 
motion, more than equivalent to the acquifition. Upon this 
principle we underftand, that a thirty-eight feet wheel, or 
thereabout, is the beft medium we can prefcribe to ourfelves ; 
purfuant to which we know, that, beyond a certain depth, we 
cannot fink with eafe and conveniency to our intereft ; and that 
another power becomes neceffary for our purpofe. 

It fhould feem as if we had been led by the kind hand of 
Providence in thofe difcoveries ; for as foon as we found out 
the ne plus ultra of the power of water, and the neceffity of 

further 



3o8 APPENDIX. 

further improvements in hydraiilicks, a new and more fcientifick 
machinery prefented itfelf to the attention of the Miner. For 
want of another piece of machinery, we had been dinted to a 
certain depth, beyond which the fucceeding generation by the 
water wheel and bobs would be unable to fmk. So that, hap- 
*pily for us and our pofterity, Mr. Newcomen's invention of the 
fleam fire engine, even in the weaknefs of its infancy, promifed 
that future excellence to which it is fince arrived, whereby we 
are en,abled to fink our Mines to twice the depth we could for^ 
merly do by any other machinery. 

Since the improvement of this machine's working itfelf, by 
opening and clofing the regulator and injedion cock, moft 
other attempts have been very unfuccefsful. The vaft con- 
fumption of fuel in thofe engines, is an immenfe drawback 
upon the profits of our Mines. It is a known fad:, that every 
fire engine of magnitude confumes to the amount of three 
thoufand pounds worth of coal in every year. This heavy tax 
upon Mining, in fome refpe£):s,. amounts to a prohibition. No 
wonder then, that we fhould be more defirous to leilen the 
expence of maintenance in thofe devouring automatons,, than 
frugal in their eredion. Many trials of mechanical ikill have 
been made by our engineers, to very little purpofe, for the 
total application of heat and the faving of fuel. The fire place 
has been diminifhed, and enlarged again j the flame has been 
carried round from the bottom of the boiler in a fpiral diredion^ 
and conveyed through the body of the water in a tube (one, 
two, or three) before its arrival to the chimney ; fome have 
ufed a double boiler, fo that fire might ad in every poflible 
point of contad ; and fome have built a Moorftone boiler, 
heated by three tubes of flame pafling through it. 

Indeed, the only improvement which has been made in the 
fire engine for thirty years paft, the publick will very juftly 
attribute to the fagacity of Mr. Watt, whofe ikill in pneutha-< 
ticks, mechanicks, and hydraulicks, is evidenced by the power- 
ful application of elafiick vapour, and by making a more 
perfed vacuum, nearly like that of the barometer, in his new 
conftruded fire engine. 

fl 

"But before I can explain Mr. Watt's engines, it is necefldry 
to premife a fliort account of the imperfedions of the common 
fleam engines, and their cauies. 

The 



A P p E N b r X, 309 

. Tlie deam, or vapour, which arifes from water confinied in 
a clofe vefTel, and. heated a few degrees ahove the point at 
which it boih in the optfn air, becomes an elaftick fluid uniform 
^d tranCi^tt^nt, about half the gravity of atmoipberick air, 
very much greater in bulk than the water of which it is com- 
pofed, and capable of being again reduced to water, when 
brought into cbntaift with matter of a lefs degree of heat than 
itfelfT 

The. preflure of the atmofphere, or any equivalent refiftance, 
prevents the produdion of fteam, until the water be heated . 
to 212 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer ; but when that 
prediire is removed, or the water placed in a veiTel exhaufted 
'of air, ileam is produced from it, when it is. colder than the 
hiiman blood. On the contrary, if- water be prefTed upon by 
laif or fteam, which are more cbmprefled than the atmofphere, 
i^'degree of heat above 21 2 degrees is necef&ry for the produc> 
tion of fteam; and the diflerence of heats, at which water 
boils . under different prefliires, increafes in a lefs proportion 
than the preflures themielves : fo that a double preflure requires 
lefs than a double increafe of fcniible heat. 

The eitperiihents which have been publiihed cbn^erning the 

bulk of water, when convjerted into fteam, are erron^ous^ and 

.;the concluHohs cl];aWa from'theni make, that bulk gfeat^r thate 

It really is. It has been known for fome time, that water 

iivould boil in an eichaufted receiver, at a low <deette of heat ; 

^utMr. W&tt was the firf^ that made a regular iet of experiments 

\^pon the iiibje^, and determined the progref&on in which the 

' heats followed under various preftures ; and, at the fame time^ 

^made experiments that were decifive upon die true bulk of 

fteam, when compared to the Water it is cocnpofed of. The 

tefult of thefe experiments he intends to ky before the publick, 

in a treatife upon that fubjeft. 

If we confider the. common fteam engine, we Ihall find it 
defedive ; firft, becaufe the vacuum is produced by throwing 
■cold, water into the cylinder to condenfe the fteam 5 that water 
becomei hot, and being in a veilel partially exhaufted produces 
a fteam, which in part refifts the prefture of the atmofphere 
upon th^ jpifton, and lefTens the power of the engine. The 
' fecond dcKd is the deftrudion of fteam, which unavoidably 
happens upoii attempting to fill a cold cylinder with that fluid: 
for the injedion water, at the fame time that it condenfef the 

Kkkk fteam, 



jro A P PEN. D L X 

fteam^ not on\f^ cools the cylinder but reinains therqi until it 
be extruded >at the eduAion pipe, by the fleam which, is lee im 
j:o fill the cylinder for the next ftroke ; and that fteam will be 
condenfed into water as faft as it enters, until all the matter- it 
comes into contad with be nearly as hot as itfelf. 

Every attempt to make the Tacuum more perfed by tikit 
addition of injedion water, will cool the cylinder more eiffec^ 
tually, and caufe a greater deftrudtion oi fteam in the next 
fiUing; and if the engine hath already a proper load, the 
deftrudion of fteam will proceed in a greater ratio, than the 
increafe of power by the amendment of the vacuum. 

Though it appears, that the conftru^ra.of fteam engines 
•have never in veuigated thefe caufes; yet ithey have been {o fen- 
fible of the efteds, that a judicious engineer does not attempt 
to load his engine with a column of water, heavier than feveh 

;pounds for £ach fquare inch of the area of the pifton. -f 

. , ■ /. . i 

Mr. Watt*s improvement is founded upon tbefe, and fbme 
other collateral obfervations. He preierves an uniform heat in 
the cylinder of his engines, by fufFering no cold water to touch 
it, and by proteding it firom the air,- or other 4CokL bodies^ by 
a fUrrounding cafe filled with the (leam, or with hot air or 
w^ter, and by coating it over with fubflancesthat traofmit h^ 
flowly. He makes his vacuum to approach 'nearly to that of 
the 1>arometeF, by condenfing the fteam in a feparate vef&I, 
called the Condenfer, which may be cooled at pleafuce without 
cooling the cylinder, either by an injedion or cold water^^br 
■by furrounding the condenfer with it, and generally by both, 
^e-extrads the injedion water and detached air, fironv' the 
cylinder or condenfer, by pumps which are wrought . by 'the 
engine itfelf, or he blows it out by the fteam. As the entrance 
of air into the cylinder would ftop the operation of the en^bf, 
and as it is hardily to be expeded that luch enormous piftoni, 
.as -thofe of fteam engines, can move up and down, and yet be 
abfolutely air tight in the common engines ; a flream of watsr 
is kept always running upon the pifton, which prevents the 
entry of the air ; but this mode of fecuring the pifton, though 
not hurtful i^'. the common ones, would he highly prejudicial 
in the new engines. Their piflon is, therefore, made m6»e 
accurately ; .and the outer cylinder having a lid which covers it, 
the fteam is introduced above the pifton ; and when a vaciium 
is produced under it, ads upon it by its elafUcity, as theatxQe- 

fphetp 



APPENDIX. 311 

i|)li0re does upon common engines by its gjcwity. This way of 
working, effcduallj' excludfis the air from the inner cylinder, 
and gives the advantage of adding Co the power, by increaiing 
die elafticity of the fleam. 

The internal ftrufttire of the new engines fo much rs(embles 
the common ones, that to thofe who know that machine, a 
drawing is fcarcely necefTary, and I expeA they will underiland 
It 6rom the following defcription^ 

. .' The cylinder, the .great beams, the pumps j ^5cc. Hand in 
their ufual portions. The xylinder is fmaller than ufual in 
proportion to the load, and is very accurately bored. In the 
moft complete-engines,- it is furrounded at a'fmall diftance with 
another cylindciry - fbmi&ed. with a bottom and- a lid. Th^ 
dnterftice between thc' cylinders, <:ommunicates wkh the bdiler 
by a large pipe, open at both ends ; fo that it is always filled 
with fleam, and- thereby maintains the inner cylinder always of 
the fame heat with the fleam^ and prevents any condenfatioh 
within it, which wouldlse more detrimental-than an equal coo- 
xlenfation in the outer one. 

; ^ Thetnhcr cylinder has i bottoq^ and pifk>n9 as uiual i - and 
-as it doeb not ^reach -up^^uite to the lid -of the outer cylinder, 
^e fleam in the internibi; ha^ always free accefs to the upper 
'ifide of the pifloA. - The lid of the- outer cylinder, has a hole In 
-its middle; and the piflon rod, wtdich is naiade truly cylindrical, 
-"moves up -and , down through that hole, which is< kept Aeam 
'tight hy a cellar tof oakum ferewed -down upon it. 

At the bottom of the inner cylinder, there are two regulating 

va^yes, one of which admits the fleam to pals fsom the interflice 

intOrihe inner cylinder below the piflon, or* fhuts it out at 

pleai^ ; the other opens or fhuts the end of a pipe^ whidi 

leads - to the condenfer. The condenfer confifts of one or more 

pumps furnifhed with clacks and buckets, (nearly the iamc as 

in commoii' pumps) which are brought by -chains faflened to 

the great working beam of the engine. The pipe, which 

comes from the cylinder^ is joined ;to the bottom ofthefe 

pumps, and the whole condenfer flands immerfed in a dflern 

of cold water fupplied by the engine. The place of this dflern 

;is either within the houfe under the floor, between the cylinder 

rand ^ the lever wall ; or without thehpufe, between that wall 

.and the engine, fhaft^ as conveniency may, require. 

The 



312 



E N D I X. 



The condenfer being eidiaufted of air by blowing, and both 
the cylinders being filled with (learn, the regulating valve 
which admits the fteam into the inner cylinder is (hut, and the 
other regulator which communicates with the conden(er ii 
opened, and the fteam rufhes into the vacuum of the condenfer 
with violence ; but there it comes into contad with the coin 
fides of the pipe and pumps, and meets a jet of cold water 
which was opened at the (ame time with the exhau(lic>n regula- 
tor; thefe inftantly deprive it of its heat, and reduce it to 
water ; and the vacuum remaining perfed, more fteam conti- 
nues to ru(h in, and be condenfed until the inner cylinder is 
«xhaufted. Then the fteam which is above the pifton, ceafine 
to be counteraded by that which was: below it, ads upon tbe 
pi (ton with its whole elafticity, and forces it to dtTcend to the 
bottom of the cylinder, and lo rai(es the buckets of the pumps 
which are hung to the other end of the beam. The exhauftion 
regulator is now (hut, and the (Icam one opened again, wjiich 
by letting in the fteam allows^the pifton to be pullol up by the 
iuperipr weieht of the pump rods i and f^ die ^ngine is ready 
for another ftroke. 

The working of thefecngincit is more regular and,ileady th/^i 
the conmion ones, and from what has been (aid,, their othpr 
adv;<ntages are apparently very confidciable^ but to (ay ezadly 
how much they excel conimqn engines, is di(&cult;, as ^omnon 
engines differ very much among themfelves. I am told, th^t 
the favings amount at leaft to two-thirds 4>f the fuel, which is a 
very cdnfiderable Qbjed where coals are as expen(Ive as thej s^e 
in Cornwall. 

The new engines will raife from twenty thdufand to twenty- 
four thoufand cubick feet of water to twenty-iR)urfeet high, by 
one hundred weight of good pit-coal ; .and I am informed^ that 
Mr. Watt's improvements do not reft here ; for he means foon to 
exhibit to the world engines upon the fame principles, though 
differing fomewhat in conftrudion, which will ule much lefs 
fuel than thoie defcribed, and will alfo be more convenient for 
the purpo(es of Mining, than any kind of engine yet ufed. 

He lias alfo contrived ,a kind of mill wheel, which turns 
round by the powers of fteam exerted within it ; hut as he has 
not made its ftrudure publick, I cannot favour my readers with 
a defcription of it. 



•• .Cv-' ' 



A P P E ^r ' D I X. 313 

It may not be unacceptable to give a fliort hiflory of the 
invention. Thefe improvements were invented by Mr. James 
Watt, at .Glafgow in Scotland, in 1764. He obtained his 
Majefty's Utters patent for the fole u(e of his invention in 1768, 
and then made ajarger machine than what he had formtrly 
tried his experiments tipon 5 but feveral mechanical difficulties 
occurring in the execution of the machine, and his attention 
being engaged in other builnefs, he laid afide the undertaking 
lintil 1774, when he came to Birmingham, and in conjur.ftion 
with Mr. Boulton, of Soho near that place, he completed both 
d reciprocating and a rotative or wheel engine. He then ap- 
plied to parliament for a prolongation of the term of his patent, 
which was granted by an ad paffed in 1775. Since that time 
the buflnefs has been carried on by Mr. Boulton and him in' 
partnerfhip. 

They have ereded feveral engines in StafFordfhire, Shropfhire, ^ jj 
and Warwickfhire, and one fmall one near London. They 
h'jve alfo -lately finifhed anOiner atvHawkeibury colliery near 
Coventry,' wj^ch is juftly fupipofed to be the moft powerful 
engine in ^ng|and. It has a cylinder fifty-eight inches diameter, 
which work^ a pump^^Yourteen incnes diameter fixty-five 
fathoms h jgh, and make's regularly twelve ftrokes of eijght feet 
long each in a minute." They are alfo now ereding three engines 
more in, Cornwall, viz at TmgTang, Owanvean, andTregurtha 
Downs : 'and have lately fet to work a fmall engine at Huel- 
Buffy Mine, which bias a cylinder thirty inches diameter, that 
works a pump of fix inches and a half diameter in two {hafts 
by flat rods with great fridion, three hundred feet diftant from 
each other, forty-flve fathoms high in/each (haft, equal in all 
to ninety fathoms, and can make fourteen flrokes of eight feet 
Jong in a minute, with a confumption of coal lefs than twenty 
bufhels in twenty-four hour;. 

The terms they offer to the publick are, to take in lieu of 
all profits, one-third part of the annual favings in fuel, which 
their engine makes when compared with a common engine of 
the fame dimenfions in the neighbourhood. The engines are 
built at the expcnce of the ufers, and Meffrs. Boulton and 
Watt furnifli fuch drawings, diredions, and attendance, as 
may be neceffary to enable a refident engineer to complete the 
niachine. 

LUl AN 



^ .'/*»' 



I i.-v-- 1 



n :' . ». ■ * •». 



AH 

E X P LAN A T I O N 

OF THE 

CORNtJ-TECHNIGAL TERMS and IDIOMS 

OF 

TINNERS, 
Including thofe which are ufed in the Lead-Mines and CoUeriet 

of GrE AT-BrIT AIN* 



X\CC0MPT. Accotmt, or Account, 
day— Either a monthly or any other 
day of meeting of the Mine-Adventu- 
rers; when they aflemble together to 
adjuft the charges of working the Mine, 
the particulars whereof are entered in a 
book called the Accompt-Book. The 
houfe of meeting, if on the Mine, is 
called the Accompt-Houfe. 

Adit, Tye, or LeveL A Sough in the 
north of England. An Adit, quafi, 
ab aditu ad aquas. (Carew's Survey). 
An Adit is a Conduit or Channel, be- 
gun on a valley or low ground at a 
diftance from the Mine, and thence 
continued at the fame depth or level 
home to the Mine, to cut in depth and 
drain off the water. Sometimes it may 
be brought home for the purpofe before 
mentioned acrofs the country, and at 
other times on the courfc of a Lode to 
prove it as they go. And at other 
times, for the greater eafe and fpeed on 
the courfe of a Crofs-Lode , Goffan, or 
branch, according as circumftances are 
favourable. 

Adit-End. The fiirthermoft end or part 
of an Adit from its beginning, or the 
very place where the Miners are work- 
ing under-ground towards the Mine. 

AdvbntiAe. A mine in working is fo 
called, and fo is the affair of being con- 
cerned in a mine, as it is ufual to fay, 
*• A perifon is about to take up an Ad- 
** venture.'* 

Adventurers. Are thofe pcrfons con- 
cemed in a Mine who have Doles, 
ihares, or parts thereof. Out-Adven- 
turers are thofe who contribute their 
quotas of the charge, but do not give 



a daily attendance. But In^ Adventurers 
are fuch who have Doles, and alfo work 
in or attend the a£iirs of the Mine for 
wages, or pay their colt by account for 
goods. 

After-leavings. See Loobs. 

Air-Pipe. A wooden pipe or tube, one 
end of which is above-ground, and the 
other end reaches down to the bottom 
of the fiiaft, fo that the motion of the 
wind forces down air to the labourers. 

Alive. That part of the Lode which 
contains Tin, Copper, or Lead, and is 
wonh the faving and dreiling for the 
furnace, in oppoiitiop to that part of 
the Lode which is dead or barren, and 
holds no Metal. j 

Anvil. Cornifh Anvon. A hard ftone 
or any other thing on which they fpal 
or break up the large ftones of Ore for 
the better feparation of their different 
kinds. 

Arch or Pilar. A piece of the Lode or 
Country left (landing up to fupport the 
Mine j the Arch being a Drift or hole 
broke through the pillar. 

Assay and Assaying. The produA in 
Metal of one ounce of. Tin or Copper 
Ore, or the procefs for knowing the 
produft of any other Metal or Mineral. 

AsTSL. A board or plank. (Lhuyd). — 
Stull — An arch or ceiling of boards 
over the mens he^ds in a Mine, to fave 
them from the falling fl;one$, rocks, or 

. fcales of the Lode or its walls. To 
" throw the Deads %o StuUs',** is to 
throw the refufe part of the Mine on 
thefe arches or flulls, both to fave the 
trouble of bringing it up to grafs, and 
becaufe this helps to make the Mine the 
more fecure. — Stidalls. In Du Cange's 
Gloilary of Latin Words, Aflulla, or 

Haflulla, 






.^ ANXrfLANATlON OF THtl^ClDT^m.TEpHNJCAl 



Haftulla, figndes a chip or fcgment of 
wood cut oIT from a greater piece. (Vid. 
Prcfi p. 15. Iceland's Itinerary, vol. Vii. 
17^69). buill^ a Bunding in, IJprby- 
fli*e. ^ ' ' '^ . . . • 

Assistants. The commons or lower 
houfe of convocation or parliament of 
Tinners. Each Convocator appoints 
his own Ai&Ilaot, who it generally! fup- 
pofed to be a gentleman of veracity, 
integrity, and underftanding in all Mi- 
ptdg attain/ Thcf^ jare twenty-foor 
Convocators, and twenty-four Awftants 
every convocation. See Stannaries. 

AsTYLLEN. A fma|l ward oY ftdpffage on 
purpofe in an Adit or Mine t^ -prevent 
the free and full paflage of tlie water 
by damQiing ^t up to a certain height, 
ih0\lgli hot enthrely to ftop its current. 
AKo, >' kind of hedge or rude wall- 
work to feparate Lode and Deads from 
Vach cifihcr when brought to grafs. Al- 
«fo, a hedge under-ground, as a wall to 
^prevent the running of Deads. 

A.TTAL, Attle, Adall, Addle. Corrupt, 
impure, of no value, off-cafts. Deads, 
or refufe parts of the working that the 
Miners find under-ground on reaflbming 
an old Adventure ; that earth alfo which 
moulders away and falls down to the 
hottom of the Shaft, or pit, is called 
Attat, and fo is all the ftony eanfa 
broke in Mining which is not of a 
veiny nature. (Waftrey or Deads in 
Derhyfliire). 

Att^all^^arazik. Saxons or Jews off- 
call.' .'!(Carcw*s Survey). 

AxLETREiE. A thick piece of timber in 
form of a cylinder with a large rope 
wound obout it, and with which they 
bring up tKe work or Ore, and ufually 
let the men defcend and come up ; but 
the windlafs includes the axle-tree with 
its appurtenances, as layers, upftanders, 
'ftays, and brace boards — Defined— 
Stows in the north of England, which 
arc feyen jpieccs of wood (fet up on the 
fup^rfices of the eaftli) faftened together 
by pinS of wood. Two are called Soul- 
trees ; two Stow-blades ; two Hang- 
benches ; and a Spindle ; thefe Stows 
give a Miner, or any perfon who owns 
them, as good right to a meer or meers 
of ground (fo that every meer has a 
pair of Stows fet on them) as a deed of 
conveyance doth to any purchafer. 



B 



.•<- 



BXckr^df the Lode. That part of the 
Lode which is neareft and uppermoft 



towards the grafs or furface. (fhc 
. Roof, Derbymire). 

Bal.' a (hovel, a plague, a place of 
digging ; Balas, to dig — Palas, idem* 
(l^rl. Vocab.) when Aany people 
are employed in a Mine of note, in 
paling, and forting the Ore, where it 
is brought to grafs, then they ftile this 
place ^B^re thcjconcourfc of people 
meet andVork, by the name of the Bal, 
efpecially if the place be feated on an 

; eminence, for they fey, *" A perfon is 
** gone up to Bill V* but* if the plAce or 
Mine lies low, it is ufual to fay, ^' He 
•Hs gd(i#t6^0Dr i" if in the valley, 
they fay, " He is gone to Coomb. *• 
Baly, fignifies. To caft up. 

Bar. Ally courfe or vein which runs 
acrofs a Lode or Mhie is often termed 
a Bar ; but they fometimes meet with 
a very hard kmd of ftooe, caHc^d an 
Ire-ftone, which forms a fori of« courfe 
like as it were a Lode, but perhaps 
feveral fathoms wider : this is named a 
Bar. Bar-Mafter among, the Lead Mi- 
ners, is he which keepeth the Gage or 
difli to meafure the Miners Ore, he or 
his fervant being prefat yiktn meafured. 
(Houghton's Rara Ans» &c.) 

Bahoaik. See Fathom. 

Batch. A parcel or quantity of any 
thing. *' A Batcl^ of Tin*'—" A Batch 
" of Bread,*' &c. 

Bbat— ** away the groutid/'i $igni^ing 
the working away on' th^ courfe 0/ the 
Lode: or theiftopeing^nway any ground 
in a Mine.:; .^-^ ?>* 

Bfiu. AKve. rComiib). 

Bfiu-HBYL. A live ibeam, i. e. rich for 
Tin. 

Binder — ^Or Timbcr-man, fo called, who 
undertakes to bind and keep a Mine 
open, or prevent any pan from crufliing 
or falling together. 

Bind. See Cobb. 

Blackjack. See Mock-Lead. 

Black-Tik. Tin Ore, triturated, waflx* 
ed, and clean for fmclting. 

Block-Tin orWrtlTB-TiN. IsTin brought 
to its fineft purity by fmelting. 

Blowers, llie perfons that melt Stream 
Tin with charcoal fires, excited by bel- 
lows worked by water wheels. 

BlowinO'Housb. The houfe wherein the 
furnace for blowing is. (Blaft^Houfe 
in Derbyfliire). 

Bortbr An inftrument of iron fteel- 
pointed to bore holes with in large 
rocks, in order to blow them with gtm- 
powder. 

Bottoms. The deepeft wording parts of 
a Mine that is wrought eithd* bjr (lope- 



TERMS AND IDIOMS OF TINNERS; 



317 



lAg, driving, or otherwife breaking the 
Lode. (Bottom, Sole, in Dcrbyffiirc). 

Bottom-Captain. A fuperintendant over 
the Miners in the Bottoms. 

Bottoms — ^in Fprk. . When all the Bot- 
toms are unwatered, they lay, " The 
•* Bottoms are in fork -," and to draw 
out the water from them, orany Dippa, 
or any other particular part of a Mine, 
is faia to be " forking the water j" and 
when accompliflied, " Such Dippa, &c. 
** is in fork." Likewife when an ensne 
has drawn out all the water, they^y, 
" The engine is in fork/* - 

BoTTOMrLiFT. The deepeft or bottom 
tier of pumps. 

Bounds and Bounders. Are limited par- 
cels or pieces of land enjoyed by the 
owners of fuch Bounds. See book iii. 
chap, iiu page 137. 

Br ACS. Includes the fpot of ground 
where the chief working Shaft of the 
Mine is, with the materiab and imple- 
ments thereunto belonging, as axletree, 
rope, &c. See Axletree. 

Lay down at the Brace. If a perfon 
is dcfirous of relinquifliing his Dole in 
a Tin Mine, he does fo either by writing 
in the account-book, after having paid 
his cod to that time ; or elfe he lays 
down, or declines his Dole at the Brape, 
by putting his hand on the axletree, 
and publickly declaring that he will be 
no longer concerned in the Mine. 

This was an ancient cuftom, but it 
was obferved only in Tin Mines •, and 
how far it is lawful fo to do, or binding 
upon the reft of the concerned, is matter 
of doubt. 

Branch. A leader, ftring, or rib of Ore, 
that runs in a Lode •, or if a Lode is 
divided into feveral ftrings, they are 
called Branches, whether they contain 
Ore or not : likewife ftrings of Ore 
which come tranfverfely into the Lode 
are called Branches, and fo are all veins 
that are very fmall, dead or alive, i. e. 
whether they contain Ore or not. 

Brood. Any heterogeneous mixture a- 
mong Tin or Copper Ore, as Mundick, 
Black-jack, &c. 

Bryle. See page 125. 

Bucking and Bucked Ore. A method 
of breaking the poor foul Copper Ore 
fmaller by hand with fmall flat irons, 
called Bucking-Irons, in order to waih 
and feparate the pure Ore from the ufe- 
lefs wafte. The fame term is ufed in 
the Lead Mines. But Pettus, in his 
Fleta Minor, ^ives it the fignification 
of wafhing, or wet ftamping Ores. 

Buddlb. Pits dug in the earth near the 



ftamping mil}, feven feet long^ three 
feet wide, and two arid a half feet deep, 
where the ftamped Tip is curiouuy 
walhed from its inipurities by water 
conftantly running through the Buddie, 
while a boy, called a Buddie-boy, is 
ftanding in the body of it, and working 
both with a Ihovel and with his feet. 

BuNDiNO. See Astbl. 

BuNNv— Of Tin or Copper Ore. A Som- 
brero in Alonzo Barba. A pipe of Ore. 
A great colleftion of Ore without any 
vein coming into or going from it. 

Bunch or Bunchy. A Mine that is fome- 
times rich, and at other times poor, is 
faid to be bunchy. We alfo fay a rich 
Bunch of Ore ; and if it is Ihort, we 
fay it is a Bunch. 

Burden. The top, wafte, or deads in 
ftream works, that lie over or upon the 
ftream Tin, which muft be cleared 
awa^ before they can work eflTcdually. 
All wafte covering of Tin, &c. which 
muft firft be removed, is called the 
Ovpr-burden, Top-burden, or the Bur- 
den* 

Burrow. That heap, or heaps of attle, 
deads, or earth (void of Ore) which are 
rifen out of a Mine, and commonly lie 
around the Shafts. Any heap or hillock 
of deads or wafte. 



Caple. a fort of Stone fomething like a 
Limeftone, but will not burn. The 
walls of moft Lodes are of this kind of 
Stone, therefore it is common to call 
the wall of a Lode, by the name of its 
Caple. Alfo fome veins which abouncl 
with this 3tone, are termed Caples, or 
Caple Lodes. 

Cal. (It (ignifies in Cornifh, Cunning, 
Lean). Properly, Gal. A kind p{ 
Iron Goflan Stone found in the Bryle 
and backs of Lodes, much of the co- 
lour of old Iron, reckoned a poor brood 
with Tin j therefore it may be fo ap- 
plied becaufe it impoverifties the Lode 
and deftroys the fatnefs of the Metal. 
(See Gal). It is termed Wolfram by 
Cronftedt, and defined a kind of Man- 
ganefe. 

Calk. Cornifli, for Lime. 

Callys. (Cals, Califh, Cales, ac idem, 
Callys,) Killas. (Cornifh) Hard 5 
fmart. The moft comnK>n and agree- 
able Stratum in our Mine country^ ufu* 
ally called KUlas, (Killow, by Wood- 
ward). Of the many forts of this 
Stratum, fee, book i. cnap. i. I belkve 
M m mm thii 



j^f J AN £XPLAJfATKJ» OP miSr C6ltt«J-f ECBNJCAL 



' t^is «» te t1l0 pf(fptr naMe fof Kilks, 
i< it meahs a hrif^ fiM St^ne. 

GAPTAI17. A/t ixperfwiced Min^r^ who 
&tt6ts zfid ovtrkts the workmen ttid 
btrfincfe of the Mitti. 

GarKT. a rock* A heap of r»ck^. A 
high foek. The fliony Stratum. 

Cased Tim. Tha* Whidh h refraried by 
the gentleft current of water, and pre* 
vented frorri running ofF the frame by 
turf piacdd at the bottom. 

Cases. Probably a corruptiort of Chafm. 
Verv fmall fiffurtj in the ftfata 6f the 
earth, through Which fmall dreams of 

^ water flow when they arc opened by 
wofktng under-ground, greatly to the 
hindertace of the workmen, &c. 

Cast after Cast. Is throwing up of 
Tin-ftufF, &c. from one ftage of boards 
to another, each caft about five or fix 
feet high. 

Cast of the CouwTity. See Couhtrt. 

Casualties. See Leavings. 

CAUNTfcR and Cauntino. Contra. When 
two Lodes run acrois, the one, or either 
of them, with refpeft to the other, is 
called a Cauntcr or Contra, for they 
run caunting, or contra-ing each other. 
As all Lodes which Kin cardinally eaft 
and weft, go through every kind of 
vein except Crofs-GoSans, I define fuch 
to be Caunters. 

Charge. Any quantity of Ore put at 
one time into a furnace to fufe, they 
call a Charge. Letting it out, they call 
** Tapping tlie Char^.'* 

CtfOAK. An Adit is faid to be choaked 
when any earth or ftone falls in and 

J)tcvents the current of the water through 
t. The place or part fo filled, they 
call "TheChoak.'^ 

Clack. The Valve of the pump pifton. 
The Can-lead, in Derbjrlhire. 

Clack-Door. A fquart iron plate fcrew- 
ed on to the fide of a bottbm pump or 
fmlU bore, for convenience of changing 
die Clack, or valve. 

CLEARiNO-*-The Deads, Clearing a SJiaft 
or Drift, &c. When any part of a 
Mine br Drift is filled or incommoded 
by Attic or Deads, the removal of 
fuch is called " Clearing the Deads," 
♦* Clfcaring of Attle,** or the like. In 
old workings it is the firft thing to be 
done, and in the north they term it, 

' •* Clearing the oW man." 

€oB. (Dho Cob, Comilh). To break 
or bruife. A Cobber, a bruifer of Tin. 

" Cobbed Ore ii the foalled which is 
btioke out of the folid laige ftones with 

^ (iedete, and not put to Water, being 

* uTuulythtbeftofmeOrei tht&imas 



^i^Owin die Lead Mines. Kockiiig, 

C6tKLt. The Skiorl of the Swedes^ and 
the Schorl ^ the Germans. Anglice^ 
Sdirl, ^Crdifiedt). A laminafed Miu 
licfA fobilMCe of ^ Mackift brown 
cdiodr like Tin, often intermixed with 
k^ and taken for it, to the fiMoent 
detriment and difappointment of the 
Tinners. Cockle is a Weed m Comtfti ; 
whence, a Weed or Brood in Tin* Sec 
Pope'i Gloffary to Shakfpcair. 

C6fEti. (Cfifar or Kopher, Comilh, a 
Chcft). A fmall wood trough under the 
frame, which receives the Tin cleared 
from its impurities or flime. 

Co^Fiif. Old workings which were all 
worked open to grafs, without any 
Shafts, by virtue of digging and cafting 
up the Tin-ftuff from one ftage of 
boards to another. Workings all open 
like an intrenchment. 

CoKt. Charked pit-coal. 

Collar—** of a Shaft,** is the timber 
and boards which fecure the uppermoft 
part of a Shaft in the loofe rubble from 
falling in. 

Coomb. See Bal. 

CoNvocATiOM and Convocators, or Par- 
liament of Tinners. All ftannary laws 
«rc enafted by the feveral convocations, 
and carry with them all the force and 
law of afts of parliament. A Convo- 
cation is but too feklom held, to the 
difgrace of the county and the injury ^ 
the Tinner ; for the laws now in being 
are very weak, contradidory, and in- 
conclufive. See Assistants and Stan- 

NARIES. 

CoRii (I. e. Corps ; bodv, cmnpany, 
focicty. French. Boyer's Dift.) Corps 
is ufed antong the military, and pro* 
nounced Core. With the Tinners it 
has alfo a refpeft to time, fuch as their 
proper chan^ or turn of working. 
Thus it is faid, the firft Core by night 
is eight o* ctock, for inftance ; the fe- 
cond Core is four after midnight, and 
the day Core commences perhaps at 
noon-day, according as the labourers 
will fettle among themfclves* But in 
difficult and hard working places, where 
watet is too troublefome, or air is very 
deficient, they divide their Cores into 
four \ that is, etery fix hours. In ftch 
cafe, they relieve upon the fpot ; for at 
the known hour, frefii men come under- 
gNHimd, Md XBkt the tools from them 
Whb -hav^ juft fini(hed their working 
time. See Dav-Pair, 

CMnAif* 



TERM^ Akb iPJOMS 5F TENNERS. '319 

pcrocndicularly at right Mj^. ^Icut 
** the Lode at twenty ftthoms depth." 
•^I ctit the north branch in driririgjten 
" fathoms/* ** W6 cat a large ftream 
*• of water in the AcBt-aid/* 



CosTEAif . (From Cothas, to find •, Stean, 
Tin ; or Dropt-Tih. Comilh). Cbf- 
tean pits, are (hallow pits to trace or 
find Tin, Cofteaning, ditto. 

Couirr-HoTTsu. ( Reckoning-Houft, in 
Derbyfhirc). A houfe or room on the 
Mine, wherein the Adventurers and 

- their agents tranfaft the bufinefs^ and 
keep tiie accompts of the Mine. Sec 

ACCOMPT. 

Country. The Strata of the earth. 
When Miners drive an Adit out of the 
Lode or vein in the folid Strata, they 
fay, " They are driving in the Coun- 
*' try ;" fo if they fink a Shaft to cut 
a Lode, they are laid to be finking in 
the Country unril they come to the 
Lode. Likewife, an Adit or Drift 
which is driving north or fouth, is 
" acrofs the Country." Alfo, the fimi- 
larity of the Strata for fome continu- 
ance, is denominated " The run of the 
" Country" and " the eaft of the Conn- 
" try." 

CouRSi:. Any vein or Lode is often 
termed a Courfe. A Tin-Courfe. A 
Copper-Courfe. A Crofs-Courfe. And 
the phrafe of " Working on the Courfe 
** of the Lode,** unplies to work along 
on its direftion or length ; but when it 
is faid, " A Mine is m full Courfe of 
** working," the meaning is, that it is 
ftilly occupied ; fo, likewife, when it 

■ is faid, ** The men keep a due Courfe 

' ** of working,** it fignifies, they duly 
mind their labour. 

Creazes. The work or Tin in the mid- 
dle part of the Buddie in drefling, viz. 
the head or fore part of the Buddie, 
the Crcaze or middle^ and the tail or 
laft, though fome call that the Hind- 
Crcazes. 

Crop. Ore or Tin of the firft quality 
after it is drcffcd or dcanfed for fmelting. 
The fincft Mack Tin is called the Crop, 
worth, at a meditim, one for two ; L e. 
forty pounds of fuch black Tin you 
may exchange for twenty pounds- of 
Block-Tin, caljcd White Tin. The 
fepond fort is calkd Rows, a corruption 
of Rougfis^ being poorer and larger in 
fize -, ialeable at ftx for twenty. 

Cross. Crofs-Courfe. (See Bar, Course). 
Crefs-Bar 5 CTOfs-Goffan ; Crofs-Lode. 
Is cither a vein of a metaHick nature, a 
Crols-Goflan, or elfe a fcrft earth, clay, 
or Flookan like a vein, which vnheads 

^ and interfefts the true Lode. (A crofs 
vein in Derbyftiire). 

CtTARE. ^Comifh) A quarry of ftoncs. 

Cut. To intcrfcft a vein, branch, or 
^ode, by drivmg 4iorizontally or finking 



D 



Damp. (Dampff, Teutonick), A vapour, 
or pernicious Halitus, from or in the 
bowels of the earth. A want of circu- 
lation of air under-ground. 

Day. Ore is faid to be dtfcovcred near 
the Day, when it is found near tjie 
furface. 

Day-Pair. Are thofe who work twicer- 
ground by day; and Night-Pair, vice 
verfa. See Core. 

Deads. Any thing that is broken under- 
ground^ \inmetallick, or not worth the 
laving ; in oppofition to that part of a 
Lode which is rich for Metal : there- 
fore Lodes which are unmetallick, arc 
called Dead Lodes. 

Derrick. (Comifc) A Sexton, a Dig- 
ger, a Miner. (Npmen Famili^p). 

DiALLivG. Is the method of taking a 
traverfe under-ground by the compafs, 
' fo that by layir^ out tw fame abbve- 
ground, they find where w Adjt-cnd 
IS 5 or the end of anjr other drift or 
' working, in order to (mk a new Shaft 
on it perpendicularly. Alfo, by Dial- 
ling they find the juft limits erf" their 
ground underneath, to know if It ^or- 
refponds with their limits aboire, &ic. 

DiLLFEiNO. (Dilleurfi, To let go, let 
fly, fend away. Dylyr id. Corntfli). 
A method of wa&ing or finifliing the 
drefflng of Tin in vicry fine hair w?vcs, 
called Dillucing fieves or DiBueri. ^ 

DiPPA. (A pit, Cornift). A pk orliole 
fiink in a Locte by vw of a little funiph 
to colleft water to draw out by fmaU 
barrels ; aHb a pit funk in a bunch of 
Ore, which is a very irre^lar and 
ruinous way of working a Mtne. The 
Tinners lay, •* It is eanng the calf out 
" of the cow's belly.'' 

Dish. That part of the Ore or ftcrling 
poundage, ^hich the Lord or owner of 
the fee rcfcrvcs to himfelf, free of all 
charges, in confideraQon of the Kberty 
he grajits the Adveriturers to <fig and 
fearch for Metals^ or occupy the Mine. 
The Difti is alfo iHfcd the Lord's D«es» 
^SecBouwos, Fakk^ Sztt. and To^l), 
In die Lead Mines, a Dim is a trwigh 
of wood twenty-eij^ht tnt^hes lof^, four 
deep, and fix wide^ 43y whi<£ chey 
meaiurc tfait Wft of the Orewfiich is 

cdled 



320 



AN EXPLANATION OF THE CORNU-TECHNICAL 



colkd the Lord's Lot— and, no doubt, 
this was the method formerly ufed in 
Cornwall, from whence the Lord's Dilh 
is a term now in ufe. 

Difli is the ancient name of a meafure 
ufed for black Tin, containing a gallon. 
(Carew). " Difhes or bowls are mea- 
** fures filled with Ore bv the Miners, 
*' whereof, fome are paid to the king, 
" others to the church," &c. (Sec 
Pettus, on the word Metallick). 

DizzuE. (From Dyz-hui, to difcover 
unto, Cornilh). To Dizzue the Lode, 
is this : If it is very fmall and rich, 
they commonly only break down the 
country or ftratum on one fide of it, by 
which the Lode is laid bare, and may 
be afterwards taken down clean and free 
from wafte. To Dizzue the leader of 
a Lode is much the fame thing -, for if 
there is a fide or part of the Lpde better 
than the reft, but not a Working Big, 
they keep the beft part fcparate and let 
it ftand in its place, until they firft 
break and remove the poor part ; after- 
wards they break the Dizzue or beft 
Eart, and rcfcrve it to be fcparately 
andled and drefled : thus the good Ore 
is drefled with lefs charge, and proves 
better in value than if it were promifcu- 
oufly with the poor Ore. (Sec Hulk). 
The refufe or deads of a Dyzhued 
Lode, is called in fome places, " The 
" Dyzha." 

PoAR. (Cornidi. The earth. An Oar, 
idem) Whence Ore, the earth of 
Meuds. 

D6l. (Irifh, Daal; Saxon, Deald, divi- 
ded, fee Verftegan i CornifliDol.) Any 
part or (hare of the Adventure or Tin 
Ore, as one-eighth, one-fixteenth, onc- 
thirty-fecond, or the like. " Anciently 
** wnere a meadow was divided into 
^' feveral (hares, it was called a D61- 
*' meadow." Jacob's Law Diftionary. 

DoL. Pronounced Doll, is Cornifh for a 
valley or dale. DoUcoth, the old field 
or meadow. Dol-coth, the old valley 
or dale. The name of a great Mine in 
Camborne, Cornwall. 

Double-Pick, Double-Men. Is when 
two men are allowed to attend one pick- 
axe by day, and as many by night, if 
needful, fo that the pick is kept con- 
ftantly at work. 

Dredged— Ore. See Powdered-Ore. 

D&ESSER. Any perTon who fuperintends 
the boys at ftamping mills ; or men, 
boys, and girls in the Copper Bals, 
commonly cdled Pickers, Cobbers, and 
Jiggers. The man that direfts the 
various manuduftions and lotions of 
Ore for fale, is called the Drefler. 



Drift. Is the level that the men drivtf*- 
under-ground from one Shaft to ano- 
ther, trom one Winds to another, or 
north and fouth out of the Lode, in 
which, only one man at a time can work^ 
it being but a working big, and about 
five or fix feet hish. In the northern 
counties this is cwed a Gate ; a Way- 
gate*, a Waggon-gate. 

Drigoob or Drioqer. The lower pump 
of the fet or tier of pumps belonging to 
a water engine. Sec Tier. 

Drive. To drive is to work in a Drift, 
fo that if you drive or work on ftraight 
in a Lode or in the country, the vacant 
pafiage behind your back is the Drift. 
To cut, in Derbyfhirc. Sec Drift, fee 
Cut. 

Dry. See Vat. 

Dues. See Dish. 

Dumb'd, When Tin or Copper Ore is 
ftamped under fize or too unall, it is 
apt to choak the grate, or flow away 
with the water in dreffing, then they 
fay, « It is Dumb'd." 

DuRGY. A fmall low hedge of turf. 
Any thing low or fhort. " A Durgy- 
" man or woman." 

DuRNS. Frames of wood like the jambs 
of a door or the frame of a window, 
commonly fet in loofe ground in Adits 
and places that are we^ and liable to 
fall m or tumble down. (Forks and 
Sliders ; Stop Rods and Grove Tim- 
bers, inYorkfiiirc. Piers and Pairs, in 
Derby fliirc). 



Elbow. A Lode makes an Elbow thus --^ 
when it is prefled or fqueczed by hard 
Strata or rocks which caufe it to deviate 
from its true courfe or dire&ion, making 
an obtufe angle and fmall turning, 
though feldom difordered in any other 
rcfped:. 

El VAN. (Elven, in Cornifli, an element, 
a fpark of fire). A very hard clofc 
grained done, thought to be a baftard 
limeftone ; but I do not find that it has 
any calcarious quality. A very unpro- 
mifing Stratum for Copper Ore. 

End. An End is the furthermoft end or 
part of an Adit, or any other Drift 
from its bc^innin^, or the a£hial work- 
ing part of a Drift or Adit. (A Stool 
and Forefield, in Derbyfhirc. Forehead, 
in YorWhirc). 

Engine. A machine to unwater Mmes. 
Thofc which are worked by water, are 
termed Water-engines. Others which 

perform 



TERMS AND IDIOMS OF TINNERS. 



3^^ 



J)crfonn their office by fire, arc Fire- 
engines. There are other forts called 
Horfe-engines. The perfons who under- 
take to ercft and take care of them, are 
called Engineers. 



Farm. That part of the: Lord's fee, 
which is taken for liberty to work in 
Tin Mines only, that are bounded, 
which is generally one fifteenth of the 
whole. See Bounds, Dish, Sett, Toll. 

Fast. The firm rock or ftone unmoved 
by the deluge, which lies immediately 
under the loofe rubble. 

Fathom. Six feet in height, depth, or 
length. All work in the Cornifli Mines, 
is generally performed by the fathom ; 
fuch as ftopmg, driving, and finking. 

Feasible-Ground -, is Ground that can 
be fpeedily wrought, and yet will (land 
without the fupport of timber and 
boards. 

Firm. Firm flielf. See Fast and Shelf. 

Fissure or Gully -, is that crack or fplit 
in the Strau of the earth, which is the 
receptacle of mineral particles, whofe 
contents are ftiled a Lode. 

Flats or Flat-Rods ; are horizontal 
rods or poles fixed by a femicircular 
wheel to the perpendicular rods of a fire 
or water engine, by which the pifton in 
a pump at feme diftance from the en- 
gine draws water. 

Flookan. An earth or clay of a flimy 
glutinous confidence ; in colour, for 
the moft part, blue or white, or com- 
pounded of both. A Crofs-Flookan 
runs acrofs through a Lode, unheads it, 
and throws it on one fide out of its 
place. There are Flookan^ alfo which 
run parallel with metallick Lodes, and 
take the name of Courfe - Flookans. 
Some metallick Lodes abound with a 
large part of this clay on either or 
both walls of the Lode ; and when it is 
throughout the vein, it is called a 
Flookan Lode. A fmall Aide is alfo a 
fiflure filled with clay or Flookan. Sec 
Slide. 

Floor. A Floor is a bed of Ore in a Lode, 
though fuppofed not to continue to any 
great depth or time ^ therefore is a 
Stratum of Ore. 

Floran. Is an exceeding fmall grained 
Tin, fcarce perceivable in the ftone, 
though perhaps very rich. Alfo, any 
Tin which is ftamped exceeding fine, 
and underfize, is called Floran Tin — 
quafi, Flower Tin. 



Foge. (Cornifh) A forge or blowing- 
houfe for fmclting of Tin. 

Foot. An ancient meafure for black Tin^ 
two gallons ; now a nominal meafure, 
but in weight 6olb. 

Footway. In (hallow Mines^ the common 
way of going down is by a rope or 
windlafs : but in deep Mines, they have 
old Shafts with ladders in them, and 
landing places at the foot of each lad- 
der called a Sailer, by means of which 
they defcend into the Mines ; whence 
this is ftiled the Footway -, and thofe 
Shafts, when applicable to no other ufc. 
Footway Shafts. (Waygate and Climb- 
ing Shaft, North of England). 

Forcer. A fmall pump worked by hand, 
ufed in' finking of fmall Sumphs, Dip-* 
pas, or Pits. 

FoRCQUE, Fork -, the bottom of the Sumph. 
Forking the water, is drawing it all out; 
and when it is done, they fay, " The 
" Mine or the water is Forked ;" and 
" the Engine is in Fork." TheForcque 
or bottom of the Sumph in the North of 
England, is called the Lodge ; Forking 
the water, " Rolling the water ;'* the 
Engine in Forcque, " the Engine in 
" rowl." 

Frame or Rack ; compofed of tv(ro 
planes of boards a little inclined, over 
which runs a very fmall equable ftream 
of wiater to walh oflT the fordes from 
flime Tin, &c. 



Gad. (Gedn is Cornifli for a wedge ; 
Gad an iron wedge -, Gad is Armoric 
for a Hare). A Gad is an iron wedge to 
drive between the joints of rocks, in 
order to loofen the ground for the 
pickaxe. 

Gal. The proper name for Cal. Gal figni- 
fies ruft and rufty in Cornifli ; and, ac- 
cordingly. Gal, ufually pronounced Cal, 
is a Goflany, or rufty Iron Ore. Kal is 
a falfe word for it, that term fignifying 
Phallus i Membrum Virile. 

Gangway. When a Fiflure or Lode is 
excavated in the backs or former up- 
per workings of the .Mine, it is fal- 
tered with boards, and the deads are 
thrown there, which they alfo callStulls: 
however, if they leave room fufficient 
for the workmen to roll ftufi^, or walk 
upon them from one Shaft to another, 
they call it a Gangway. Gang, in the 
Teutonick, fignifies a Vein ^ but it is a 
fea term alfo. 



Nnnn 



Gatchirs. 



312 AN EXPLANATiOK OF THE CORKW-tEdHNlCAL 



Catchers. The after leavings of Tin. 
See LooBS. 

Glist, a fhining black or brown Mi- 
neral of an iron caft^ fomewhat like 
Cockle. 

Gossan. A kind of imperfeft Iron Ore, 
commonly of a tender rotten fubftance, 
and red or rufly iron colour. It is often 
found fhallow in Tin, Copper, and Lead 
Mines, and is the proper Nidus or 
Matrix for the two latter. It is an 
upper covering to the Ore, levels above 
thirty fathoms, and is very abundant ; 
whence thofe Lodes are called Goflan 
Lodes. 

GouNCE. See Streke, and the chapter 
• on Stream Tin. 

Grain Tin. The Ore of Tin that is 
fometimes dug very rich in the form of 
grains or pebbles, or elfe in larger pieces, 
compofcd of many fuch diftindb grains, 
united in one entire mafs, always of a 
black or dark rofin colour, pointed like 
diamonds. Alfo, the purett and fincft 
block or white Tin, fmclted with char- 
coal in the blaft or blowing-houfe fur- 
nace, which never had any brood or 
foreign mixture in the Mme. Grain 
Tin is peculiarly produced from ftream 
work, and is worth feveral (hillings 
^ ij^ more than Mine Tin. 

Grant. See Sett. 

Grass, or at Gfafs, (ignifids on the fur- 
face of the earth. ** Is Tom Trcvifcas 
*' under-ground ? No ; he's at Grafs." 
A Grafs Captain is an Overfccr of the 
workmen above-ground, as the bottom 
or under-ground Captain fuperintends 
his men down iti the Mine. 

Grate. An iron plate punched full of 
fmall holes *, which belongs to the damp- 
ing mill, and fizefc the ftjimpt Ore, bc- 
caufe it muft all p^fs through thefe 
holes by a fmall ftream of water. 

GREtJT or Grit. A kind of foflil body, 
of fandy rdugh, hard, earthy, particles. 

GRiDOtE. A large whie fieve, ukd infte^d 
ctf 1 hurdle, tor fifting and forting of 
Copper Ort^ z$ it rifes fVom the Mihe. 
Erckern calb it a Ratter, br Riddle, 
Scrfcen or Sifcve, to fejpifate the elean 
.fi*om the unclean Otes beftnt they dbrtie 
to the fine. *' This inftniitteflt doth 
•^ unriddle thtm by ftparatioh t aftd for 
*•. the word fdttn. It is doubtlefs fh)m 
** fecernene to divid*, iand ficve ffOm 

- ^ fctoegare or fever." ^ettus on the 

• tWrd metaliick. 

GibttAN. (Grou, Comifh) QriVd, tdugh 

•^ fand: Grouanen, a pebble, ttitd Grou- 

an is Granite or Moorftortc. (OrOn- 

ften, Swediih) Soft Grouan is the fame 

iJiittHah in a lax and fiildy ftate. 



Grouan Lode, any Tin Lode tirhicll 
abounds with this gravel. Grouder, a 
mixture of Grouan arid clay, much ufed 
for fcouring of timber-ware in houfe- 
wifry. 

Ground. (See Country, and Shut)- 
We fay, a hard rock or Stratum is 
•' Hard Ground." On the contrary, 
foft clayey Ground they call " Fair 
*• Ground;'* and if fair, yet firm to 
ftand without timber, " Feafiblc 
" Ground." 

GuAo. (Hunger, emptinefs; ac idem, 
Leary^ Cornifh). Tinners holeing iftto 
a place which has been wrought before, 
call it " Holeing in Guag." 

GuLPH OF Ore. Where a Lode throws 
up very great quantities of Ore, and 
proves lafting and good in depth, they 
lay, ** They hate a milph of Ore." 

GuNNiES-^means breadth or width. A 
fingle Gunnies is three feet wide ; a 
Gunnies and a half is four feet ami a 
half ; and a double Gunnies is frx feet 
wide. The former vaults or cavities 
that were dug in a Mine, are termed 
** The old Gunnies /• and if they are 
full of water, they are fometimes called 
*' The Gunnies of water •,*' yet more 
commonly ^ A Houfe of water. 

GuRT. A fret or channel made by great 
rain or floods in a highway ; alfo, a 
channel to carry off water from one 
place to another for drelfing erf" Copper 
Ore, Tin, or the like. Gurt, in Cor- 
nifli, implies large, great. *• Gurt 
** Mawr of Vufs," Qreat root of furze. 



H 



Halvaks, Halvings, Hanawats. All 

which names imply the refufe Ore, Or 
the poor Ore and Stone after the prime 
Copper Ore or Crop is firft taken out ; 
but they often cull over thefe Halvans 
again, and take more Ore out of them, 
^ich is called Halvan Ore. (Halvans, 
Mrafte hillocks. North of England). The 
poor refttfe part of Tm-ftuff goes not 
by this liartie, but that of Leavings, or 
Cafualties. 

HtADS. See Stamp-heads. 

Ht AVE. See plate of Heaved in GoonUz, 
&t. and book ii. chap. iii. 

Hewns. The fides of a calcinef or bum- 
ing-boufe fui-nace, from their being 
formerly built with hewn Moorftone. 

HogoaH. In Cornilh fl^rtifies a Hawthorn- 
beny 5 alfo, arty thing mcah or vile : 
btit herfc it rtieahs a Pork Pafty -, and 
now indeed any Tmiler*s pafly that he 

carries 



tfeiiMs ANb Idioms oP ttNNEftS; 



m 



Carries to Bal with him, iS datlcd a 
Hoggan. 

lEIoLE. To hc^ is to make a communi- 
cation through one part of a Mine to 
another. To hole a Shaft, is to fink it 
through into the Mine or hollows. 

HooKHANDLES, are the handles of the 
turn or windlafs for winding up the 
work from underground, (The Sweeps, 
North of England. ) 

House. A portion of dead wound in a 
Lode, which widens like a horfe's back 
from the (pine. (See plate of BuUen- 
Garden Mine, fig. S7') A Rider and 
a Rither in Yorbftiire.) 

House. See Gunnies, and Turnhouse. 

HuEL. A Work, a Mine ; as Hucl Stean, 
a Tin Mine : Huel Kalifii, the hard 
work. 

Hulk. An old excavated workings. " To 
•* hulk the Lode,*' is this : when the 
Lode is very wide, and only one fide of 
it is rich for Copper or Tin, but much 
fofter and more fair than the other poor 
part of it, they hulk in with their picks 
as far as they can upon the rich tender 
Ore, and leave the hard unmetallick part 
of it to ftand by itfclf, which they after- 
wards blaft by gunpowder, or otherwife 
break down and throw away. See 

DiZZUE. 

Hurdled Ore. That which is fized by 
pafiing through a hurdle, like earth for 
mortar. 

Hyrliau. (Hurling, Cornilh). A Cor- 
nifli cuftom of playing with a ball. 
Hyrliau yu ghen guare wyi — Hurling 
is our fport. 'Hie baU is generally 
plated with Tin or Silver, and has ufii- 
ally a Cornifh motto alluding to the 
play^ as •• Guare wheag, yw Guare 
teag ; that is. Fair play, is good play.'' 



I 



Jetters. Sec Pokkers and jBXtERS. 

See Flats. 
Jigging. Is a method of drefling the 

finaller Copi)er and Lead Ores by a 

ftculiar motion of a wire fieve in a 
ieve or vat of water, where the fmalleft 
particles pafi through the Jigging-fieve, 
and thofe which are larger and folid 
lie at the bottom of the Jigging-fieve 
or Ji^er ; fo that the uppermofl: light 
ftony wafte may be eafily feparated and 
flcimmed off by a piece of lemicircular 
board, called a Limp. In the Lead 
Mines, the Jigged Ore goes by the name 
of Peafy ; and they alfo term this ope- 
ration, " Setting 111 the Sieve,** and 
" Waftiing." 



IkfeCtion; (A BrooD) which fee). Any 
h e teroge ne Mineral mixed with Tin or 
Copper Ore, 

Irestone. Takes not the name fh>rh it^ 
participation of Iron^ though there ia 
fomc Iron in h, but from its excefiive 
hardnefea Its colour is a bhiifli grey^ 
and fometimes it runs feveral miles^ 
keeping its^ courfe on direftly like a 
Lode. Being very difflcuk to work 
and break through, it is therefore often 
termed an Iron Bar, or a Bar. 



K 



KALi (See Cal * and Gal), kal. A 
Phallus ; Memhrum Virile. Llhwyd^ 
Kalifti, hard. 

Kazer. a fieve. 

Kerned. A heap of Mundick or Copper 
Ore will harden by lying expofed to 
the fun, when they fay it is kerned; 

Kernou. Cornwall. Kemuak, Cornifli. 

K1BBAL4 (A bucketj a little tub. Ar- 
moric. Quibell, idem). A Kibbal is 
the bucket in which all work or Ore is 
raifed out of the Mines. Gear barrels, 
in the North of England. A Whym- 
Kibbal is a larger one, which belongs 
to the machine called a Whym, and 
ferves to draw water with, or Dririg up 
the Ore to grafs. Some of thofe larger 
barrels or Kibbals contain 120 gallons 
when they are intended for drawing of 
water out of the Mine. 

KiEVE. A vat or large iron-bound tub 
for wafhing of Ores, &c. 

KiLtAS. (Sec Callys) Woodward fays, 
♦* We call anjr ftofte Killas that fplits 
" with a gram,*' p. 6. Killas, plate, 
in Yorkfliire, &c. 

KivuLLY. Loofe, hollow, flielfy ground. 

Knqckjng. See Cob. 



Landing-Place ; the place where they 
caft the work out of the Kibbal, conti- 
tiguous to the working Shaft, which 
they alfo term die Landing Shaft, be- 
ing a Whym Shaft. 

Lappior. (Cornifh). A dancer. See 
book iii. chap. ji. pag. 136. 

Laths. Are oeal boards pointed at one 
end, for driving betwen ciums or frames 
of timber and loofe deads, in that ma- 
noeuvre called •* Shutting of attle ;* 
they are called Laths, ft^m fome re- 
femblance to laths for plaifbering. 

Launders. Troughs of deal boards to 
fave the water» and prevent its falling 

down 



324 



AN EXPLANATION OF THE CORNU-TECHNICAL- 



down into the bottoms ; alfo, to convey 
water acrofs Shafts, Drifts, and Gunnies, 
and for conveyance to any place for 
driving engine or mill wheels. 
Layer — and laying of Tin. See Serving. 
Leader. A branch, rib, or firing of 
Ore, that leads alon^ to the Lode ; or 
clfe if it be in the vem^ and points, or 
leads away, fo that they hope for a 
parcel or bed of Ore by following it, 
then this ftring is a Leader or Guide ; 
moreover when they purpofely drive on, 
and follow veiny riatured firings, though 
without any Ore or life in them, yet 
fuch are Leaders to follow. See Lode. 
Learys— or lear ; emptinefs. Old men's 
workings. Vide GlofTary Pope's Shake- 
fpeare. 
Leat. a water courfe, or level for con- 
veyance of water, to engine or mill 
wheels. 
Leavings — or Cafualtics, in Tin, is the 
fame as hanaways of Copper or Lead 
Ores, both being gleanings : but it ra- 
ther implies the very minute Tin, that 
flows away with the water, in drefling 
the crop or prime Tin ; but being ga- 
thered together is redrefTed to cleanfe it 
from its impurities and (lime, &c. 
Levelling — and Levels. The art of 
finding a true Level to convey water 
from one place to another, or elfe to 
find the Level or depth of an Adit at a 
prefixed place. 
Life — ac idem. Alive ; which fee. 
Lifters — are folid pieces of afh timber 
8 or 9 feet high, fhod with iron flamp- 
heads for pounding the Tin-fhifF, &c. 
Little- Winds. (A fump in fome parts 
of England) An under-ground Shaft, 
funk m>m a horizontal drift, by which 
the top of the Winds communicates with 
the fide or bottom of the grafs working 
Shaft. 
Liver — or ly-very flone. A hard liver- 
coloured ftone, and in a Lode is very 
hunful. 
Lode. (Main Rake, N. England) The 
word Lode is an old Anglo-Saxon word, 
idem ac. Lead ; fo Lode-ftone, quafi 
Lead-flone : fee Lye*s edition of Junius 
ad verbum. Any regular vein or courfe, 
either metallick or not ; but more com- 
monly it means a metallick vein : and 
being occupied and proving good, may 
indifferently be called a Lode, Mine, 
or Work. 
Lode-Plot. A Lode that underlies very 
fafl or horizontal, and may be rather 
called a Flat Lode. 
Lofty Tin— in contradiflinftion to Flo- 
ran Tin, for Lofty Tin is richer, maf- 
five, and rougher, and not fo weak or 



imperceptible in the ftone, or in powder 
on the fhovtfl. 

LooBs. Tin flimc or fludge of the after 
leavings, or leavings flime. 

Lord of the Land or Fee. The perfbn 
in whofe land the Mine is ; therefore, 
the part which he referves to himfelf for : 
liberty to work a Mine in his land, is * 
the dne-fixth, one-feventh, one-eighth, 
or any other proportion free of cx- 
pence, and called the Dues, Difh, which 

Lost-Slovav. (Loft, a tail, a rump, 
Cornifti) Vulgo, Low-flovan ; the be- 
ginning of an Adit, though the tail or 
end i that part which lies open like a 
Irench, before they drive under-ground. 



M 



Mad -Water. Water that has been 
drawn from a Shaft, or any part of a 
Mine, and returns back again to the 
fame place from whence it was drawn, 
is called Mad- Water, and implies a 
great want of fkill in the managers. 

Materials. All tools and tackle, tim- 
ber and implements, that belong to a 
Mine •, and in large Mines a perfon is 
appointed to take care of them,. who is 
called the Material-Man. 

Meat-Earth — Soil ; the fuperficial earth, 
fit for agriculture. 

Mock-Lead. Wild Lead, blacTc Lead, 
black Jack. A ponderous black Mine- 
ral, which does not readily incorporate 
in the fire. A Zinc Ore. 

Moor. (See Bal) This wood fignifies 
a root, or a quantity of Ore in a parti- 
cular part of the Lode j as ** A Moor 
« of Ore." « A Moor of Tin.*' 

MooRHOusE. A hovel built with turf for 
workmen to change cloaths in. A Coe, 
Derby. 

MooRSTONE. See Grouan. 

MuN. Any fufible Metal ; unde Dun- 
mwyn, a hill of Metals ; unde Dunmo- 
nii, the Cornifti Britains. 

MuNDicK. An exceeding ponderous Mi- 
neral, whitifli, beautiful, and fliining, 
but brittle. Pyrites ; Marcafite, &c. 
too well known for description here. 



N 



Needle. A piece of ftout iron wire, ufed 
to make a touch^hole with in blowing 
of rocks with gunpowder. A pricker, 

; Yorkfhire. 

Night-Pair. See Day-Pair, and Corb. 

Nocking. Knocking. See Cob, 

Old 



TERMS AND IDIOMS Ol? TINNERS; 



3^i 



Old Men's Workings^ SccLearys. 

Orb. Earth. (Sec Doar) Round Ore ; 
rough, or Row Ore; ftraked, damped, 
bucked, jigged9 ^nd flime Ores ; which 
fee. 

Ore-Plot. (See Plot) The Ore Plots 
at grafs ; where they keep apart the 
drefled Ore for fampling, &c. 

Owners. See Adventurers* 



Packing. A further or final drcfling of 
Tin or Copper Ore, by putting of cither 
in a kieve or vat with water, often ftir- 
ring the water, and ftriking the fides of 
the kieve, by which means the heavy 
particles fink to the bottom, and the 
light wafte fwims uppermoft ; which is 
afterwards Ikimmed ofi^, and thence cal- 
led the Skimpings ; which fee. 

Pair. Any indeterminate number of Mi- 
ners who work together in a Mine in a 
Pitch upon Tribute, in a But-Bargain, 
&c. Alfo, they call any number of 
horfes, from five to twenty, a pair of 
horfes. See Core and Day-Pair. 

Parcel. A parcel of Ore, is a pile or 
heap of Copper drefled for fale. 

Peach. Peach-Stone, a bluifti green foft 
Stone. When a Lode is moftly com- 
pofed of this fort of Stone, it is called 
a Peach or Peachy-Lode. 

Pednan. Pedn or Pen. (Cornilh). A 
head or promontory. In Mine affairs, 
the Pednan is the head of the buddle 
where Tin is drefled. 

Pick. The common name of a Tinner's 
pick-axe ; alfo, to pick or cull the 
good Ore from the bad by hand; whence 
thofe who do it, are called Pickers. 

Pile — Of Ore. A heap of Ore ; a par- 
cel of Ore ; and fometimes a Dole of 
Ore. 

Pillar. An upright piece or part of the 
Lode left to fupport the incumbent 
weight. 

Pillion. The Tin which remains in the 
fcoria or flags after it is firfl: fmelted, 
which muft be fcparated and remelted. 

Pioneer. An able Pickman or under- 
ground Tinner. 

Pipe. See Bunny. 

Pit. a Shaft, Dippa, Sumph, or Cof- 
tean Pit ; all Pits of diflferent depths. 

Pitch. Any part or portion of a Mine, 
being a few fathoms in length on the 
courfe of the Lode, is fo called : and 
if granted to the Miners for raifing the 



Ore at fo much out of the pound fter- 
ling, it is called, " A Pitch upon Tri- 
" Bute ;" if it is higher up in the Mind 
at a fiiallow level, it is called, " A 
** Pitch upon the Backs ;** and lower 
down, ** A Bottom Pitch." 

Plot. (Vulgo< Plat). " To eiit a Plot,** 
is to make room, or fquare out a pieice 
of ground by the fide of the Lode or 
Shaft, for holding the broken work or 
deads before they are brought to grafs ; 
or for other convenient purpofes. (A 
Plot, a Brigging-place in Derbyfliirc). 

Plump. A corruption of the word Pump. 

PoDAR. Rotten, corrupt ; Mundick— - 
Copper Ore was formerly called Podar. 

Pokkers and Jetters. Are blocks or 
pullies, over which the fweep rods of 
fome engines move and play. (See. 
Flats). Pokkia (Corn.) undePokkcr, 
to thruft, poke. 

PoL-Roz. (Pol^ a pool ; Roz, a wheel, 
Cornifti). The pit under a mill-wheel i 
the wheel-pit. 

Pol-Stean. (Pol, a head alfo ; Stean, 
Tin. Cornifh). A Tin pit. A miry 
head. (Carew). 

Powdered. Powdered Ore. When a Lode 
is fpotted with Ore, or ft;ones of Ore, 
but in fo difleminate a quantity and 
appearance as to be fcarce worth the 
charges of drefling, they fay, " It is 
'• Powdered Ore, or Dredged Ore/* 

Pride — Of the Country. When Ore is 
found near the furface, at a level where 
it is rarely met with,, and in great abun^ 
dance and very rich ; alfo, when a 
bunch of Ore is fpund out of a Lode 
like ftones fcattered in a quarry, they 
fay, " It is the Pride of the Country." 

Pry AN. (From Pryi, Clay, Cornifli). 
Pryan Ore, Pryan Tin, Pryan LodC) 
that which is produdtive of Copper Ore 
or Tin, but does not break in large 
folid fliones, only in grofs pebbles, or 
fandy with a mixture of clay. 

Puppy. The fet or tier of pumps below 
the Lilly under-ground. 

Purser. A perfon deputed to keep and 
adjufl: the accompt-book, to receive the 
cofts, and difcharge the demands on, 
the Mine ; ufually, both treafurer and 
fecretary of a Mine. 



QuAREY. When a Lode or Stratum breaks 
in large hard rocks, being jointed as it 
were, it is called a Quarey Lode or 
Stratum, from its joints or Quares* 



O o oo 



Quarts. 



3a6 



AN EXPLANATION OF THE COINU-TECHNICAL 



QcARTS. A hard, opaque, and fome- 
times femi-tranfparcnt cryftalline ftony 
mafs, vulgarly called Spar, which it is 
not, being a chryftalline bafis. It is 
common in all our Lodes, fome being 
little elfc. It is very plenty on our 
barren heaths, and is ufeful only for 
hedging and paving the ftreets. 



Rabban — Stone. A yellowifh dry done, 
refembling Goffan. 

Rabble. An iron rake for ftirring and 
Ikimming of Copper Ore in calcination 
and fmelting. 

Rack. See Frame. 

Raffain. Raf. RafFain Ore -, poor Ore 
of no value. 

Rag-Pump, A chain pump. 

Rake, See Rabble. A true vein or 
. Lode. (North of England). 

Ramming-Bar. a beater. (North of 
England). 

Red-Rabb. Red Killas. 

Relief — Time. See Core and Day- 
Pair. 

Renewing. See Tollur. 

Rib — Of Ore. A leader, branch, or 
ftring of Ore. 

Ridar. A fieve. (Cornilh). A Riddle. 
See Griddle. 

Rid — up a Shaft. To clear it of the 
deads or attle fallen into it. 

Rise — in the back. To work upwards 
towards the furface. 

Rod— Shaft. An engine Shaft ; becaufe 
of the ftraight Rods which go down in 
the Shaft, and are fixed to the piftons 
of the pumps. 

Roof. See Back. 

Roundhouse. The vortex or round of a 
whym or engine race if hedged about 
and covered, is called the Roundhoufe. 

Roughs. Vulgo, Rows. See Crop. 

RAi. A wheel. Graver-Roz, a wheel- 
barrow. 

Run. To " run from a Bargain/* is 
when a Pair or fct of men undertake a 
piece of work, and quit it before it is 
quite finifhed. *' Run of the Lode," 
is the courfe or direftion of it. ** Run 
** of the Country,*' fee Country. 

Running — Tackle. See Tackle, Axle- 
tree, and Brace. 



Saller. Solarium, (low Latin) a garret 
or chamber. Soler, (Cornilh) a ground 



room, an entry, paffage, or chamber. 
Sol, is a foundation. A Sailer, in a 
Mine, is a ftage or gallery of boards 
for men to ftand oa and roll away bro^ 
ken ftufF in wheel-barrows — a Bonding, 
in Derbylhirc. There is alfo another 
kind of Sailer in an Adit, being boards 
laid hollow on its bottom, by means of 
which air is conveyed under feet to the 
workmen -, this is called the Adit Fang, 
in Derbyihire. In a footway Shaft, 
the Sailer is the floor for a ladder to 
reft upon. 

Sample. The taking certain portions of 
Tin or Copper Ores to aflay or try the 
value of by fire or water, they call, 
" Taking a Sample -," the peribn em- 
ployed are named Samplers; and the 
buiinefs itfclf Sampling, Sec Ticket- 
ing. 

Scal. a corruption of the word Scale. 
When a part of the wall or fide of a 
fiflure falls away, after the Lode has 
been digged and remorcd, chey call it 
a Scal or Scale : fo if the fide of a 

auarry falls down in lai^ flakes of 
one, it is called a Seal, or Scaling. 

ScovAN — Lode. Is a Tin Lode, only in 
contradiftin&ion to all other Lodes. 

ScovE. Tin-fl:uflF fo rich and pure as it 
rifes out of the Mine, that it has fcarcc 
any need of being cleanfed by water. 

Scoop. See Teem. 

ScRowL. When a metallick Lode is in- 
terrupted and cut oflf by a Cro6-Gofl[an, 
it may fometimes be found again by the 
tendency of fome loofe ftones or the 
true Loide in the body of the GoflSm ; 
i. e. a Scrowl. 

Seam. A Seam of Tin is a horfe load, 
viz. two fmall facks of black Tin. I 
believe it is borrowed firom the German 
Mine term, Saume of Quickfilver, 
about 3i^tb in two fmall barrels on a 
horfe. See Brown's Travels. 

Searge. a fieve. 

Serving. A Serving, is one or more 
hand-barrows full of Tin Ore ready for 
the burning-houfe or calciner, as it is 
lodged in the dry or vat for the next 
fcrving or fupplying the furnace. Cal- 
led, alfo, a Lavcr or Laying of Tin. 

Set. a Set is the ground granted to a 
company of Adventurers. The taking 
of a Set, fignifies the having a grant of 
the ground or Mine. Sometimes it 
impl^s the deed or leafe by which they 
enjoy the premifes. 

Set— a Price. To fet a price on a (hare 
or D61 in a Mine, is this : when A, 
who owns a D61 in a Mine, agrees to 
give B, another Adventurer in me fame 

Mine, 



TERMS AND IDIOMS OP TINNERS* 



P7 



Mine, a price or fum of money, on 
condition that B will fet a price or value 
on fijch or fuch a D61 (for inSiance, 
one-eighth part) if B accepts the nioncy, 
he nanies a price, and fo A is at his 
own option whether he will take B's 
Ddl at that price, or whether B ftiall 
take A's D61, and pay hini the given 
price for it. Now this double advan- 
t^QC in favour of A, is in confideration 
of the carneft-money he gave B ; fo that 
let the D61 be difpofed of either way, 
the earneft-money is out of the queftion, 
and belongs to B : on the other hand, 
A is obliged either to take B's mention- 
ed D61, or elfe to let him have an equal 
D61 at the price that B let on it ; fo 
that A has his choice of the agreement, 
and B contents himfelf with what A 
refufes or declines. 

Shaft. (Schaft ; fee Agricola de Re Me- 
tallica). A groove or pit. All deep 
pits on a Mine, or on an Adit, are 
Shafts, provided they are funk down 
from grafs. Of thofe there is the 
landing or working Shaftj where they 
bring up the work or Ore to the fur- 
face ; but if it be worked by a horfe- 
cngine or whym, it is called a Whim- 
Shaft ; and where the water is drawn 
out of the Mine, it is indiflferently 
named an Engine- Shaft, or the Rod- 
Shaft. 

Shammel. a ftage of boards ufed in old 
Coffins before Shafts were in common 
ufe. So they now call any ftage of 
boards for (hovelling of Ore or Deads 
upon, a ShammeL See Coffin. 

Sh£d. a (hade or (helter from the wea- 
ther, under which the Cobbers cob the 
Ore. 

Shelf. The loofc ftoncs immediately over 
the faft, or firm rocks. Shelf is diftin- 
guifhed by loofe and firm Shelf; thofe 
fmall loofe ftones that are under the 
earth, are loofe Shelf ; thofe which are 
larger and not fo loofe, and juft on the 
faft, or firm rock, are the firm Shelf; 
and a double Shelf is where there are 
two fuch Strata : fo that the Miners are 
often deceived in Shoding, imagining 
they have but one Shelf to (hode upon. 

Shode. Perhaps from the Teutonick, 
Shutten, to pour forth. Shoding is 
the method of finding veins of Tin by 

■ digging fmall pits in order to trace out 
the Lodes of Tin, by the fcattering 
loole ftones and fragments that were dif- 
perfed from them by the retiring waters 
of the deluge : thofe loofc ftones thus 
difperfcd, are Shode ftones. 

Shut — up a work. To difeontinue the 
working a Mine. " A Shut of hard 



" grouad,'' implies a ftope of picqe of . 
denfe Stratum, that will probably be of 
flxort continuance. Shutting or Shoot- 
ing ground ; ground which requires to 
be^ blown with gunpowder. 

Shutting — of Attal. When a Gunnies 
is filled with Attal or Deads, and they 
want to have a paflfage through it, they 
thruft in deal boards on every fide o£ 
Durns or frames of timber, whereby 
they gain a pafTage through, which they 
(ecure with all imaginable fpeed, as faft 
as they can clear the Attal. Thofe 
boards and Durns in the north of 
England, they call Groove-timbers and 
Stop-rods. See Dc^kns and Laths. 

Side-Adit. When an Adit is partly fal- 
len in or choaked, and it is thought 
moft advifable to drive on the fide of 
the choak, it is called a Side-Adit. 

Sink. To fink on the Lode or elfewhere, 
is to work in depth or deeper from the 
furface ; or to (ink a deeper Dippa or 
Sumph in a Mine. 

Skimpings. (From Scum or Skimming) 
In drclfing ftampt Tin in the kieve or 
vat, after it is tozed and packed, that 
is, ftirred and fettled, the beft and 
heavieft part precipitates to the bottom, 
and the lighteft and poorer part lies 
uppermoft, which is Ikimmed oflT and 
dreffed again by itfelf, by the name of 
Skimpings Tin. 

Skipsinos. (ac idem, Stope). 

Skit — Pump, is made like a fhip*s pump; 
and draws a little water at a fmall 
depth.* 

Slab of Tin. A block of Tin. 

Slide. A Slide is a Courfe-Flookan or 
Courfe-Goflan, that either inclines fafter 
or in direft oppofition to a metallick 
Lode, which it is wrongly fuppoicd to 
elevate or deprefs. 

Slime — Ore, or Slime Tin ; the pulverized 
Mineral mixed with water in the ^te 
of Slime or mud ; or the fupcrfiM par- 
ticles of Ores which are carried down 
by the water in ftamping or drefflng 
until they fettle in a pit of water called 
the Slime-Pit. In order to recover the 
Ore in this Slime, they drefs it on a 
frame, whereby they wafk off Sludge 
earth and fave the Ore. 

Slocking-Stone. a tempting, inducing, 
or rich ftone of Ore. Some Miners 
produce good ftones of Ore, which in- 
duce the concerned to proceed, until 
they expend much money perhaps, and 
at laft find the Mine good for nothing : 
fo, likewife, there have been fomc in- 
ftances of Miners, who have deceived 
their employers by bringing them Slock* 

ing-Stoncs 



528 



AN EXPLANATION OF THE CORNU-TECHNICAL 



ing^Stoncs from other Mines, pretend- 
ing they were found in the Mine they 
worked in ; the meaning of which im- 
pofition is obvious. 

Slottere. (Cornilh) Dirty, flovenly, 
muddy. 

Slovan. See Lost^-Slovan i vulgdLow- 
Slovan. 

Small-Men. Fairies. The Miners are 
fometimes perfuaded, that they hear a 
pick at work under-ground, as if fome 
mvifible fpirit was at work underneath 
or near them. This noifc, I fuppofe, 
proceeds from the running or falhng of 
waters through the crevices and aper- 
tures of the earth. The opinion the 
Miners have of its being a good omen, 
encourages them to follow or work to 
it ; fo that it has more than once occa- 
fioned a lucky difcovery. 

Small Ore. Copper Ore dreffed to a 
fmall fize. 

Small Tin. Tin dreffed from flime, &c. 
called Smaals. Alfo Floran Tin. 

Soapy Heads. The joints of ftones, 
fmeared with a faponaceous flippery 
foil. 

Sole. See Bottoms. 

Spal. To fpal, is to break large folid 
rocks of Ore with fledges to a fmaller 
fize, in order to cull out the barren flony 
parts. 

Spal. To fpaal. A fconce, amerciament, 
forfeiture. To deduft fo many ftems 
or days wages as a perfon has been 
wanting from his labour ; or elfe to 
muia him more than his wages, ac- 
cording to the ufage of that particular 
Mine. 

Spaliard. a Pickman ; a working Tin- 
ner. See Spal. 

Spar. A Mifnomer for Quartz and Cryf- 
tal in Cornwall. Sulphur and pure 
chalk united from the real fubftance. 
Spar. 

Speed. A quick, but wafteful way of 
dreffmg, or rather coarfe cleaniing of 
Copper Ore, by an iron grate in a quick 
ftream of water. 

Spel. a lift, help, or turn •, thus if two 
men are at any kind of work, and al- 
ternately change and relieve one the 
other, they call it " To give and take 
" a Spel," or Spel and Spel. 

Spend— the Ground. To break and work 
it away to prove a Mine. 

Spill and Wedge. Mortices and wedges 
for locking or fixing large props of 
timber, which fupport a Mine, to the 
walls thereof, that they may hold firm 
in their places. 

Spreaders. Are pieces of timber that 



are placed athwart a Shafts &c. which 
is likely to fall in, in order to keep it 
open and fafe, till they can board and 
fccure it. 

Sq^jat. Woodward calls it a Mineral ; 
but in the Miner's fenfc of it, " The 
" Squat of the Lode," means a largp 
Lode, or heap of the Lode in one 
place. 

Stamps — or Stamping-Mill. A mill work- 
ed by water for pounding and pulve- 
rizing Tin or Copper Ores ; having 
large irons, called Stamp-Head?, fixed 
to pieces of wood (fee Lifters) which 
alternately rife and fall and break the 
ftones. 

Stamps -Captain- The fuperintefidant 
dreflcr at the ftamping mill. 

Standing-Ground. Ground that will 
ftand firm and require no timber and 
boards to bind and fupport it. 

Stannary — Laws, Stannaries, and Stan- 
nary-Courts ; are Laws, Precincts, Cuf- 
toms, and Courts peculiar only to Tin- 
ners and Tin Mines. 

Stannators. The upper houfe of convo- 
cation or parliament of Tinners, twenty- 
four in number, .being chofen by the 
mayors and corporations of Launcefton^ 
Loftwithiel, Truro, and Helftone, for 
the Stannaries or Precinfts of Foymorc, 
Blackmoor, Tywarnhayle, and Penwith 
and Kirrier. See Assistants and Con- 
vocation. 

Stem. A day*s work. A double Stem, 
is to work fix hours extra. 

Stemmyn. Ditto. 

Stempel. a flant beam ufed in Tin 
Mines. Large pillars or pieces of tim- 
ber placed in Mines to fupport them. 

Stent. Rubble, loofe dead earth. 

Stillen. See Astyllen. 

Stope. a Step. When a fumph or pit 
is funk down in a Lode, they break 
and work it away as it were in ftairs or 
fteps, one man following another, and 
breaking the ground, which manner of 
working in a fumph or any other part 
of a Mine, is called Stopeing ; and that 
height or ftcp which each man breaks, 
is called a Stope. Likewife, hewing 
away the Lode overhead, is " Stopeing 
" in the back.*' 

Stows. See Axletree. 

Strake. See Strek. 

Streamers, Streaming, and Stream^ 
Works. Firft, the Tinners which work 
upon Stream Tin. Second, the Stream- 
Working. Third, the Stream- Works 
which are very different from Lode- 
Works. The firft implies Streaming 
upon the furface, the latter fuch Works 

as 



TERMS AND IDIOMS OF tlNNERS- 



329 



as arc wrought irt the bowels of the 
earth. 

Strek. (A Stream, Gornifh) unde Strake. 
Strakes, are frames made of boards, 
fixed on or in the ground, where they 
wafh and drefs the fmall Ore in a little 
ftream of water j hence termed Straked 
Ore. 

Strep. See Strek. 

Strik. (Adtive, fwift ; Cornifti) To 
ftrik or ftreeck down, or ftrike down ; 
is to let a man down in a Shaft by the 
windlafs, and if he calls up to the men 
above-ground to ftreeck, they let him 
go farther down ; if he fays. Hold, 
they ftop •, and when he wants to afcend, 
he cries. Wind up. The phrafe of 
*' Striking a Mine idle," is to difcon- 
tinue the working of her. 

String. A fmall vein, rib, or branch of 
a Lode or vein. 

Struck-out. When a Lode by any 
Flookan, or any other accidental inter- 
ference, is interrupted or cut out, they 
fay alfo, " She is ftruck out," or, " She 
« is loft." 

Stul. (See Astel ; Stul, a rafter or 
fyle; Cornifli). Stil, (Cornifh) ahoufe 
beam. 

Sucked — Stone. A honeycombed porous 
ftone. 

SuMPH. (SumpfF, Agricola) A pit funk 
down in the very bottom of the Mine, 
to cut or prove the Lode ftill deeper 
than before ; and in order to ftope and 
dig it away if neceflary, and alfo to 
drive on the Lode in depth. The 
Sumph principally ferves as a bafon or 
refervoir, to coUeft the water of a Mine 
together, that it may be drawn out by 
an engine or machine. 

Survey — or Outcry for fetting of Pitches 
upon Tribute in a Mine ; or gro.und to 
fink, ftope, or drive by the fathom, 
&c. &c. 

Sweep-Rods. Sec Flats, and Pokkers 
and Jetters. 



Tackle or Takle. (Turn-tree, Derby- 
Ihire) The Axle, Rope, Kibbals, &c. 
appertaining to a Sh^t, called " The 
" Running-Tackle." 

Tails. The rqugheft refufe of ftampt 
Tin thrown behind the tail or end of 
the buddle, which are ftamped again 
with poor Tin-ftufi^, in order to take 
out all the Tin remaining in them. 

Takers, are thofc who take or farm a 
Mine, or a Pitch upon Tribute in a 



Mine of the Adventurers^ for any li- 
mited time, agreeing to pay them a 
confideratioh in money or in kind^ after 
the Tiji or Ore is made faleable at the 
Taker's expence. " To take an end," 
is to contraft for driving the end of aft 
Adit or Drift for fo much <gv fathom. 
" To take up an Adventure," is to 
engage in, or put on, a Mine affair. 

Tamping a Hole. (Stemming a hole, 
North of England) When a hole h 
bored in the rock for blafting with 
gunpowder, they fill the upper part of 
ir, upon the charge of powder, with 
clay and ftony matter rammed down 
very clofe and tight, which is Tamping 
the hole^ and the clay and ftone is called 
the Tamping* 

Tapping. See Gharge^ 

Teary-Ground. Lode or Stratum that 
will break and tear up eafily, by a mul* 
tiplicity of finufes or joints crofting 
each other. Speedy-Ground. 

Teem. (To pour ; Swift) To lade out 
water with bowls or fcoops in Stream 
works, or Dippas under-ground. 

Ticketing. (See Sample and Assaying) 
The method for fale of Copper Ore, 
thus : on the appointed day each of the 
Copper buyers attends and produces 
a Ticket or written paper, in which is 
expreflcd the price that he will give for 
the Ore ; and the beft bidder has it. 

Tide. Twelve hours. Two Tides, twen- 
ty-four hours. 

TiMBERMAN. SeC 61NDER. 

Tin. See Tin - stuff, Floran Tin, 
Grain Tin, &c. 

Tin-stuff. Tin Ore ; the Ore of Tin 
as it rifes out of the earth, is called 
Tin.ftufF, and not Ore, as the Mineral 
of other Metals is. 

Tinners. All Cornifti Miners. 

ToAS. ( Pafte •, Toazer, Armoric, a 
kneading - trough ) unde, to Toaz ; 
that is, to fliake or Tofs the wet Tin 
to and fro in a kieve or vat with water, 
to cleanfe and drefs it. 

ToL. (A hole, Cornifh) The bounder's 
part of the Tin-ftuff*. 

ToLLUR. •(See Bounder) A man that 
infpefts or fuperintcnds Tin Bounds ; 
becaufe Bounds are defcribed and limit- 
ed by holes cut in the grafly earth, 
which muft be repeated once every 
year, which they call Renewing. 

ToMALS. (Cornifh) A quantity, much, 
great heaps of any thing. 

Tools, All hand implements for work- 
ing a Mine, fuch as Picks, Gad, and 
Shovels. 



Pppp 



Trace; 



330 



AN EXPLANATION OF THE CORNU-TECHNICAL 



Trace, To trace the Lode, is the fame 
thing as backing of it ; that is, to lay 
open the Bryle, and difcovcr the back 
of the Lode, by many pits, for feveral 
fathoms in length, eaft and weft. 

Train. Training the Lode. See Trace. 
Where a Lode has been difcovered for 
fome length upon its back, ut fupra, it 
is called, " The Train of the Lode," 
and " The Run of the Lode." 

Treloobing. A ftirring and working 
the Loobs or flimy earth of Tin, &c. 
in a (lime-pit, that the mu^l may partly 
wafli off with the water, and the Ore 
fettle at bottom. 

Tribute. (A Cope, North of England) 
A confideration or (hare of the produce 
of a Mine either in money or kmd, the 
latter being firft made merchantable, 
and then paid by the Takers or Tri- 
butors to the original Adventurers or 
owners, for the liberty granted to the 
Takers of enjoying the Mine, or a part 
thereof, called a Pitch, for a limited 
time. 

Troil. a Tinner's feaft or way of mer- 
riment, by eating and drinking •, called 
alfo a Duggle. 

Trunk. A Strek or ftrakes, with a very 
fmall ftream or dribble of water to wa(h 
the (lime of Tin or Copper Ore, where- 
by the lighter earthy parts are carried 
off with the water. The operation is 
called, " Trunking the (limes." 

Turn-House. When a Drift is driven 
acrofs the country N. and S. to cut a 
Lode, they make a right angle from 
their Drift, and work on the Lode it- 
felf, which, as it is in a contrary di- 
re6tion to their paft Drift, they call 
Turning-houfe, in order to work on 
the courfe of the Lode. 

Tut. Tut-bargain ; i. e. by the lump : 
as when they undertake to perform a 

Eicce of work at a fixed price, prove 
ow it may. 

Tye. The fame as Strek, but worked 
with a fmaller ftream of water. Tye 
or Ty, is a word made ufe of alio in 
the ftannary of Blackmore, to fignify 
an Adit or drain. 

Tver — or Tier of Pumps. A fet of 
pumps belonging to the engine, of 
which the lower pump or piece is called 
the Driggoc, but more freouently the 
Working-piece ; the others nave names 
appropriated to them, as the Tye or 
Adit-lift, the Rofe-Jift, the Crown-lift, 
the Lilly, the Puppy, &c. each being 
a feparatc Tier or Tycr. 



Van. (From the French, Arant, fore- 
moft). To make a Van, is to take a 
handful of the Ore or Tin-fliiff, and 
bruife, wafh, and cleah(e it on a (hovel -, 
then by a peculiar motion of the (hovel, 
to (hake and throw forth upon the point 
of it almoft all the Ore that is freed 
from wafte. This operation being re- 
peated, the Ore is collefted and re- 
ferved, and from thence they form an ' 
cftimate how many tons of Copper Ore, 
or how many hundred weight of Block 
Tin, may be produced out of one hun- 
dred facks of that work or ftuff of 
which the Van is made. 

Vate or Vat. A fquare hollow place on 
the back of a calcining furnace, where- 
in they lay the next ferving of Tin Ore 
to dry before it is let down into the 
furnace, into which it pa(Rrs through a 
plug hole in the bottom of this Vate 
or Dry. 

Vinnewed or Vinnev. ( Ainfworth ) 
Mouldy. Vinnewed Ore ; Copper Ore 
that has a blue or green fpume, or 
efflorefcence upon it like verdigris. 

Underground - Captain. See Grass- 
Captain. 

Undersized. See Dumb'd. 

Unhead a Lode. When a Lode is frac- 
tured or interrupted, fo as to be entirely 
interfered by a crofs vein. Aide, &c, 
then it is faid to be Unheaded. 

VooGA. (Corni(h) Smoak. We alfo call 
a hollow cavern, cither in the earth, or 
the Mines, or by the fretting of the (ea, 
a Vooga J in the Mines, a Vooga-hole. 

Vou-HoLE ; from Vau, or Vauw. A 
natural cavity, hole, or chafm, in the 
earth or a Mine ; ac id. Vooga. (A 
Shack, in Derby(hire). 

Upstanders. Pieces of timber or boards 
which are (ixed in the ground at a Shaft, 
to luppcMt the axletree, &c. See Brace. 



W 



Wastrey. See Attal. 

Water-Barrel. A large barrel bound 
with iron hoops, which ferves to draw 
water out of a Mine. 

Water in Fork. See Forcque. 

Watermen. Thofc who are any way 
particularly employed about water un- 
der-ground ; efpecially thofe who draw 
water at the Rag and Chain Pump. 

Wheel. An abbreviation of Water-wheel, 
implying a Water-engine. 



WiiEELi-PfT. 



TERMS AND IDIOMS OF TINNERS. 



33' 



WffEEL-PiT. A very large but (hallow 
pit that is funk in the ground, or at 
Ibme depth under-ground, in order to 
ereft a water-wheel and engine in it. 

Whele. Id. Huel, or Wheal. Sec Huel. 

Whym or Whim. A horfe engine. Some- 
times its ufe is to draw water ; but 
moftly it is intended to wind or roll up 
the work out of a deep Mine, being 
wrought by horfes. An Engine, Der- 
byfhire. 

Whym-Round. a Volt, (Johnfon), En- 
gine-Race, North of England. 

Whym-Shaft and Whym-Kibbal. See 
Shaft and Kibbal. 

Whip. See page 170. 

White Tin. BIock Tin, or purified 
Tin, brought to its ultimate perfeftion 
by fire. 

Wild Lead. See Mock Lead. 

Windlass. See Axletree. 

Winds. See Axletree, Little- Winds. 
The Turn, North of England. 

Work. (From the Teutonick, Wcrkc; 
a Mine). Work often fignifies the Ore 
or deads, or other earth or ftone, that 



is broken in a Mine, and brought up to 
grafs. This word often implies the 
Mine itfelf, as when they fay, a Rich 
Work, or a Poor Work, inftead of a 
Rich Mine, or a Poor Mine. A Tin 
Work. A Copper Work. They like- 
wife term Copper fmelting furnaces. 
Copper Works. 
Working-Big. Is the fpade of about 
two feet and a half wide, fo that a man 
may have room enough under-ground 
in a Lode or in a Drift to ufe his Pick 
and other tools without breaking any of 
the contiguous Strata not of a veiny 
nature : hence they fay, a Lode is a 
Working-big, that is, two feet and a 
half wide. 



Zighyr. (Slow, Cornifti) When a very 
fmall flow ftream of water iflues through 
a cranny under-ground, it is faid to 
Zighyr or Sigger, 



N 



S. 



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